UNT Libraries Government Documents Department - 6,132 Matching Results

Search Results

open access

2-D Simulations of Drainage Winds and Diffusion Compared to Observations

Description: A vertically integrated dynamical drainage flow model is developed from conservation equations for momentum and mass in a terrain-following coordinate system. Wind fields from the dynamical model drive a Monte Carlo transport and diffusion model. The model needs only topographic data, an Eulerian or Lagrangian time scale and a surface drag coefficient for input data, and can be started with a motionless atmosphere. Model wind and diffusion predictions are compared to observations from the rugged Geysers CA area. Model winds generally agree with observed surface winds, and in some cases may give better estimates of area-averaged flow than point observations. Tracer gas concentration contours agree qualitatively with observed contours, and point predictions of maximum concentrations were correctly predicted to within factors of 2 to 10. Standard statistical tests of model skill showed that the accuracy of the predictions varied significantly from canyon to canyon in the Geysers are a. Model wind predictions are also compared to observations from the Savannah River Plant of SC which has gently rolling terrain. The model correctly simulated the slower development of drainage winds and slower deepening of the drainage layer in the Savannah River Valley, relative to the Geysers CA simulations. The SC simulations and observations suggest that drainage winds are more frequent in the southeast United States than is generally recognized. They may be responsible for some of the errors in air pollution concentration predictions made by Gaussian models which assume homogeneous winds and turbulence.
Date: May 29, 2001
Creator: Garrett, A. J.
open access

2-Page Summary for Neptunium solubility in the Near-field Environment of A Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

Description: The total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, includes a wide variety of processes to evaluate the potential release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System into the unsaturated zone of the geosphere. The principal processes controlling radionuclide release and mobilization from the waste forms are captured in the model to assess the dissolved concentrations of radionuclides in the source-term. The TSPA model of the source-term incorporates the far-from-equilibrium dissolution of, for example, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to capture bounding rates of radionuclide availability as the SNF degrades. In addition, for individual radionuclides, the source-term model evaluates solubility constraints that are more indicative of longer-term, equilibrium processes that can limit the potential mass transport from the source term in those cases. These solubility limits represent phase saturation and precipitation processes that can occur either at the waste form as it alters, or at other locations in the near-field environment (e.g., within the invert) if chemical conditions are different. Identification and selection of applicable constraints for solubility-limited radionuclide concentrations is a primary focus in formulating the source-term model for the TSPA. Neptunium is a long-lived radionuclide that becomes a larger fraction of the potential dose as radioactive decay of other radionuclides proceeds. To delineate appropriate long-term source-term controls on dissolved neptunium concentrations, a number of alternative models have been defined. The models are based on data both collected within the Yucca Mountain Project and taken from published literature, and have been evaluated against independent data sets to assess their applicability. The alternative models encompass ones based on precipitation of neptunium within its own separate oxide phases (i.e., ''pure'' Np-phases), and those where neptunium is incorporated into the secondary (tertiary, quaternary, etc.) uranyl phases forming as alteration products of SNF (secondary phases). The constraints on dissolved …
Date: March 29, 2005
Creator: Sassani, D.; van Luik, A. & Summerson, J.
open access

3-D Characterization of the Structure of Paper and Paperboard and Their Application to Optimize Drying and Water Removal Processes and End-Use Applications

Description: The three dimensional structure of paper materials plays a critical role in the paper manufacturing process especially via its impact on the transport properties for fluids. Dewatering of the wet web, pressing and drying will benefit from knowledge of the relationships between the web structure and its transport coefficients. The structure of the pore space within a paper sheet is imaged in serial sections using x-ray micro computed tomography. The three dimensional structure is reconstructed from these sections using digital image processing techniques. The structure is then analyzed by measuring traditional descriptors for the pore space such as specific surface area and porosity. A sequence of microtomographs was imaged at approximately 2 m intervals and the three-dimensional pore-fiber structure was reconstructed. The pore size distributions for both in-plane as well as transverse pores were measured. Significant differences in the in-plane (XY) and the transverse directions in pore characteristics are found and may help partly explain the different liquid and vapor transport properties in the in-plane and transverse directions. Results with varying sheet structures compare favorably with conventional mercury intrusion porosimetry data. Interestingly, the transverse pore structure appears to be more open with larger pore size distribution compared to the in plane pore structure. This may help explain the differences in liquid and vapor transport through the in plane and transverse structures during the paper manufacturing process and during end-use application. Comparison of Z-directional structural details of hand sheet and commercially made fine paper samples show a distinct difference in pore size distribution both in the in-plane and transverse direction. Method presented here may provide a useful tool to the papermaker to truly engineer the structure of paper and board tailored to specific end-use applications. The difference in surface structure between the top and bottom sides of the porous material, i.e. …
Date: August 29, 2004
Creator: Shri Ramaswamy, University of Minnesota & B.V. Ramarao, State University of New York
open access

3-D Measurement of Deformation Microstructure of Al(0.2%)Mg Using Submicron Resolution White X-Ray Microbeams

Description: We have used submicron-resolution white x-ray microbeams on the MHATT-CAT beamline 7-ID at the Advanced Photon Source to develop techniques for three-dimensional investigation of the deformation microstructure in a 20% plane strain compressed Al(0.2%)Mg tri-crystal. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors were used to focus white radiation from an undulator to a 0.7 x 0.7 {micro}m{sup 2} beam that was scanned over bi- and tri-crystal regions near the triple-junction of the tri-crystal. Depth resolution along the x-ray microbeam of less than 5 microns was achieved by triangulation to the diffractibn source point using images taken at a series of CCD distances from the microbeam. Computer indexing of the deformation cell structure in the bi-crystal region provided orientations of individual subgrains to {approximately}0.01 degrees, making possible detailed measurements of the rotation axes between individual cells.
Date: November 29, 1999
Creator: Larson, B. C.; tamura, N.; Chung, J.-S.; Ice, G. E.; Budai, J. D.; Tischler, J. Z. et al.
open access

