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Adiabatic compression and radiative compression of magnetic fields

Description: Flux is conserved during mechanical compression of magnetic fields for both nonrelativistic and relativistic compressors. However, the relativistic compressor generates radiation, which can carry up to twice the energy content of the magnetic field compressed adiabatically. The radiation may be either confined or allowed to escape.
Date: February 12, 1980
Creator: Woods, C.H.

Agriculture: Payment in Kind (PIK) Program

Description: On January 11, 1983, President Reagan announced that the U.S. Department of Agriculture would implement a payment-in-kind (PIK) program to help reduce Government grain surpluses and to improve farm income. The materials included in this report were compiled by Congressional Research Staff for Member of Congress desirous of more information on the subject.
Date: January 12, 1984
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Alleged Fraud, Waste and, and Abuse: General Dynamics Corp.

Description: Numerous Federal agencies -- including the Justice Department and Congressional committees -- are investigating allegations of fraud at the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation, the nation's third largest defense contractor. This issue brief provides a chronological summary, based on newspaper and magazine accounts, of each of these investigations.
Date: July 12, 1985
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald

Analysis of thermal data from drill holes UE25a-3 and UE25a-1, Calico Hills and Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

Description: Thermal data from two sites about 20 km apart in the Nevada Test Site indicate that heat flow both within and below the upper 800 meters is affected significantly by hydrothermal convection. For hole UE25a-1, Yucca Mountain, the apparent heat flow above the water table ({similar_to}470 m) is 54 mWm{sup -2} ({similar_to}1.3 HFU). Below the water table, the temperature profile indicates both upward and downward water movement within the hole and possibly within the formation. Hole UE25a-3, Calico Mountain, is characterized by conductive heat flux averaging 135 mWm{sup -2} ({similar_to}3.2 HFU) to a depth of about 700 meters below which water appears to be moving downward at the rate of nearly 1 ft y{sup -1} (255 mm y{sup -1}). Between 735 and 750 meters, the hole intersected a nearly vertical fault along which water seems to be moving vertically downward. The nearly threefold variation in conductive heat flow over a lateral distance of only 20 km suggests the presence of a more deeply seated hydrothremal convective system with a net upward flow beneath Calico Hills and a net downward flow beneath Yucca Mountain.
Date: August 12, 1980
Creator: Sass, J. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H. & Mase, C. W.

Annual Outlook for US Electric Power, 1985

Description: This report provides a history and projections of US electric utility markets. It includes summary information on the production of electricity, its distribution to end-use sectors, and on electricity, its distribution to end-use sectors, and on electricity costs and prices. Further, this publication describes the ownership structure of the industry and the operations of utility systems and outlines basic electricity generating technologies. The historical information covers the period from 1882 through 1984, while projections extend from 1985 through 1995. 9 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: August 12, 1985

Artificial Sweeteners

Description: This report discusses the artificial sweeteners have been a source of controversy in the U.S. for over 73 years. One of the factors driving these issues has been an interplay of a large consumer demand for low calorie sweeteners and controversy concerning certain safety standards set forth in the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA.
Date: July 12, 1985
Creator: Taylor, Sarah E

At-sea test validation data needed to verify the NOAA/DOE CWP Analytic Code

Description: Test data requirements are developed in this memorandum for the one-third scale Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) cold water pipe (CWP) at-sea tests. A major goal of the at-sea tests is to collect sufficient data so that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Department of Energy (DOE) CWP Analytic Code can be validated. The code is examined to determine the individual responses requiring verification. The wave environment is then considered for prototype survival and the scaled test. The expected response of the OTEC CWP test article in the test environment is used to form a basis of the test plan. Requirements for the tests of standard configurations of the OTEC CWP test system are first planned followed by requirements for tests of alternate configurations and evolutions. The final product is a set of justified NOAA/CWP analytic code validation requirements.
Date: March 12, 1980
Creator: Major, R. A.

Automobiles Imported from Japan

Description: In recent years, U.S. automotive imports from Japan have seen an increasing at an unusually rapid pace. Congress is considering measures that alleviate the situation and in June 1980 concurrently resolved to promote the competitiveness of U.S. industry in world automobile and truck markets. As a result of the restraint agreement, automobile imports from Japan dropped from 1.99 million units in 1980 to 1.91 million units in 1981 (calendar year).
Date: March 12, 1980
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.

Azimuthal energy flow in deep inelastic neutrino scattering

Description: Gluon emission and the transverse momentum (p/sub t/) of partons confined in nucleons were studied using deep-inelastic charged-current neutrino-nucleon interactions. For this analysis we use the flow of hadronic energy in the azimuthal direction around the momentum transfer referenced from the neutrino-muon scattering plane. A five standard deviation asymmetry was found. Analysis of this asymmetry indicates a (p/sub t/) of 0.35 +- 0.12 GeV/c if QCD corrections are included, and 0.56 +- 0.05 GeV/c if they are excluded. Some evidence was also observed for x dependence in p/sub t/. Data were taken at Fermilab in 1982 using a 200 ton (fiducial mass) fine grained calorimeter and a dichromatic neutrino beam.
Date: June 12, 1986
Creator: Mukherjee, A.; Bofill, J.; Busza, W.; Eldridge, T.F.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S. et al.

