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Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

Description: The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.
Date: April 11, 1980
Creator: Clifford, J E & Diegle, R B
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Determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 3 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

Description: Chemical degradation of aqueous glycol solutions was monitored during stagnant exposure at temperatures of 100 C and 180 C. Changes in corrosivity of the solutions toward alloys of construction in solar collectors were also determined. The solutions consisted of equivolume mixtures of reagent grade ethylene glycol and water, and propylene glycol and water. The water was either distilled/deionized, or a mildy corrosive solution containing 100 ppM each of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate ions. The solutions were exposed with and without contact with metals, these metals being unalloyed copper (CA 122), 1018 steel, and aluminum alloys 1100, 3003, and 6061. Either air or nitrogen was purged through the solutions at 100 C, whereas for solutions at 180 C the autoclave head space was filled with air or nitrogen prior to sealing the autoclave. Degradation was measured by noting changes in solution pH and accumulation of organic acids during prolonged elevated temperature exposures. Changes in corrosivity were measured in terms of weight loss, polarization resistance, and pit depth on metal coupons suspended in the solutions during exposure.
Date: April 11, 1980
Creator: Beavers, J A; Salmons, L A & Diegle, R B
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Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

Description: A series of carbonyl-based homogeneous catalyst precursors has been prepared. These species include: Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, S{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 6}, S{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 9}. Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3} was prepared by a combined photochemical and thermal route from triphenylphosphine (PPh{sub 3}) in iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO){sub 5}). This preparation procedure, which is selective to the monosubstituted product, is outlined herein. Currently these compounds are being tested as catalysts/catalyst precursors with coal or model compounds in the tubing bomb reactors to provide information relating catalytic activity to catalyst structure and properties. (VC)
Date: September 11, 1991
Creator: Klein, M.T.
open access

Detailed Stress Analysis of SM-1 Steam Generator Tube Sheet

Description: The detailed stress analysis of the SM-1 steam generator tube sheet showed it to be safe from strain cycling damage. However, the pressure stresses were greater than the yield strength during the hydrostatic test. The differential between pressure stresses and yield strength indicates that some initial deformation may have taken place in the tube sheet. (auth)
Date: July 11, 1962
Creator: Busuttil, J. J. & Chittum, R. A.
open access

Electric power monthly, October 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY]

Description: This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 63 tabs.
Date: October 11, 1991
open access

Mark I 1/5-scale boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment facility report

Description: An accurate Mark I /sup 1///sub 5/-scale, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressure suppression facility was designed and constructed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 11 months. Twenty-seven air tests using the facility are described. Cost was minimized by utilizing equipment borrowed from other LLL programs. The total value of borrowed equipment exceeded the program's budget of $2,020,000. Substantial flexibility in the facility was used to permit independent variation in the drywell pressure-time history, initial pressure in the drywell and toroidal wetwells, initial toroidal wetwell water level and downcomer length, vent line flow resistance, and vent line flow asymmetry. The two- and three-dimensional sectors of the toroidal wetwell provided significant data.
Date: October 11, 1977
Creator: Altes, R.G.; Pitts, J.H.; Ingraham, R.F.; Collins, E.K. & McCauley, E.W.
open access

The Nixon Doctrine for Asia

Description: This report provides an overview of the Nixon Doctrine for Asia (written in July 1969) and a discussion of its policies regarding communism in Asia and the Vietnam War.
Date: May 11, 1970
Creator: Niksch, Larry A.
open access

Report on United States Relations with Panama. 1977

Description: This report is about the Panama Canal, built and operated by the United States, slices the Republic of Panama in half and the relations between the United states and Panama.
Date: August 11, 1977
Creator: Morgan, Thomas E
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Developments in Cambodia Following the March 18 Coup

Description: This report discusses the March 18, 1970 coup in Cambodia by General Lon Nol which overthrew the government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk and subsequent fighting in Cambodia between Communist North Vietnamese troops and South Vietnamese troops which led to American intervention in the form of an attack on North Vietnamese bases in Cambodia in April and May of 1970.
Date: May 11, 1970
Creator: Niksch, Larry A.
open access

The National Commitments Resolution of 1969: Background and Issues

Description: This report discusses the National Commitments Act of 1969 which defined what a national commitment was and that they could only be undertaken with legislative consent not just a Presidential order. It was passed by the Senate in 1969. The legislative history of the bill is outlined in this report.
Date: May 11, 1970
Creator: Collier, Ellen C.
open access

