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Air Pollution and the Siting of Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Description: The decision to locate a fossil-fueled electrical power plant on a particular site involves trade-offs among the costs of: (1) land acquisition, (2) plant construction, operation, and maintenance, (3) power transmission, and (4) air pollution damage to humans, animals, plants and materials. The fourth of these, pollution costs, has been of great concern in recent years. But seldom, if ever, are the specific dollar trade-offs between the environmental and the other costs associated with site selection taken into account. The sum of the costs of power generation (land, construction, operation, maintenance), power transmission, and air pollution damages (from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates) is the total social cost of a fossil-fuel plant; this total cost will generally vary by site. This paper presents an analysis of the total social cost, and the trade-offs between generation/transmission and air pollution costs, for various types of fossil plants at different sites in northern Illinois. The analysis identifies the combinations of site, fossil fuel, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control technology that minimize total social costs.
Date: 1976
Creator: Fishelson, Gordon; Rausser, Gordon C. & Cohen, Alan S.

Analysis of a Cylindrical Shell Vibrating in a Cylindrical Fluid Region

Description: Analytical and experimental methods are presented for evaluating the vibration characteristics of cylindrical shells such as the thermal liner of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel. The NASTRAN computer program is used to calculate the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and response to a harmonic loading of a thin, circular cylindrical shell situated inside a fluid-filled rigid circular cylinder. Solutions in a vacuum are verified with an exact solution method and the SAP IV computer code. Comparisons between analysis and experiment are made, and the accuracy and utility of the fluid-solid interaction package of NASTRAN is assessed.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Chung, Ho; Mulcahy, T. M.; Turula, P. & Jendrzeczyk, J. A.

An Analysis of Factors Influencing the Reliability of Retrievable Storage Canisters for Containment of Solid High-Level Radioactive Waste

Description: The reliability of stainless steel type 304L canisters for the containment of solidified high-level radioactive wastes in the glass and calcine forms was studied. A reference system, drawn largely from information furnished by Battelle Northwest Laboratories and Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company is described. Operations include filling the canister with the appropriate waste form, interim storage at a reprocessing plant, shipment in water to a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), interim storage at the RSSF, and shipment to a final disposal facility.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Mecham, W. J.; Seefeldt, Waldemar B. & Steindler, M. J.

Analytical Investigation of Certain Aspects of LMFBR Subassembly-Failure Propagation

Description: An analytical investigation of certain problems in the area of subassembly-to-subassembly failure propagation in LMFBR's is described. Existing analyses of the response of the adjacent subassembly duct to mechanical loads are reviewed and summarized, and major uncertainties are identified. Additional analyses of the response of the adjacent subassembly to certain thermal loads are presented in two parts. In the first part, the effect of an external heat flux on duct melting and thermal stresses is considered. The external heat fluxes required to produce duct melting or excessive thermal stresses are compared with the heat fluxes that might be expected from the molten fuel deposited on the duct wall. In the second part, a thermal-hydraulic study is performed to investigate the effect of the external heat flux on the coolant temperature distribution in the adjacent subassembly. Both normal subassembly geometry and distorted subassembly geometry are considered. A detailed model of the coolant region formed by the heated duct wall and the displaced fuel pins is also analyzed to determine whether there are severe temperature gradients.
Date: February 1976
Creator: Marr, William W.; Wang, P. Y.; Misra, B.; Padilla, A. & Crawford, R. M.

ANL/HIWAY: an Air Pollution Evaluation Model for Roadways

Description: This report describes a computer program, called ANL/HIWAY, for estimating air quality levels of nonreactive pollutants produced by vehicular sources. It is valid for receptors at distances of tens to hundreds of meters, at an angle, downwind of the roadway, in relatively uncomplicated terrain. It may be used by planners to analyze the effects of a proposed roadway on adjacent air quality. The ANL/HIWAY model expands the evaluation capabilities of the EPA/HIWAY dispersion model. This report also serves as a user's manual for running the ANL/HIWAY PROGRAM. All command structures are described in detail, with sample problems exemplifying their use.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Concaildi, George A.; Cohen, Alan S. & King, Richard F.

Application of Frequency-Modified Life Approach to the Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel

Description: The application of the frequency-modified life equation to fatigue life prediction has been critically examined using the extensive fatigue data generated for Type 304 stainless steel at 1100 degrees F under a variety of cyclic-loading conditions. The parameters that enter into the frequency-modified life equation vary with strain rate and show a transition coinciding with the frequency of cycling at which a change in the fracture appearance from predominantly transgranular to predominantly intergranular failure mode or vice versa occurs. The accuracy in life prediction is improved when the effect of strain rate on life-predictive parameters is considered. It is shown how the effect of compressive and symmetric hold time on fatigue life can be taken into account. A comparison between the frequency-modified life approach of Coffin and the damage-rate approach recently developed by Majumdar and Maiya is also made to show the importance of wave-shape on low-cycle fatigue life.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Maiya, P. S. & Majumdar, S.

Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research, Annual Report: 1976

Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Division of Biological and Medical Research summarizing research an other activities. This report includes the exploration of the toxicological effects of effluents from various forms of energy production with a view to defining hazards and risk assessments for man.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Rosenthal, M. W.

Argonne National Laboratory Patent Portfolio

Description: This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology.
Date: 1976
Creator: Huguelet, B. C.

The Atomic Spectrum of Neptunium

Description: A description and interpretation of the atomic spectrum of neptunium are given. Wavelengths were measured for 6096 spectrum lines in the range 3793 to 38,812 cm⁻¹ (26,353 to 2575 A), of which 2526 were classified as transitions between 329 odd levels and 130 even levels of neutral neptunium (Np I). The data are presented in five tables.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Fred, Mark; Tompkins, Frank S.; Blaise, Jean E.; Camus, Pierre & Verges, Jean

Automated Approach to Quantitative Error Analysis in Neutron Transport Calculations

Description: A method is described how a quantitative measure for the robustness of a given transport theory code for coarse network calculations can be obtained. A code, that performs this task automatically and at only nominal cost, is described and has been implemented for slab geometry. This code generates also user oriented benchmark problems which exhibit the analytic behavior at interfaces.
Date: September 1976
Creator: Bareiss, Erwin H. & Derstine, Keith L.

Baseline Energy Consumption Forecasts for Transportation: A Review and Evaluation

Description: A baseline projection of energy consumption is needed to estimate the potential energy savings from proposed transport technology and operational improvements. The Reference Energy System projection by Brookhaven National Laboratories and that which Stanford Research Institute produced for Gulf Oil are reviewed here. Attention is focused on the growth rate assumptions of the forecasts and the allowances made for the sensitivity of transport demand and technological efficiency to fuel price changes. The alternative trajectories of energy use are examined for automobile, bus and intercity air and rail passenger travel, and also for freight movement. Little, if any, justification can be found for many of the assumptions used to estimate transport demand and energy intensiveness. The assumptions underlying the Brookhaven National Laboratories projections are more explicit on changes in energy efficiency and energy price and shifts in transport patterns. However, the relationship of automobile travel, the largest component, to energy price is not specified clearly. The Stanford projection is based on seemingly arbitrary assumptions about changes in travel patterns and energy efficiency with no reference to the market process which must bring them about. It is concluded that the Brookhaven projection is a reasonable interim benchmark. Its structure should improve by refining and validating or revising the judgmental estimates on which it is based. This can be accomplished by identifying those judgments to which the energy consumption projections are most sensitive and modifying them, based on information presently available concerning the transport sector and/or information and relationships which can be developed by limited research.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Koppelman, Frank; O'Sullivan, Pat & Collum, Tom

Benchmark Testing of the Finite-Strain Version of the LIFE-III Fast-Reactor-Element Code

Description: A collection of benchmark problems is used to test the finite-strain formulation of the LIFE-III fast-reactor fuel-element code. Analytical solutions for thick-wall cylinders loaded by internal and external pressure, valid for arbitrarily large strains, are presented for a linear viscous material. Similar problems are formulated for a nonlinear material, and numerical solutions are obtained using the Runge-Kutta method for the integration of an ordinary differential equation. These solutions are then compared with the corresponding solutions obtained using the LIFE-III code. With a proper choice of the number of spatial regions and time steps, good agreement is obtained between the two sets of solutions. The results indicate that the structural-analysis portion of the revised LIFE-III is valid for large strains.
Date: November 1976
Creator: Shack, W. J.; Jankus, V. Z. & Billone, Michael C.

Bibliography for Transportation Energy Conservation

Description: A listing is given of 578 reports, books, articles, and conference papers on transportation and energy. Coverage is primarily on U. S. developments and research from 1970 to 1975. Following a section of citations of general works on energy, the bibliography contains two main parts: ''Energy for Transportation'' and ''Transportation of Energy.'' Within each of these topics the arrangement is multimodal (at the urban, regional, national, or international level), then by mode. Selected information sources are listed in the last part. Within each section, entries are arranged alphabetically by author or, lacking an author, by title. References were drawn from the Transportation Center Library collection and other libraries in the Northwestern University system. An earlier bibliography, Transportation and Energy, compiled by the Transportation Center Library in March 1974, forms the basis for the arrangement and provides coverage from 1970 to 1973.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). Transportation Center. Library.

Calculated Burnups and Fluences for Experimental Fuel Elements Irradiated in EBR-II Runs 5-55B

Description: A procedure is described for calculation of burnups and fluences at any point in a subassembly in EBR-II runs 5-55B. The calculations are performed by the BRN program package and require data generated for any element in the highly inhomogeneous fueled experimental subassemblies is the most important application of the pointwise capability. Tables allow calculation of burnup and fluences for any element in such a subassembly.
Date: October 1976
Creator: Kucera, D. A. & Meneghetti, D.