Beam-dump kicker magnets

Description: The beam-dump kicker magnets are located in the final focus region and, in conjunction with septum magnets, extract the beams after they have passed the interaction point (IP) and direct them to their respective dumps. Two schemes for these kickers have been under consideration; ferrite transmission line magnets utilizing technology common with damping rings and positron target kickers, and current loop magnets which are possible only for the dump kickers, where the rise time of the magnetic pulse can be comparatively longer; approximately 400 nanoseconds as compared with 50 nanoseconds for the others. A prototype ferrite kicker has been built and is undergoing tests. Since the current loop requires lower voltage and power plus some additional savings in cost, we decided to build and test a prototype. This note describes in detail an optimized design for the current loop magnets and their associated pulse circuitry.
Date: December 12, 1983
Creator: Bulos, F.; Odian, A. & Tomlin, B.

The Case for and Against an Import Surcharge

Description: The United States is now running a deficit of over $100 billion in its foreign trade and the Federal budget is in the red by roughly $200 billion. To deal with these two deficits, Congress is considering a temporary import surcharge. This brief examines the case for and against such a surcharge as well as its use against Japan.
Date: July 12, 1985
Creator: Reifman, Alfred

The Center of Gravity of the Endcap Calorimeters

Description: The purpose of this report is to show the results of enlarging the liquid argon vessel and moving the heavy supports by a varying magnitude less than or equal to 6 inches. In order to accomplish this, the center of gravity of the entire calorimeter had to be calculated, which includes: the center of gravity of the liquid argon vessel, the modules and the argon. Enlarging the cryostat for the endcap calorimeter and moving the rear supports along with it results in different load distributions on each support. By taking moments and finding these loads one can plot the loads on each support versus the enlargement of the cryostat and movement of the rear supports. This plot is shown in figures 2 and 3 for an empty and filled endcap respectively. The graph of weight vs. length of the vessel enlargement shows a significant decrease in the load that the heavy support experiences as the vessel gets larger, therefore the stress in the member decreases.
Date: February 12, 1986
Creator: Wintercorn, S.J.

Chemical-kinetic prediction of critical parameters in gaseous detonations

Description: A theoretical model including a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for hydrogen and hydrocarbon oxidation is used to examine the effects of variations in initial pressure and temperature on the detonation properties of gaseous fuel-oxidizer mixtures. Fuels considered include hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene. Induction lengths are computed for initial pressures between 0.1 and 10.0 atmospheres and initial temperatures between 200K and 500K. These induction lengths are then compared with available experimental data for critical energy and critical tube diameter for initiation of spherical detonation, as well as detonation limits in linear tubes. Combined with earlier studies concerning variations in fuel-oxidizer equivalence ratio and degree of dilution with N/sub 2/, the model provides a unified treatment of fuel oxidation kinetics in detonations. 4 figures, 1 table.
Date: January 12, 1982
Creator: Westbrook, C.K. & Urtiew, P.A.

Civil Defense and the Effects of Nuclear War

Description: This Info Pack contains material on nuclear weapons and on the anticipated physical, economic, and social consequences of nuclear attacks on the United States, basic information on the civil defense program, and material discussing some of the arguments, pro and con, surrounding the civil defense issues.
Date: March 12, 1982
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Coal-gasification-instrumentation program (PR 11734). Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

Description: Research programs involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman and infrared spectroscopy techniques to measure the concentrations of minority species in coal gasification streams are considered. Equipment modifications to improve the spectral quality (lower line widths), fundamental studies of spectral lines of gases of interest, detection limits and a study of possible interferences (including subtracting some of these) are presented. Some studies involve laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. This work involves two pulsed lasers and a timing system to introduce the appropriate delay. (LTN)
Date: January 12, 1982
Creator: None

Compositeness and QCD at the SSC

Description: Compositeness may be signaled by an increase in the production of high transverse momentum hadronic jet pairs or lepton pairs. The hadronic jet signal competes with the QCD production of jets, a subject of interest in its own right. Tests of perturbative QCD at the SSC will be of special interest because the calculations are expected to be quite reliable. Studies show that compositeness up to a scale of 20 to 35 TeV would be detected in hadronic jets at the SSC. Leptonic evidence would be discovered for scales up to 10 to 20 TeV. The charge asymmetry for leptons would provide information on the nature of the compositeness interaction. Calorimetry will play a crucial role in the detection of compositeness in the hadronic jet signal. Deviations from an e/h response of 1 could mask the effect. The backgrounds for lepton pair production seem manageable. 30 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: October 12, 1987
Creator: Barnes, V.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cahn, R.; Chivukula, S.; Ellis, S.; Freeman, J. et al.

Condensed draft action description memorandum for the decontamination and decommissioning of Battelle Columbus facilities

Description: Under provisions of the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), the US Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, proposes to provide funding for Surveillance and Maintenance (S & M) and subsequent Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) of fifteen facilities and associated premises belonging to Battelle Columbus Division. The fifteen facilities are contaminated as a result of nuclear research and development activities conducted over a period of approximately 43 years for DOE and its predecessor agencies--the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). The proposed action includes continuation of ongoing S & M as well as a D & D of the facilities. The S & M activities include a continued environmental monitoring program to maintain assurance that radioactive contamination has not escaped to the surrounding environment; regularly scheduled inspection and maintenance of health, safety, and radiation protection equipment and instrumentation; a program of health physics surveillance monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and equipment and instrumentation maintenance and calibration; and emergency planning, training, and drills. The so- called dismantlement D & D mode is the proposed alternative for D & D of these facilities. For the facilities in question this will generally involve dismantlement and/or removal of equipment; decontamination of building structures; and restoration of the buildings. The decontamination will reduce contamination to levels consistent with unrestricted use of the facilities.
Date: July 12, 1988

Condensed matter at high shock pressures

Description: Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Date: July 12, 1985
Creator: Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B. & Hamilton, D.

Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding and method for making same

Description: A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.
Date: May 12, 1981
Creator: Kenney, W.J.