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The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

Description: Seventeen of the European Union's 27 member states share an economic and monetary union (EMU) with the euro as a single currency. These countries are effectively referred to as the Eurozone. What has become known as the Eurozone crisis began in early 2010 when financial markets were shaken by heightened concerns that the fiscal positions of a number of Eurozone countries, beginning with Greece, were unsustainable. This report provides background information and analysis on the future of the Eurozone in six parts, including discussions on the origins and design challenges of the Eurozone, proposals to define the Eurozone crisis, possible scenarios for the future of the Eurozone, and the implications of the Eurozone crisis for U.S. economic and political interests.
Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.; Jackson, James K.; Nelson, Rebecca M. & Weiss, Martin A.

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the European Union (EU), an economic and political partnership between 27 sovereign member states. The report describes the formation of the EU, the three main institutions of the EU, and the EU's relationship with the United States.
Date: November 5, 2010
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Mix, Derek E.

The European Parliament

Description: The European Parliament (EP) is one of the three key institutions of the European Union (EU), and the only EU institution whose members are directly elected. This report discusses the construction and history of the EP, its role in functions of the EU as well as internationally, various international supports and criticisms of the EP, and the EP's ties with the U.S. Congress.
Date: November 5, 2010
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Mix, Derek E.

Turkey: Situation Update

Description: This report briefly discusses recent political, economic, and security issues in Turkey, especially relating to Turkey's relationship with Greece, the European Union, and the United States.
Date: September 12, 1997
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol

The European Parliament

Description: The European Parliament (EP) is one of the three key institutions of the European Union (EU), and the only EU institution whose members are directly elected. This report discusses the construction and history of the EP, its role in functions of the EU as well as internationally, various international supports and criticisms of the EP, and the EP's ties with the U.S. Congress.
Date: July 22, 2009
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Mix, Derek E.

The Financial Crisis: Impact on and Response by the European Union

Description: According to the most recent National Threat Assessment, the global financial crisis and its geopolitical implications pose the primary near-term security concern of the United States. Over the short run, both the EU and the United States are attempting to resolve the financial crisis while stimulating domestic demand to stem the economic downturn. These efforts have born little progress so far as the economic recession and the financial crisis have become reinforcing events, causing EU governments to forge policy responses to both crises. This report discusses this situation in detail and also discusses individual efforts by both the U.S. and EU to combat the effects of the crisis.
Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.

An Index of Shale-Oil Patents

Description: From Introduction: "Work on this project was begun early in 1944; and the results with respect to shale oil are reported in this Bulletin. Since this bulletin is only an index to this large repository of ideas relating to the the treatment of shale oil, the material is presented in the form of short notices describing the subject material of each patent, which consist of an abridgment of the patent (if British or Australian) or a typical claim in the case of the United States or foreign patents."
Date: 1948
Creator: Klosky, Simon

Index of Oil-Shale and Shale-Oil Patents, 1946-56: A Supplement to Bulletins 467 and 468: (In Three Parts) [Part 3]. European Patents and Classification

Description: From Introduction: "This part of Bulletin contains 250 European patents that relate to retorting (and distilling underground), refining, and utilization of oil shale and its products. The largest single group, of which the majority was assigned to a single company, relates to fluidized handling shale. The patents are arranged numerically, and alphabetical list of investors and assignees follow them. A classified list of all the patents follows the author index of Part III. Parts I and II were published in 1958."
Date: 1959
Creator: United States. Bureau of Mines.

Survey of Fallout Operations

Description: From Abstract: "The Laboratory has made a survey of fallout operations in the various countries of the world. The source of information has largely been the reports submitted to UNSCEAR forwarding data for their consideration. The abstracts are given in order of type of operation as shown in the table of contents."
Date: July 1, 1962
Creator: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Health and Safety Laboratory.

The European Parliament

Description: The 785-member, directly elected European Parliament (EP) is a key institution of the 27-member European Union (EU). Once limited to being a consultative assembly, the EP has accumulated more power over time. Currently, it plays a role in the EU's legislative and budgeting processes, and exercises general supervision over other EU bodies. Ties between the EP and the U.S. Congress are long-standing, and EPCongressional exchanges are expected to continue in the second session of the 110th Congress.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin

The European Union's Reform Process: The Lisbon Treaty

Description: In December 2007, leaders of the European Union (EU) signed the Lisbon Treaty, which seeks to reform the EU's governing institutions and decisionmaking processes to enable a larger EU to operate more effectively. This new treaty represents the latest stage in a reform process begun in 2002 and essentially replaces the proposed EU "constitution" that foundered after French and Dutch voters rejected it in referendums in 2005. In June 2008, Irish voters rejected the Lisbon Treaty, and have thrown its future into doubt. This report provides background information on EU reform efforts and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the second session of the 110th Congress.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin

