UNT Libraries Government Documents Department - 76 Matching Results

Search Results

Accurate Nuclear Fuel Burnup Analyses; Eighth Quarterly Progress Report, (September - November 1963)

Description: The objective of the Accurate Nuclear Fuel Burnup Analyses program is to develop more accurate methods for burnup analysis for general use than the current method of analysis of Ca-137 or Sr-90. The program will require from three to five years of effort.
Date: December 1, 1963
Creator: Rider, B. F.; Ruiz, C. P.; Luke, P. S., Jr.; Peterson, J. P., Jr. & Smith, F. R.

Accurate Nuclear Fuel Burnup Analyses; Ninth Quarterly Progress Report, (December 1963 - February 1964)

Description: The objective of the Accurate Nuclear Fuel Burnup Analyses program is to develop more accurate methods for burnup analysis for general use than the current method of analysis of Ca-137 or Sr-90. The program will require from three to five years of effort.
Date: March 1, 1964
Creator: Rider, B. F.; Peterson, J. P., Jr.; Ruiz, C. P. & Smith, F. R.

AEC Fuel Cycle Program Design and Fabrication of Special Assembly 9-L : Irradiation Performance Test of UO2-Cermet Fuel

Description: Technical report describing a UO2-Mo cermet fuel assembly fabricated for long-term irradiation performance testing in the Vallecitos Boiling water Reactor. The design and fabrication histories of this assembly are described and pre-irradiation data on each individual rod are presented. Molybdenum was added to improve the bulk thermal conductivity of the fuel, so that fuel temperatures would remain comparatively low during high-power level operation of the fuel element. The molybdenum was incorporated into the compacts either as fibers or as a thin coating on individual UO2 particles. Fuel pellets were produced from these materials by vacuum hot pressing. The distribution of the molybdenum in both types of cermet fuels appeared favorable to good heat transfer. The fibers were oriented predominantly in the radial planes of the pellet as a result of the uni-directional compaction during the hot-pressing operation. In the pellets made from the coated particles, a continuous network of molybdenum occurred as a result of the coating welding together during the hot-pressing operation. The test assembly contains eight fuel rods; three contain UO2-Mo cermet, three contain the cermet produced from the coated particles, and two are for reference and contain the conventional sintered UO2 pellet fuel. The nominal outside diameter of the fuel rods is 1.308 cm (0.515 inch), and the clad wall thickness if 0.051 cm (0.020 inch). the cladding material is Type-304 stainless steel. The fuel pellets were all centerless ground to achieve a uniform outside diameter and thereby control the pellet-to-clad diametral clearance within a range of 0.076 to 0.102 mm (0.003 to 0.004 inch). Operation of the fuel rods will be at high specific power levels with surface heat fluxes of about 157 W/cm(2) (~500,000 Btu/h-ft(2)). The assembly was designed for a lifetime of 4.1 x 10(20) fission/cc (15,000 MWD/T) exposure.
Date: March 1964
Creator: Ogawa, S. Y.

Analysis of Zero Power Experiments on SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I

Description: Abstract: An analysis of SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I zero power experiments was made by comparing these cores to each other and to AM-1 Core I on the basis of critical bank positions, bank calibrations and available chemical analyses of the fuel plate compositions. The effects of replacing boron absorbers by europium absorbers upon rod worth and stuck rod conditions were studied. Comparisons of measured and calculated power distributions were made. It was concluded that both SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I contain nearly identical B-10 loading of 17.79 grams, compared to the best estimate of 15.75 grams for SM-1 Core I. The available data indicates that all three cores possess similar nuclear characteristics.
Date: October 5, 1960
Creator: Paluszkiewicz, S.

BWR Reference Design for PL-3

Description: Abstract: The natural circulation, direct cycle, boiling water reactor reference design presented in this technical report is the alternate to the preferred preliminary design developed under Phase I of the PL-3 contract. The report presents plant design criteria, summary of plant selection, plant description, reactor and primary system description, thermal and hydraulic analysis, nuclear analysis, control and instrumentation description, shielding description, auxiliary systems, power plant equipment, waste disposal, buildings and tunnels, services, operation and maintenance, logistics, erection, cost information and training program outline.
Date: February 28, 1962
Creator: Humphries, G. E.

Criteria for Evaluating Hazards Involved in Proposed Tests On and/or Modifications To the SM-1

Description: Abstract: This technical report elucidates principles of hazards evaluation. The concept of hazards potential is introduced and utilized to show how a reactor system perturbation will influence its nuclear safety. Literature relating to reactor safety is referenced to provide the sources of information required for hazards analysis and show how they influence a hazards evaluation. A checklist of items which should be considered in evaluating a change, test, or modification is presented.
Date: October 18, 1961
Creator: Scoles, J. F.

