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Upper Wind Representation and Flight Planning

Description: Abstract: This Survey is divided into four parts: (a) a representation of winds of space and time, which includes a tool for analysis, called the "geostrophic-gradient divider", and the "2-prog" and "4-prog" charts ; (b) flight planning tools: the 4-D plotter and the fixed-speed time-front plotter ; (c) methods of flight planning, including fixed-track flight planning, single-drift flight planning and emphasizing minimal flight planning, and (d) an interpolative system of minimal flight planning. Included are three appendices to do the following: (a) to derive the basic equation of minimal flight planning, to show why time fronts should be drawn omitting the crosswinds, and to show why time fronts prepared from one airspeed can be used on minimal flight paths with another airspeed ; (b) to show the advantage of 4-prog charts or derived 2-prog charts in representing vertical wind shears that are changing with time, and (c) to report on tests of the recommended procedures.
Date: March 1957
Creator: Gringorten, Irving I.