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Agricultural Trade in the 106th Congress: A Review of Issues
The 106th Congress considered a number of trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural commodities. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion, to $49.2 billion. Agricultural exports did climb back to $50.9 billion in FY2000, and are now projected at $53 billion in FY2001. However, the pace of recovery concerned many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress. Although they recognize that many world economic, farm production, political, and weather factors influence exports, many of these groups believe that the agricultural sector's future prosperity also depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agricultural exports from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches.
Agricultural Trade Issues In the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 106th Congress
Agricultural interests have been following trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural products. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion. USDA forecasts agricultural exports at $50.5 billion in FY2000 and $51.5 billion in FY2001. However, the projected agricultural trade surpluses for those years, of $11.5 billion and $12 billion, would be less than half the FY1996 surplus of $27.2 billion. Many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress believe that the sector's future prosperity depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agriculture from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches.
Agriculture and the 106th Congress: A Summary of Major Issues
Most congressional interest in agriculture in the 106th Congress was focused on persistent low prices for major commodities and proposals to redress declining farm income. Six emergency farm aid bills were approved, increasing agricultural spending by nearly $27 billion for fiscal years 1999-2001. These bills provided disaster relief along with short term “market loss payments”to farmers to shore up farm income. Some longer term changes also were enacted as part of emergency farm legislation, which this report discusses in brief.
Airport and Airway Trust Fund Issues in the 106th Congress
This report briefly discusses the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR21 or FAIR21), which helps ensure that all aviation trust fund receipts (including interest) are spent for aviation purposes on an annual basis.
Airport Improvement Program Reauthorization Legislation in the 106th Congress
This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program (AIP), which provides federal grants to airports for capital development. This report also discusses the Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, also referred to as AIR21, which includes provisions for increases in AIP spending, among other things. Primarily, this report discusses the legislative processes surrounding the enaction of these laws and the various appropriations the laws authorize.
The Americans with Disabilities Notification Act, H.R. 3590, 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress
This report discusses a variety of animal agriculture issues that generated debate during the 106th Congress, including low livestock prices, especially for hogs. Economic difficulties have revived questions such as the impacts of consolidation in the livestock industry, and the price effects of animal imports from Canada and Mexico. This report also discusses a number of legislative proposals to assist livestock producers and enforce sanitary and phytosanitary standards, as well as continuing trade disputes and negotiations with China, the European Union, New Zealand, and Australia.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Votes and Legislative Actions, 95th Congress through 110th Congress
This report provides a summary of legislative attempts to address issues of energy development and preservation in the Refuge from the 95th Congress through the 110th Congress, with emphasis on the 108th through 110th Congresses. The analysis below covers, first, the economic and geological factors that have triggered new interest in development, followed by the philosophical, biological, and environmental quality factors that have triggered opposition to it. That analysis is followed by a history of congressional actions on this issue, with a focus on those in the 107th Congress through the 109th Congress.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Votes and Legislative Actions, 95th Congress to 110th Congress
This report provides a summary of legislative attempts to address issues of energy development and preservation in the Refuge from the 95th Congress through the 110th Congress, with emphasis on the 108th through 110th Congresses.
AWARDS OF ATTORNEY’S FEES TO SMALL BUSINESSES AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONS THAT PREVAIL AGAINST THE NLRB OR OSHA: H.R. 1987, 106TH CONGRESS
No Description Available.
Biennial Budgeting: Background and Legislative History in the 106th Congress
Proposals for a two-year budget cycle have previously been reported in the Senate in 1988, 1990, 1994, and 1997. Another such proposal, S. 92, was reported by the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee on March 10, 1999 (S.Rept. 106-12). S. 92 calls for the House and Senate to use the first year of each Congress to consider a two-year budget resolution and two-year appropriation bills, and the second year to consider multiyear authorizations and conduct oversight. More recently, biennial budgeting has also been a topic of interest in the House where the Rules Committee conducted a series of hearings on February 16, March 10, and March 16, 2000.
Budget Reconciliation Process: Timing of Committee Responses to Reconciliation Directives
This report examines the timing of certain stages of the budget reconciliation process and the extent to which the submission due date included in a reconciliation instruction is a predictor for the timing of committee response. Specifically, it provides information on the dates by which committees have been directed to respond to reconciliation directives and the timing of House and Senate committees in responding to such directives in the past 14 Congresses (101st-114th Congresses).