Design and Fabrication of Fuel Rods Containing Sintered UO2 Extrusions - Assembly 11L

Description: The extrusion forming of ceramic powders may be economically interesting in the field of nuclear fuel fabrication. When applied to the forming of rod-type uranium dioxide fuel, extrusion processes have been able to produce cylindrical bodies with length-to-diameter ratios much greater than those of the conventional die-pressed pellets. Furthermore, after being sintered, the extrusions have exhibited densities at least as high as those of sintered pellets. Thus, extrusion forming may offer reductions in handling during fabrication and, at the same time, provide a fuel with improved performance characteristics by decreasing the number of discontinuities in the fuel column. This report reviews the production of these extrusions, sets forth some of their characteristics, describes the materials and processes employed in cladding them, and records the pre-irradiation data pertaining to the finished fuel rods and fuel assembly. Irradiation of the fuel assembly in the VBWR was initiated on July 17, 1962.
Date: February 1964
Creator: Megerth, F. H.

Design and Fabrication of Pellet Fuel Rods Clad With Thin Wall Stainless Steel

Description: Summary: Stainless steel clad nuclear fuel cycle costs can be reduced to those associated with Zircaloy clad fuel or potentially lower by reducing the thickness of the clad tube wall until performance penalties offset the savings associated with the reduction in parasitic neutron absorption. To demonstrate the feasibility and investigate performance capabilities of thin clad fuel rods for power reactor application an assembly was fabricated with 0.0127 cm (5 mil) thick stainless steel cladding tubes for irradiation testing in the Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor (VBWR). The fuel bundle was placed in the VBWR and irradiation was begun in November, 1961. The irradiation is scheduled to continue until the target exposure of 2.74 x 10(20) fissions/cc (10,000 MWD/T of uranium) average burnup is reached. Destructive examinations of fuel rods will be performed at regular intervals throughout life to determine fuel rod performance.
Date: February 1964
Creator: Hoffmann, J. P.

Design Criteria for Irradiated Vessels Task 6.0 Summary Report

Description: Abstract: This technical report presents design criteria to prevent the brittle fracture of ferritic reactor vessels that cold occur as a result of the rise in NDT caused by fast neutron irradiation. The criteria require that maximum principal stress in the vessel does not exceed 18 percent of yield stress at temperatures below NDT + 60 degree F. Under certain conditions the allowable stress may be based on the irradiated yield stress. A discussion of brittle fracture and an explanation of the criteria are included.
Date: September 29, 1961
Creator: McLaughlin, D. W.

Development of Pulsed Neutron Application to Power Reactor Start-Up Procedures. Fifth Quarterly Progress Report, April 1-June 30, 1963

Description: Activities in a program to develop techniques in the use of pulsed neutron sources to measure shutdown parameters related to large thermal power reactors are reported. The development of pulsed neutron source techniques for large power reactors has led to a new theoretical model recently developed by E. Garelis and J.L. Russell, Jr. The theory is presently based on a bare, one-group model with m-delayed precursors and takes all spatial modes into account. Results indicate, however, that the application of this model is much broader. Experiments were designed and carried out to both verify this new theory and to demonstrate the performance of the experimental hardware in a large power reactor.
Date: July 15, 1963
Creator: Garelis, Edward & Meyer, P.

Development of Pulsed Neutron Application to Power Reactor Start-Up Procedures. Seventh and Eighth Quarterly Progress Report, October 1, 1963-March 31, 1964

Description: Activities in a program to develop techniques in the use of pulsed neutron sources to measure shutdown parameters related to large thermal power reactors are reported. In the course of this program, a new theory was suggested and an experimental apparatus was designed and built. Experiments were carried out to test the new model. This present report contains additional data and information extracted from the experiments at PG&E Humboldt Bay Power Reactor at Eureka, California. During the last days of 1963 a number of control rod and fuel bundle worth measurements were made in the ESADA Vallecitos Experimental Superheat Reactor (EVESR) using the (k[beta]/[script l] technique. A description of the experiments is given in the text of the report and some results are reported. A computer program was written to perform the data analysis of the pulsed neutron experiments and the code is discussed in the Appendix.
Date: April 24, 1964
Creator: Garelis, Edward & Meyer, P.

Development of Pulsed Neutron Application to Power Reactor Start-Up Procedures. Sixth Quarterly Progress Report, July 1-September 30, 1963

Description: Activities in a program to develop techniques in the use of pulsed neutron sources to measure shutdown parameters related to large thermal power reactors are reported. The development of pulsed neutron source techniques for large power reactors has led to a new theoretical model recently developed by E. Garelis and J.L. Russell, Jr. The theory is presently based on a bare, one-group model with m-delayed precursors and takes all spatial modes into account. Results indicate, however, that the application of this model is much broader. Experiments were designed and carried out to both verify this new theory and to demonstrate the performance of the experimental hardware in a large power reactor.
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Garelis, Edward & Meyer, P.

