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Application of Frequency-Modified Life Approach to the Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel

Description: The application of the frequency-modified life equation to fatigue life prediction has been critically examined using the extensive fatigue data generated for Type 304 stainless steel at 1100 degrees F under a variety of cyclic-loading conditions. The parameters that enter into the frequency-modified life equation vary with strain rate and show a transition coinciding with the frequency of cycling at which a change in the fracture appearance from predominantly transgranular to predominantly intergranular failure mode or vice versa occurs. The accuracy in life prediction is improved when the effect of strain rate on life-predictive parameters is considered. It is shown how the effect of compressive and symmetric hold time on fatigue life can be taken into account. A comparison between the frequency-modified life approach of Coffin and the damage-rate approach recently developed by Majumdar and Maiya is also made to show the importance of wave-shape on low-cycle fatigue life.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Maiya, P. S. & Majumdar, S.

The Atomic Spectrum of Neptunium

Description: A description and interpretation of the atomic spectrum of neptunium are given. Wavelengths were measured for 6096 spectrum lines in the range 3793 to 38,812 cm⁻¹ (26,353 to 2575 A), of which 2526 were classified as transitions between 329 odd levels and 130 even levels of neutral neptunium (Np I). The data are presented in five tables.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Fred, Mark; Tompkins, Frank S.; Blaise, Jean E.; Camus, Pierre & Verges, Jean

Availability of Ground Water near Carmel, Hamilton County, Indiana

Description: Abstract: Flow in the unconsolidated glacial deposits near the city of Carmel in central Indiana was simulated by a digital-computer model in a study of hydraulic characteristics of the deposits. The study shows that 21 • 3 million gallons per day (933 liters per second) of additional water could be withdrawn from the aquifer for an indefinite period of time. This pumpage is approximately 5 million gallons per day (219 liters per second) above the projected water needs of Carmel for 1990. Saturated thickness, transmissivity, and storage coefficient of the outwash aquifer along the White River east of Carmel were determined, using available data supplemented by test drilling . The saturated thickness of the aquifer ranges from 10 to 110 feet 0 to 34 meters ); transmissivity ranges from 1,000 feet squared per day (93 meters squared per day) to 24 ,000 feet squared per day (2 ,230 meters squared per day); and the average storage coefficient is 0.11.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Gillies, D. C.

Baseline Energy Consumption Forecasts for Transportation: A Review and Evaluation

Description: A baseline projection of energy consumption is needed to estimate the potential energy savings from proposed transport technology and operational improvements. The Reference Energy System projection by Brookhaven National Laboratories and that which Stanford Research Institute produced for Gulf Oil are reviewed here. Attention is focused on the growth rate assumptions of the forecasts and the allowances made for the sensitivity of transport demand and technological efficiency to fuel price changes. The alternative trajectories of energy use are examined for automobile, bus and intercity air and rail passenger travel, and also for freight movement. Little, if any, justification can be found for many of the assumptions used to estimate transport demand and energy intensiveness. The assumptions underlying the Brookhaven National Laboratories projections are more explicit on changes in energy efficiency and energy price and shifts in transport patterns. However, the relationship of automobile travel, the largest component, to energy price is not specified clearly. The Stanford projection is based on seemingly arbitrary assumptions about changes in travel patterns and energy efficiency with no reference to the market process which must bring them about. It is concluded that the Brookhaven projection is a reasonable interim benchmark. Its structure should improve by refining and validating or revising the judgmental estimates on which it is based. This can be accomplished by identifying those judgments to which the energy consumption projections are most sensitive and modifying them, based on information presently available concerning the transport sector and/or information and relationships which can be developed by limited research.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Koppelman, Frank; O'Sullivan, Pat & Collum, Tom

Bibliography for Transportation Energy Conservation

Description: A listing is given of 578 reports, books, articles, and conference papers on transportation and energy. Coverage is primarily on U. S. developments and research from 1970 to 1975. Following a section of citations of general works on energy, the bibliography contains two main parts: ''Energy for Transportation'' and ''Transportation of Energy.'' Within each of these topics the arrangement is multimodal (at the urban, regional, national, or international level), then by mode. Selected information sources are listed in the last part. Within each section, entries are arranged alphabetically by author or, lacking an author, by title. References were drawn from the Transportation Center Library collection and other libraries in the Northwestern University system. An earlier bibliography, Transportation and Energy, compiled by the Transportation Center Library in March 1974, forms the basis for the arrangement and provides coverage from 1970 to 1973.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). Transportation Center. Library.

