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Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1981

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward (1) improving understanding of component behavior in molten carbonate fuel cells and (2) developing alternative concepts for components. The principal focus has been on the development of sintered y-LiAIO2 electrolyte supports, stable NiO cathodes, and hydrogen diffusion barriers. Cell tests were performed to assess diffusion barriers and to study cathode voltage relaxation following current interruption.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Pierce, Robert Dean & Arons, R. M.

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1980

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward (1) developing alternative concepts for components of molten carbonate fuel cells and (2) improving understanding of component behavior.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Pierce, R. D.; Arons, R. M.; Dusek, J. T.; Fraioli, A. V.; Kucera, G. H.; Sim, J. W. et al.

The Application of Neutron-Activation Analysis to the Determination of Leach Rates of Simulated Nuclear-Waste Forms

Description: The application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of element release from simulated nuclear waste forms during leaching is described for several different glasses. Potential neutron irradiation effects are discussed, and it is shown, by a series of leach tests on activated and non-activated glass samples, that neutron irradiation has no discernible effect on the release of silicon and cesium during leaching. The radioisotopes best suited for analysis with this method and their associated detection limits are identified, and the method's applicability to waste forms other than glass is discussed.
Date: February 1982
Creator: Bates, J. K.; Jardine, L. J.; Flynn, K. & Steindler, M. J.

Applied Mathematical Sciences Research at Argonne, April 1, 1981-March 31, 1982

Description: This report reviews the research activities in Applied Mathematical Sciences at Argonne National Laboratory for the period April 1, 1981, through March 31, 1982. The body of the report discusses various projects carried out in three major areas of research: applied analysis, computational mathematics, and software engineering. Information on section staff, visitors, workshops, and seminars is found in the appendices.
Date: 1982?
Creator: Pieper, Gail W.

Chemical Engineering Division Annual Technical Report 1981

Description: Highlights of the Chemical Engineering (CEN) Division's activities during 1981 are presented. In this period, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: rechargeable lithium-alloy/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and other applications, aqueous batteries--improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron--for electric vehicles, as well as advanced lead-acid batteries for electric.-utility load leveling, energy-efficient industrial electrochemical processes, molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities, coal technology, mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of an SO2 sorbent of limestone, heat- and seed-recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems.
Date: April 1982
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Engineering Division.

A Computer-Based Accountability System (Phase I) for Special Nuclear Materials at Argonne-West

Description: An automated accountability system for special nuclear materials (SNM) is under development at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Phase I of the development effort has established the following basic features of the system: a unique file organization allows rapid updating or retrieval of the status of various SNM, based on "batch numbers," storage location, serial number, or other attributes. Access to the program is controlled by an interactive user interface that can be easily understood by operators who have had no prior background in electronic data processing. Extensive use of structured programming techniques make the software package easy to understand and to modify for specific applications. All routines are written in FORTRAN.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Ingermanson, Randall Scott & Proctor, A. E.

Control Rods in LMFBRs: A Physics Assessment

Description: This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and tantalum and europium rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B4C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.
Date: August 1982
Creator: McFarlane, Harold F. & Collins, P. J.

A Coupled Heat Conduction and Thermal Stress Formulation Using Explicit Integration

Description: The formulation needed for the conductance of heat by means of explicit integration is presented. The implementation of these expressions into a transient structural code, which is also based on explicit temporal integration, is described. Comparisons of theoretical results with code predictions are given both for one-dimensional and two-dimensional problems. The coupled thermal and structural solution of a concrete crucible, when subjected to a sudden temperature increase, shows the history of cracking. The extent of cracking is compared with experimental data.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Marchertas, A. H. & Kulak, R. F.

Development of Enhanced Heat Transfer/Transport/Storage Slurries for Thermal-System Improvement

Description: This report constitutes a formulation of a new concept for improving thermal-system performance by utilizing the combined mechanisms of enhanced heat transfer, transport, and thermal energy storage associated with a phase-change slurry as the working fluid. In addition, pertinent literature is surveyed and a quantitative scoping assessment of enhancement potential confirms concept merit. It has been determined that additional research and development is required in order to adequately understand the enhancement mechanisms to the degree that enhanced performance thermal systems using slurries can be designed. The concepts presented are identified as being new, rewarding research activities.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Kasza, Kenneth Edmund & Chen, M. M.

Division of Biological and Medical Research Annual Technical Report 1981

Description: This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Division of Biological and Medical Research.