Environmental Testing of a B4C-Nl Prototype Control Rod

Description: Summary: A prototype control rod containing absorber plates made from an electro- deposited dispersion of boron carbide in nickel was tested in the VBWR. It was exposed to the reactor environment of 545 degree F boiling water and thermal neutron fluxes (perturbed) which ranged from 0.6 to 1.1 x 10/sup 13/ nv for 2236 hours over a period of six months. The maximum B/sup 10/ burnup achieved during the test period was 1.8 percent. After irradiation, the rod was examined. The results of the examination are summarized below: (1) The B/sub 4/C-- Ni plate assembly did not undergo significant dimensional changes during irradiation. (2) Numerous blisters developed on both the outer and inner surfaces of three of the four plates. Blistering was more severe on the outer surface than on the inner, and was most severe in a large region located in the lower half of plate 4. Metallographic examination revealed that the blisters were located only in the 2- mil protective nickel overlay covering the B/sub 4/C-- Ni dispersion. It was concluded that they formed from the buildup of gas pressure at the Ni: Ni-- B/sub 4/C interfaces, rather than from corrosion attack. Helium from the B/sup 10/(n alpha )Li/sup 7/ reaction probably contributed to this pressure. However it is conjectured that the major gas was very likely hydrogen, possibly generated and dissolved in the nickel during electroplating and then released to defects at the Ni: Ni--B/sub 4/C interface during reactor exposure. The variation in the degree of blistering among the four plates of the prototype indicated that the blistering was related to variations in the fabrication process. Failure of the nickel overlay was not observed in any of the blisters examined metallographically, and the underlying B/sub 4/C-- Ni appeared to be in good condition. (3) Evidence of corrosion ...
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Megerth, F. H. & Zimmerman, D. L.

Extended SM-2 Critical Experiments : CE-2

Description: Abstract: This technical report contains a description and results of a second series of critical experiments performed on the SM-2 core mock-up, as additional to the first series of experiments reported in APAE No. 54. The SM-2 core mock-up contains 36.4 kg U-235 and and estimated 67.9 gm B-10. The equivalent diameter and the active height are about 22 in.; the metal-to-water volume ration is 0.344. Data is presented on activation, reactivity, and stuck rod measurements. All measurements were conducted on the open seven control rod array employing 38 stationary fuel elements. Activation measurements consisted of neutron flux measurements using uranium fission foils for relative power distribution studies, the effect of flux suppressors on reducing power peaks, blocked coolant channel measurements, and gamma ray dose distribution. Reactivity measurements were performed to determine the effect f flow divider, flux suppressors and stimulated high temperature and pressure operation; b-10 loading in the SM-2 core; and core material coefficients. For the later, the worth in cents per gm or cents per cc was determined at simulated temperature of 510 degree F for B-10, U-235, stainless steel, and void. Stuck rod measurements were made to obtain an indication of the criticality margin in the event one or more control rods should stick in the operating position.
Date: June 30, 1961
Creator: McCool, W. J.; Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; Raby, T. M.; Schrader, E. W. & Walthousen, L. D.

Fission Product Activity in SM-1 Core I Primary System and Surface Contamination on SM-1 Type Fuel Elements. Task XVIII, Phases 2 and 3

Description: Abstract; The fission product data obtained during SM-1 Core I operation (June 1957 - May 1960) is reviewed briefly and interpreted. Evidence is presented to indicate that a fuel element defect was responsible for the high fission product activity level observed in the primary coolant. Relative escape coefficients are calculated and the defect size estimated. Anticipated fission product levels during SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I operation are estimated from alpha surface contamination data on completed fuel elements. The importance of in-line sampling for monitoring fission product activity is stressed as well as the need for failed fuel element detection methods.
Date: February 29, 1961
Creator: Hasse, Robert A. & Zegger, John L.

Fuel Cycle Program Design and Fabrication of Special Assembly 10-L : Compacted Powder Fuel Rods Clad With 0.127-MM Wall Stainless Steel

Description: Technical report describing sixteen fuel rods clad with thin type 304 stainless steel and filled with vibratory compact powder UO2 that were fabricated and incorporated into a bundle for irradiation testing in the VBWR. The UO2 powders were tested for gas content. N2, CO, and H2 were the principal gases evolved by both type of UO2, but the arc-fused UO2 released about ten times as much gas as the Dyna Pak UO2. The amount of gas released was also a function of particle size and temperature. The gas evolution data were used to design the gas plenum to accommodate the absorbed gases along with the fission gases.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Ogawa, S. Y. & Williamson, N. E.