Ceramic Coatings for Components Exposed to Coal-Gas Environments : a Review

Description: The corrosive and erosive environments at high temperatures and pressures in coal gasifiers impose severe requirements on the alloys of fabrication. A concise review of the application of ceramic coatings to resist coal-gas environments has been conducted. The purpose of this review is to explore suitable ceramic or cermet materials that may resist or retard the degradation of metal components and to summarize the state of the art of various methods of producing such coatings.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Swaroop, Robert

Chemical Engineering Division Environmental Chemistry Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976

Description: The chemistry of airborne particulate matter is being investigated by means of laboratory and field studies. Experiments were conducted using the flow reactor to identify the reaction conditions under which detectable amounts of sulfate particles could be formed under gaseous sulfur dioxide. A procedure was developed for the analysis of acidic and neutral ammonium sulfate in filter-collected samples of atmospheric particulate matter.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Cunningham, P. T.; Kumar, R.; Holt, B. D.; Hubble, B. R.; Johnson, S. A.; Nielsen, E. et al.

Chemical Engineering Division Fast-Neutron Dosimetry, Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976

Description: One of the objectives of the Dosimetry and Damage Analysis Center is to provide standardized dosimetry technology for materials-study programs within the ERDA Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy. Current efforts have included characterization of neutron environments in terms of fluence and spectral distribution for materials experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's (LLL) Rotating Target Neutron Source and at the LLL-Davis Cyclograaff. Environment characterization efforts at Brookhaven National Laboratory's High Flux Beam Reactor and those pertaining to an enriched-uranium converter for the ANL CP-5 reactor are also described. The capability of calculating material radiation damage parameters associated with these neutron environments is demonstrated. Average fission yields determined from two fast-neutron irradiations and one thermal-neutron irradiation are compiled for laboratories participating in the inter-laboratory Reaction Rate program. These results are in excellent agreement with literature values. Progress on the development of boron-10 and lithium-6-loaded liquid scintillation detectors for detecting very low intensity neutrons is presented. Material purification tests and performance tests of scintillation mixtures are described.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Heinrich, R. R.; Greenwood, L. R.; Kennerley, R. J.; Chellew, N. R.; Popek, R. J.; Malewicki, Russell et al.

Chemical Engineering Division Thermochemical Studies Annual Report: July 1975-June 1976

Description: Standard enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are reported for MgUO4, CaUO4, BaUO4, VF3, and PrF3 based on solution and fluorine bomb calorimetric measurements. High-temperature enthalpy increments have been determined for MgUO4 by drop calorimetry. Preliminary work on gamma -UO3 and beta-LiAl is described.
Date: 1976?
Creator: O'Hare, P. A. G.; Johnson, G. K.; Ader, M.; Hubbard, W. N.; Fredrickson, D.; Cafasso, F. A. et al.

Coal Liquefaction Support Studies

Description: A development program is being carried out to obtain information applicable to the SYNTHOIL process for converting coal to liquid fuel of low sulfur content. This report presents information on (1) the design of a calorimeter to measure heat of reaction of hydrogen with coal slurries, (2) the design of apparatus and calculations for measuring coefficients of heat transfer from SYNTHOIL process feed and effluent products to process vessel walls, (3) tests on the use of additives to facilitate the removal of solids from oil produced in coal liquefaction processes, and (4) the design and construction of a test unit for evaluating new catalysts for coal liquefaction processes.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Fischer, J.; Bump, T. R.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Jonke, A. A.; Lo, R.; Nandi, S. et al.

Coal Liquefaction Support Studies

Description: A development program is being carried out to obtain information applicable to the SYNTHOIL process for converting coal to liquid fuel of low sulfur content. This report presents information on (1) the design of a calorimeter to measure heat of reaction of hydrogen with coal slurries, (2) the design of apparatus and calculations for measuring coefficients of heat transfer from SYNTHOIL process feed and effluent products to process vessel walls, (3) tests on the use of additives to facilitate the removal of solids from oil produced in coal liquefaction processes, and (4) the design and construction of a test unit for evaluating new catalysts for coal liquefaction processes.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Fischer, J.; Bump, T. R.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Jonke, A. A.; Lo, R.; Nandi, S. et al.

Coal Supply and Air Quality Limitations on Fossil-Fueled Energy Centers

Description: The coterminous United States is screened on a county-by-county basis to identify areas most likely to provide sites for fossil energy centers (FECs) utilizing local coals and having capacities between 5,000 and 20,000 MWe. Areas eliminated as potential sites include national public lands excluded by legislation, urbanized areas, Air Quality Maintenance Areas for particulates and SO2, and counties where air quality data indicate violations of particulate or SO2 ambient standards. The remaining counties are further screened for suitable coal reserves. The quality of coal required for an FEC to meet emissions and ambient standards is determined for sulfur content and heating value. Based on Bureau of Mines coal reserve data, counties in areas with not enough quality reserves to support an FEC are eliminated. Areas most likely to provide sites for FECs of 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 MWe, in two different spatial configurations, each with and without flue gas desulfurization are determined and mapped. The possible impacts of regulations for the prevention of significant deterioration are illustrated.
Date: 1976
Creator: Smith, Albert E.; Wolsko, Thomas D. & Cirillo, Richard R.