Campaign Finance Bills in the 106th Congress: Comparison of Shays-Meehan, as passed, with McCain-Feingold, as considered
On September 14, 1999, the House passed the Shays-Meehan bill--H.R. 417, the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 1999, as amended, by a vote of 252-177. Senate sponsors of the companion measure, S. 26 (McCain-Feingold), revised their proposal and, on September 16, introduced S. 1593, containing just four sections of H.R. 417 and S. 26. The Senate debated S. 1593 from October 13-20, culminating in unsuccessful cloture votes October 19 on two amendments: Daschle amendment 2298, substituting text nearly identical to the House-passed H.R. 417; and Reid amendment 2229 (a perfecting amendment to no. 2298), substituting text of S. 1593 as offered, plus McCain amendment 2294 (adopted October 14), which added certain disclosure requirements. This report compares provisions of the House-passed bill with the one considered by the Senate in October 1999. No further updates are planned.
Campaign Finance Debate in the 106th Congress: Comparison of Measures Under House Consideration
On September 14, the House passed H.R. 417 on a vote of 252-177, as amended by three perfecting amendments: Bereuter/Wicker #6; Faleomavaega #1; and Sweeney #21. This report features two tables. Table 1 summarizes and compares the ten perfecting amendments, current law, and the Shays-Meehan proposal. Table 2 summarizes and compares current law, the Shays-Meehan bill, and the three substitute amendments.
Charitable Choice: Constitutional Issues and Developments Through the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Child Care Issues in the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Child Nutrition and WIC Legislation in the 106th and 107th Congresses
No Description Available.
CIVIL ASSET FORFEITURE REFORM ACT: OVERVIEW OF S. 1931 AND H.R. 1658, 106TH CONGRESS
No Description Available.
Civil Service Retirement Bills in the 106th Congress
Among the civil service retirement issues addressed in bills introduced thus far in the 106th Congress are the correction of retirement coverage errors for federal employees assigned to the wrong retirement system; immediate eligibility for federal employees to participate in the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP); improved portability of pension benefits; and repeal of the temporary increase in employee retirement contributions that was mandated by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Other bills would expand TSP eligibility to include members of the armed services; improve pension coverage for temporary and part-time federal employees; and designate several categories of federal employees as law enforcement officers for purposes of determining their retirement benefits.
Class Actions and Proposed Reform in the 106th Congress: Class Action Fairness Act of 2000
No Description Available.
Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress
The Clean Air Act and its 1990 amendments appear to have contributed to a marked improvement in air quality nationwide. Of nearly 100 metropolitan areas not meeting air quality standards for ozone in 1990, more than two-thirds now do so. Even greater progress has been achieved with carbon monoxide: 36 of 42 areas not in attainment in 1990 now meet the standard. Nevertheless, EPA remains concerned about air pollution. In 1997, the Agency promulgated major revisions to its air quality standards for ozone and particulates, an action that would require most states and urban areas to establish additional controls on a wide range of pollution sources. The revised standards were challenged by numerous parties and the courts have remanded the standards to EPA. Implementation is currently in limbo, pending resolution of appeals by the Supreme Court.
Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress
In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated.
Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress
In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated.
Committee Funding Resolutions and Processes, 106th Congress
This report describes the procedures under which committee funding resolutions are considered in the two chambers, and 106th Congress action to review and approve committee operating budgets. Also noted are changes in the Senate’s committee funding processes to move from a session-based biennial funding process to one more closely matched to a fiscal year cycle. Tables at the end of the report show funds approved for the 105th Congress, and the funds requested, recommended, and approved for the 106th Congress for each House and Senate committee.
Committee Funding Resolutions and Processes, 106th Congress
This report describes the procedures under which committee funding resolutions are considered in the two chambers. A table at the end of the report shows funds approved for the 105th Congress, and the funds requested, recommended, and approved for the 106th Congress for each House committee. The Senate agreed to temporary funding extensions for its committees pending a decision to shift to a fiscal year-based funding process.
Committee System Rules Changes in the House, 106th Congress
This fact sheet details changes in the committee system contained in H. Res. 5, the rules of the House for the 106th Congress
Community Development Block Grants: Funding and Other Issues in the 106th Congress
In this report Congress addresses a number of community development issues, including reauthorization of the CDBG and revision of the CDBG program definitions of entitlement communities and low- and moderate-income households. Congress also will consider legislation appropriating funds for the program for FY2001, including funding for a number of new initiatives proposed by the Clinton Administration.
Comparison of the Bankruptcy Reform Act, H.R. 833, 106th Congress, Passed by the House and the Senate
This report surveys the legislation’s legislative history. It provides a brief narrative and side-by-side comparison of selected provisions in the House and Senate bills, with an emphasis on consumer bankruptcy.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 1
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 2
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, Second Session, Volume 145, Part 3
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 4
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 5
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 7
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 8
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 9
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 10
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 11
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 12
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 13
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 14
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 17
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 19
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session, Volume 145, Part 20
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, Second Session, Volume 146, Part 1
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, Second Session, Volume 146, Part 2
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.
Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, Second Session, Volume 146, Part 3
The Congressional Record contains the records for sessions of the U.S. Congress including summaries of proceedings, letters, and speeches for the Senate and House of Representatives.