3-D vertical seismic profiling at LLNL Site 300

Description: The initial goal of the 3-D Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) work at LLNL was to characterize seismic wave velocities and frequencies below the vadose zone to design the acquisition geometry for a 3-D shallow surface seismic reflection survey. VSPs are also used routinely to provide a link between surface seismic data and well logs. However, a test 2-D seismic line recorded at LLNL in the Spring of 1994 indicated that obtaining high quality reflection images below the vadose zone, yet shallower that 50 m, would require an expensive, very finely sampled survey ({lt} 1 m receiver spacing). Extensive image processing of the LLNL 2-D test line indicated that the only reliable reflection was from the top of the water table. Surprisingly, these results were very different than recent 3-D seismic work recorded at other sites, where high quality, high frequency surface (up to 300 Hz) reflection images were obtained as shallow as 20m. We believe that the differences are primarily due to the comparatively deep vadose zone at LLNL (15 to 30m) as compared to 0-5m at other sites. The thick vadose zone attenuates the reflection signals, particularly at the high frequencies (above 100 @). In addition, the vadose zone at LLNL creates a seismogram in which surface-propagating noise overlaps with the reflection signals for reflections above 50 m. By contrast, when the vadose zone is not thick, high frequencies can propagate and noise will not overlap with reflections as severely. Based on the results from the 2-D seismic line and the encouraging results from a VSP run concurrent with the 2-D seismic experiment, we modified the objectives of the research and expanded the scope of the VSP imaging at LLNL. We conducted two 3-D multi-offset VSP experiments at LLNL in the Summer and Fall of 1994. These VSP experiments …
Date: January 29, 1997
Creator: Bainer, R.; Rector, J. & Milligan, P.
open access

10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

Description: The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late in Phase 1 an opportunity arose to collaborate …
Date: January 29, 2014
Creator: Turchi, Craig
open access

20-MW Magnicon for ILC

Description: The 1.3 GHz RF power to drive ILC is now planned to be supplied by 600-1200, 10-MW peak power multi-beam klystrons. In this project, a conceptual design for 1.3 GHz magnicons with 20 MW peak power was developed as an alternative to the klystrons, with the possibility of cutting in half the numbers of high-power tubes and associated components. Design of a conventional magnicon is described, using TM110 modes in all cavities, as well as design of a modified magnicon with a TE111 mode output cavity. The latter has the advantage of much lower surface fields than the TM110 mode, with no loss of output power or electronic efficiency.
Date: November 29, 2006
Creator: Hirshfield, Jay L.
open access

21-PWR Waste Package Side and End Impacts

Description: The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities and initial angles between the waste package and the unyielding surface is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the area of the outer shell (OS) where the residual stress exceeds a given limit (hereafter ''damaged area''). The stress limit is defined as a fraction of the yield strength of the OS material, Alloy 22 (SB-575 N06022), at the appropriate temperature. The design of the 21-PWR waste package used in this calculation is that defined in Reference 8. However, a value of 4 mm was used for the gap between the inner shell and the OS, and the thickness of the OS was reduced by 2 mm. The sketch in Attachment I provides additional information not included in Reference 8. All obtained results are valid for this design only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Specialty Analyses and Waste Package Design Section. The waste package (i.e. uncanistered spent nuclear fuel disposal container) is classified as Quality Level 1.
Date: August 29, 2005
Creator: Schmitt, T.
open access

100 Areas technical activities report -- Engineering, February, 1950

Description: This report covers work done by the Physical Chemistry Group and the Pile Engineering Groups. Subjects covered are as follows: metal exposure details; slug corrosion details; pile control -- thimble removal study; Van Stone flange corrosion details; process tube corrosion details; carbon dioxide experiment; graphite sampling; special pile measurements; routine pile measurements; 105 technical laboratories; P-10; boiling studies; pile annealing studies; gas tube experiment; thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity; x-ray diffraction studies; and stored energy.
Date: March 29, 1950
open access

100 Areas technical activities report -- Engineering, July, 1947

Description: This monthly report covers activities for the production reactors. The 100 Area activities include: corrosion and blistering studies of slugs and flanges; study of the process tube leak at 105-D; graphite expansion studies which include galling of process tubes and stresses in biological shields; and irradiation studies.
Date: August 29, 1947
Creator: Woods, W. K.
open access

AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan

Description: This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).
Date: December 29, 1999
Creator: White, D. A.
open access

I-129 in SRP high-level waste and saltstone

Description: Long-lived isotopes in nuclear waste can have the greatest impact on man and the environment because of the integrated dose over a long time period. Many long-lived radioactive isotopes are present in the waste at Savannah River Plant. Actinide elements make up a significant portion of these isotopes. But when the waste is incorporated into a glass waste form, the actinides are converted to chemically stable oxide species that are released at extremely low and controlled rates, even after the waste form has degraded. Because of their different chemistry, radioactive isotopes of carbon, technetium, and iodine could be released at a significantly higher rate. To establish the potential hazard from these isotopes, their concentration in waste forms for final disposal must be known. The concentrations of C-14 and T{sub c}-99 in SRP waste were previously estimated. Additional analytical data has now been obtained for I-129 in H-Area soluble waste to estimate its concentration in SRP waste. Because of the nature of processes at SRP, most of the I-129 in the waste is in the H-Area waste tanks.
Date: February 29, 1984
Creator: Fowler, J. R. & Cook, J. R.
Back to Top of Screen