European Union Englargement

Description: The European Union (EU) views the enlargement process as a historic opportunity to promote stability and prosperity in Europe. Although the EU maintains that the enlargement door remains open, "enlargement fatigue" has become a serious issue in Europe and some experts believe that EU enlargement may be reaching its limits. The status of EU enlargement is one of many transatlantic issues likely to be of interest to the second session of the 110th Congress. This report lists the various nations admitted to the European Union within the past several years and analyzes the enlargement issue in general.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Description: This report describes the European Union (EU), its evolution, governing institutions, trade policy, and efforts to forge common foreign and defense policies. The report also addresses the EU-U.S. and EU-NATO relationships, which may be of interest to the second session of the 110th Congress. It will be updated as events warrant. For more information, see CRS Report RS21344, European Union Enlargement, by Kristin Archick, and CRS Report RL34381, European Union-U.S. Trade and Investment Relations: Key Issues, coordinated by Raymond Ahearn.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin

Climate Change: The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS)

Description: The European Union’s (EU’s) Emissions Trading System (ETS) is a cornerstone of the EU’s efforts to meet its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. It covers more than 11,500 energy intensive facilities across the 25 EU member countries, including oil refineries, power plants over 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity, coke ovens, and iron and steel plants, along with cement, glass, lime, brick, ceramics, and pulp and paper installations. Covered entities emit about 45% of the EU’s carbon dioxide emissions. The trading program does not cover emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, which account for about 20% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. A final consideration for the ETS is its suitability for directing long-term investment toward a low-carbon future — the ultimate goal of any climate change program.
Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Parker, Larry

Newsmap for the Armed Forces : Operation Crossroads

Description: Front: The text and illustrations highlight the issues in the atomic age, that humanity was perhaps at its most fateful crossroads. Photographs: Labor, industry sign wage agreements -- Radar reaches the Moon -- Pacific rendezvous -- Felix Gouin leads France -- Hans goes to the polls. Back: Highlights of 45 years (1901 - 1945) service of the Army Nurse Corps. Includes three photographs: U.S. nurses in Britain in 1918 -- Nurses in evacuation hospital, Sicily, 1943 -- Anzio : first nurses to receive Silver Star.
Date: February 4, 1946
Creator: [United States.] Army Information Branch

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 249th week of the war, 131st week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text highlights action on various war fronts: France ; Italy ; Pacific ; Eastern Front ; Balkans. Inset maps: The advance beyond Rome ; Europe ; The Normandy coast ; China. Photographs: American assault troops move ashore in northern France ; Canadians with bicycles disembark from an infantry landing craft. Back: Map of Germany and adjacent areas shows railroads, superhighways, rivers, and mountains.
Date: June 19, 1944
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 248th week of the war, 130th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: France, Eastern front, Italy, Pacific, China, Southeast Asia. Maps: Schouten Islands; Channel Coast; Italy. Back: "The battle-line is where the Infantry is"... Large photograph of infantryman with text describing the importance of the infantry.
Date: June 12, 1944
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 247th week of the war, 129th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Italy, Western Europe, USSR, Pacific, Southeast Asia, China. Maps: Approach to Rome; northern New Guinea. Includes photographs: U.S. Navy plane on patrol duty; American jeep passes by a disabled German self-propelled 88mm. gun in the Spigno area; Ensign R. Black, Navy hellcat pilot of Brigham, Utah exits from his shattered plane. Back: Air commandos. Text and 8 photographs tell the story of air commandos in Asia.
Date: June 5, 1944
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 246th week of the war, 128th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Italy, Pacific, USSR, China, Southeast Asia, Western Europe. Maps: Central Italy showing current offensive areas and the battle line as of 11 May, 1944; Extent of Allied ground force operations. Includes photographs: 20,000 ft. column of smoke rising from Ploesti, Romania; Supply column heads north through Castelforte, Italy; American soldier walks through piles of rubble in the aftermath of heavy shelling; Amphibious "ducks" outside Anzio, laden with supplies for Fifth Army troops; Tanks emerge from the Assam Hills in northern India; Army nurse Lt. Jane Easton of Atlantic City, NJ and nurse Doru Chu of China tend to Corp. George Sammy of Gary, Ind. in China, Lt. La Retta Matthews of Lakeland, FL and Lt. Carolyn Taylor, Douglaston, L.I., N.Y. converse with a fabric shop owner in a Chinese city. Back: New Guinea. Map (continuation of map issued in Newsmap v. 2, no. 37).
Date: May 29, 1944
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch

Newsmap. For the Armed Forces. 245th week of the war, 127th week of U.S. participation

Description: Front: Text describes action on various war fronts: Italy, Pacific, Southeast Asia, China, Western Europe, USSR. Maps show Allied attacks from India and China into Burma; Current battle line in central Italy. Includes photographs: Nazi 170mm and American 200mm. mobile guns at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.; Shells belonging to the Nazi and American guns; German paratroopers during street fighting in Cassino; Self-propelled German gun mounted on a Mark III chassis advances toward Allied positions in Cassino; Road sign posted near the Allied beachhead below Rome warns Allied forces against touching "butterfly bombs". Back: Your battleship and her requirements. Illustration of a battleship with text describing man hours required to design and build, materials to build, material to operate.
Date: May 22, 1944
Creator: [United States.] Army Service Forces. Army Information Branch