Fuel Failure Examinations and Analyses in the High Power Density Program

Description: Summary: The High Power Density Project includes a comprehensive fuel development program which has the objective of developing and demonstrating the performance of a nuclear reactor core having a high power density, long fuel life, and low fabrication cost. The fuel program is made up of two principal tasks. Task 1A consists of irradiation tests in the VBWR of Type 304 stainless steel clad, UO2 pellet type fuel rods fabricated by current commercial processes. Task 1B consists of the investigation of lower cost fabrication processes and the irradiation testing of fuel elements fabricated by these processes. Both tasks include the investigation of the feasibility and use of thin-wall stainless steel cladding as a means of improving the neutron economy and fuel cycle costs of stainless steel clad fuel. Irradiation of the Task 1A fuel assemblies in the VBWR was initiated in September, 1960. Subsequently, Task 1B fuel assemblies were inserted in the VBWR as various fabrication processes and design concepts were investigated. Fuel cladding failures have occurred in fuel rods in both Task 1A and 1B. As of this date, cladding failures have occurred in twenty-two rods of approximately 700 fuel rods which have been irradiated. Twenty of the failures occurred in cold worked tubing and two in tubing procured commercially as annealed materials.
Date: September 16, 1963
Creator: Arlt, W. H. & Vandenberg, S. R.

Hazards Report for Insertion of the PM-1-M-2 Element in the SM-1 Core II

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the Martin Co. PM-1-M-2 test element and analyzes the potential hazard incurred by its inclusion in the SM-1 Core II. A nuclear analysis develops power distributions and reactivity effects. Hydraulic and thermal analyses develop anticipated burnout heat flux ratios. An evaluation of the risk involved with the inclusion of this element is presented. In view of the narrow margin by which the PM-1-M-2 test element meets the minimum burnout ratios as defined by Alco Products, Inc., it is recommended that if time permits that critical facility design verification be accomplished. The PM-1-M-2 test element meets the minimum requirements for insertion in SM-1 Core II and in view of the importance of this element to the PM-1 and PM-3A program, should be considered for insertion.
Date: September 1, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Scoles, J. F.; Brondel, J. O. & Lee, D. H.

Hazards Report for PM-2A Core II

Description: Abstract: This technical report describes the changes incurred in the PM-2A by the planned insertion of PM-2A Core II and the replacement of the startup and check sources. PM-2A Core II components were fabricated to specifications very nearly identical to those of PM-2A Core I. The essential difference in the cores is the boron loading which permits PM-2A Core II to meet a "one-stuck rod criteria" at beginning of life. This core has been subjected to a zero power experiment and loading procedures have been developed at the Alco Critical Facility. The nuclear and thermal and hydraulic characteristics are essentially identical to those of Core I and the replacement of the startup and check sources represent no increase in the potential for or magnitude of a hazardous situation.
Date: June 21, 1962
Creator: Coombe, John R. & Stephenson, L. D.

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core II With the SM-1 Core II High Burnup Elements Replaced with SM-1 Core I Spare Elements

Description: Abstract: The removal of both SM-1 Core I high burnup elements from the SM-1 Core II and the insertion of two SM-1 Core I spare elements i their places are discussed. Nuclear and thermal characteristics of Core II with the change are presented and conclusion related to the change in hazard potential are made. If the core change indicated by this report is made, local peaking factors will be decreased and burnout ratios will be increased. This, of course, in itself leads to a more conservative estimate of core safety. There is no conceivable reason why this perturbation may not be safely made in the SM-1 Core II.
Date: October 9, 1961
Creator: Coombe, J. R.; Lee, D. H. & Matthews, F. T.

Hazards Report for SM-1 Core II With the SM-1 Core II With the Silver-Cadmium-Indium Control Rod Absorber Section

Description: Abstract: In the March-April 1962 shutdown of SM-1 Core II, the SM-28 element will be re-inserted in SM-1 Core II and an SM-1 Core I element will be removed. An SM-1 Core II europium absorber will be replaced by a Ag-Cd-In absorber, and surveillance specimens will be inserted above the core support structure. Analysis of these changes concludes that re-insertion of the SM-2B stationary element and insertion of surveillance specimens do not affect hazards potential previously defined for SM-1. Replacement of the europium absorber by the Ag-Cd-In absorber will have negligible effect on reactivity control worth of the rod. The absorber meat section is encapsulated to prevent exposure of silver alloy to the primary coolant; postulated release of silver due to a cladding defect, after 2 years irradiation in SM-1, would not cause a hazard such as to restrict access to the vapor container. Possibility of steam formation in the air gap between the absorber core and cladding, causing a cladding failure, is remote. Deformation of the absorber section sufficient to cause the rod to stick, would not impair the ability of the other rods to shut down the reactor safely.
Date: March 15, 1962
Creator: Stephenson, L. D.