Computer Simulation Model of the Pleistocene Valley-Fill Aquifer in Southwestern Essex and Southeastern Morris Counties, New Jersey

Description: From purpose and scope: The purpose of the present study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources of the New Jersey of Environmental Protection is to make a quantitative hydrologic analysis of the known buried valley-fill aquifer in southwestern Essex and southeastern Morris County Counties in order to provide water-resources planners with the hydrologic bases to plan ground-water development and to allocate available water.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Meisler, Harold

High-Performance Batteries for Off-Peak Energy Storage and Electric-Vehicle Propulsion, Progress Report: January-March 1976

Description: Quarterly report describing the research and management effort of Argonne National Laboratory's program on lithium/metal sulfide batteries during the period January-March 1976. These batteries are being developed for energy storage on utility networks and for electric-vehicle propulsion. The present cells are vertically oriented, piismatic cells with a central positive electrode of FeS or FeS; and two facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum alloy, and an electrolyte of molten LiCl-KC1. The cell operating temperature is 400-450C.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Nelson, P. A.; Ivins, R. O.; Yao, N. P.; Battles, J. E.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C. et al.

Historic Water-Level Changes and Pumpage from the Principal Aquifers of the Memphis Area, Tennessee: 1886-1975

Description: Abstract: Annual pumpage for both the Memphis Sand ("500-foot" sand) and Fort Pillow Sand ("1400-foot" sand) from the time of initial pumping from these aquifers to 1975 is presented in both tabular and graphic forms . The Memphis Sand supplied 188 million gallons per day in 1975 or 95 percent of the total water used in the area . Pumpage from the Fort Pillow Sand has decreased in recent years and in 1975 was about 4 million gallons per day. Pumping increases from the Memphis Sand have caused an almost continual decline of water levels as shown by graphs , tables, and a series of potentiometric-surface maps. Water-level-change maps show the fluctuations in water levels for two periods of high water use. Water levels in the Fort Pillow Sand are also shown by tables and graphs and a potentiometric-surface map . These graphs illustrate a rise of water levels since 1963, coincidental with pumping reductions. The data presented suggest that a constant pumping rate will cause little water-level decline and that the water levels can be altered for efficient resource management by areally varying the distribution of pumping . The references listed support the information presented in this report .
Date: May 1976
Creator: Criner, James H. & Parks, William S.

An Overview of Pool-Type LMFBRs : General Characteristics

Description: This report describes the results of a study conducted by a "Pool Study Group" organized at ANL in mid-1975 to examine the present state of the air of design of pool-type LMFBRs. The study concentrated on examination of various design options used to date in the principle pool-type projects and design studies in this country and abroad, including the Phenix and Super-Phenix reactors (France), PFR and CFR (U.K.), RN-600 (U.S.S.R.) and EBR-II (U.S.A.). The objective of the report is to provide a step toward better understanding of the pool-type system and of the advantages and disadvantages of the various possible approaches to its design.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Amorosi, A.; Hutter, E.; Marciniak, T. J.; Monson, H. O.; Seidensticker, R. W. & Simmons, W. R.

Predicted Heat-Transfer Performance of an Evacuated Glass-Jacketed CPC Receiver : Countercurrent Flow Design

Description: The heat-transfer performance of an evacuated glass-jacketed CPC-receiver facility, free on one end and fixed onto the glass jacket at the other, was carried out using heat-transfer relationships and the best information available in the literature. Specifically, the collector examined was a 3x-CPC facility, 8 ft long, with an entrance aperture 4.5 in. wide covered with a single glass cover, and provided with an aluminum reflecting surface (rho = 0.88). To maximize heat retention, a selectively treated receiver surface, epsilon = 0.11, was used. The optical efficiency of this CPC collector facility was calculated to be eta₀ = 0.536.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Thodos, George

[United States National Bureau of Standards Metric Conversion Card]

Description: Conversion card issued by the United States National Bureau of Standards containing conversion information for length, area, mass (weight), volume, and temperature (exact). The front lists "Approximate Conversions to Metric Measures" and includes a continuum of temperatures at the bottom and a centimeter ruler along the right side (to 8 cm.). The back of the card lists "Approximate Conversions from Metric Measures" and includes an inch ruler along the right side (to 3 in.).
Date: May 1976
Creator: United States. National Bureau of Standards.

Use of Krypton-85 for the Detection of Pinhole Failures in GCFR Cladding

Description: Radioactive krypton-85 is used as a tracer to detect pinhole failures in GCFR cladding. High-purity helium (99.99% pure) that contains 0.3 ppm krypton-85 is used to pressurize the tubular test specimens, and a Geiger-Mueller counter is used to detect the krypton-85 in the helium environmental gas as it leaves the test chamber. Under the least favorable conditions of temperature and specimen pressure, it is estimated that the smallest pinhole failure that could be detected within 60 sec would have an orifice diameter of 0.0102 cm. Using lead shielding around the Geiger-Muller counter to reduce background radiation, the electronics associated with the krypton-85 detector will terminate a biaxial creep test at krypton-85 activity levels above 20 counts/minute.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Yaggee, F. L.; Purohit, A. & Poeppel, R. B.