DYNAPCON: A Computer Code for Dynamic Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Structures

Description: A finite element computer code for the transient analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels (PCRVs) for LMFBR containment is described. The method assumes rotational symmetry of the structure. Time integration is by an explicit method. The quasistatic prestressing operation of the PCRV model is performed by a dynamic relaxation technique. The material model accounts for the crushing and tensile cracking in arbitrary direction in concrete and the elastic-plastic behavior of reinforcing steel. The variation of the concrete tensile cracking and compressive crushing limits with strain rate is taken into account. Relative slip is permitted between the concrete and tendons. Several example solutions are presented and compared with experimental results. These sample problems range from simply supported beams to small scale models of PCRV's. It is shown that the analytical methods correlate quite well with experimental results, although in the vicinity of the failure load the response of the models tend to be quite sensitive to input parameters.
Date: September 1982
Creator: Marchertas, A. H.

The Effect of Pressure on the Transient Swelling Rate of Oxide Fuel

Description: An analysis of the transient swelling rate of oxide fuel, based on fission-gas bubble conditions calculated with the FRAS3 code, has been developed and implemented in the code. The need for this capability arises in the coupling of the FRAS3 fission-gas analysis code to the FPIN fuel-pin mechanics code. An efficient means of closely coupling the calculations of swelling strains and stresses between the modules is required. The present analysis provides parameters that allow the FPIN calculation to proceed through a fairly large time step, using estimated swelling rates, to calculate the stresses. These stress values can then be applied in the FRAS3 detailed calculation to refine the swelling calculation, and to provide new values for the parameters to estimate the swelling in the next time step. The swelling rates were calculated for two representative transients and used to estimate swelling over a short time period for various stress levels.
Date: April 1982
Creator: Gruber, E. E.

Effects of Ionization on Silicate Glasses

Description: This evaluation of radiation effects in silicate glasses caused by ionization is based on our own investigations, on material collected in our files (reports, articles, and notes), and on a computer literature search through recent issues of Physics Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts (and the apparently pertinent references which appeared). Some of the recent results, available heretofore only in internal correspondence, are presented in some detail. It is concluded that research into the behavior of silicate glasses generally will be required before the specific effects in the radioactive waste storage glasses can be properly understood and evaluated. Two particular neglected areas of investigation are targeted for immediate concern: a kinetic analysis of annealing data and the acquisition of data on effects of irradiation at controlled elevated temperatures.
Date: February 1982
Creator: Primak, William

An Evaluation of Structural Integrity of IPNS-I and ZING-P' Targets

Description: This report discusses the design, production, and evaluation of clad uranium-alloy targets that function as spallation neutron sources in the ZING-P' and IPNS-I facilities with a pulsed (10 to 30 Hz), 500-MeV proton beam. The methodology and results of theoretical nuclear-particle transport, heat transport, and stress analyses that were used in the development of a design for the targets are described. The production of a zirconium-clad uranium-alloy cylinder for ZING-P' and Zircaloy-2-clad uranium-alloy discs for IPNS-I is discussed with particular attention to the procedural details. The theoretical analyses were verified by measuring the thermal and mechanical response of the clad uranium under conditions designed to simulate the operations of the pulsed-neutron sources.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Carpenter, J.; Ahmed, H.; Loomis, B.; Ball, J.; Ewing, T.; Bailey, J. et al.

Fluidelastic Instability in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers: A Framework for a Prediction Method

Description: A framework for a method to predict fluid-elastic instability in heat exchanger tube bundles is presented. The method relies on a three-dimensional, cylindrical coordinate, thermal-hydraulic analysis code to obtain a representation of the three-dimensional flow distribution within the heat exchanger. With this information, local cross-flow velocities corresponding to each tube in the exchanger are obtained by interpolation and resultant cross-flow velocity distributions are computed. With a knowledge of the vibration mode shapes and frequencies, reduced effective cross-flow velocities are then computed for each tube. A comparison with experimental results shows excellent agreement: the tubes with high values of predicted reduced effective cross-flow velocity are the same tubes that first experience fluid-elastic instability in the flow tests and vibrate most violently; also, the simulation correctly predicts that the tubes directly exposed to the flow from the inlet nozzle have a low potential for fluid-elastic instability. Very good agreement is also shown in the comparison of the predicted reduced effective cross-flow velocities with the critical value obtained from a design guide. In summary, the feasibility of developing a heat exchanger tube vibration prediction method, based on a computer simulation of flow distribution, is demonstrated. Such a method would have immediate application in design optimization. However, further development and evaluation are required.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Wambsganss, M. W.; Yang, C. I. & Halle, J.