Establishment and maintenance of a coal sample bank and data base

Description: In this Project Status Report for 7/9/89--10/8/89, results of a comparative study of coal sample deterioration in several container types were presented. In April 1990, one year after the initial analyses, the set of analyses was repeated on the most important container types. The new results are included in Table 2. During the current reporting period a total of 42 data printouts were distributed. In addition, 7 special data requests were fulfilled by either search/sort and printout or creation of a data disk, resulting in distribution of limited information on 2083 samples. Several preliminary requests for Sample Bank and Data Base information and price quotations have also been handled.
Date: July 11, 1990
Creator: Davis, A.
open access

LOFT primary system small usage pressure cycle

Description: Basis, definition, and determination of the LOFT primary system minor primary pressurization cycle are presented. Example pressure-time plots are given which illustrate recognition of the minor primary pressurization cycle during typical plant operations.
Date: August 11, 1977
Creator: Arendts, J.G.
open access

FAST-NEUTRON AND GAMMA SPECTRUM AND DOSE IN BERYLLIUM OXIDE

Description: Neutron and gamma penetrations through and behind BeO were measured. Neutron spectra measurements by threshold foil techniques indicated practically no change in the fast-neutron spectrum above 2.5 Mev in BeO. Thus, beryllium appears to lie in the transition region between the very light elements that harden a fission spectrum and the heavier elements that soften it. The ratio of fast-neutron fluxes below and above 2.5 Mev increased rapidly with distance through the BeO. Information indicated that the flux peaked at around 1.5 to 2.5 Mev. In this energy range the scattering cross section of beryllium goes through a minimum. Fast neutron dose measurements through BeO were compared with those calculated by the moments method. The removal cross section for BeO was determined from fast-neutron dose rates measured in the water behind the slabs. Gamma dose rates were measured through and be hind the BeO slabs with a carbon chamber. The gamma dose rate decreased with a relaxation length of about 11 cm near the source. The relaxation length increased with distance through BeO, indicating spectrum hardening. Gamma spectra were measured at intervals behind BeO slabs with a collimated sodium icdide crystal. The 6.8 and 3.41 Mev beryllium capture gamma rays became dominant as the distance through the BeO increased. Thermal flux was measured through and behind the BeO with both a fission chamber and gold foils. Thermal flux distributions for these tests were calculated by a multilevel diffusion code. The calculations differ from the experiment at large penetration distances through BeO. (auth)
Date: January 11, 1961
Creator: Klingensmith, R.W.; Jung, R.G.; Lindgren, W.A.; Epstein, H.M. & Chastain, J.W. Jr.
open access

Finite element analysis of the SDC barrel and endcap calorimeters

Description: In designing the SCD barrel and endcap calorimeters, the inter-module connecting forces must be known in order to determine the required size and number of connecting links between modules, and in order to understand how individual modules will be affected by these forces when assembled to form a full barrel and endcap. The connecting forces were found by analyzing three-dimensional Finite Element Models of both the barrel and endcap. This paper is divided into two parts, the first part will describe in detail the results of the barrel analysis and the second part will describe the results obtained from the endcap analysis. A similar approach was used in constructing the models for both analysis.
Date: March 11, 1992
Creator: Guarino, V.; Hill, N. & Nasiakta, J.
open access

Quadrupole mass-filter sensitivities of H/sub 2/, HD, D/sub 2/, and T/sub 2/, and the kinetics of. beta. -particle induced exchange between H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, and T/sub 2/ at 25. 4/sup 0/C

Description: We have constructed a quadrupole-mass filter system to measure the equilibrium constants and rates of reaction of the ..beta..-particle-induced exchanges between H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, and T/sub 2/ at cryogenic temperatures. Even with careful calibration experiments at 25.4/sup 0/C, we could not completely remove the mass discrimination inherent in our method. We estimate the accuracy of our mixture analyses to be +-2.2% in the D/sub 2/-DT-T/sub 2/ system, and +-9% in the H/sub 2/-HT-T/sub 2/ system. Preliminary kinetic experiments showed that the time to reach equilibrium in the exchange H/sub 2/ + T/sub 2/ = 2HT is 7 to 14 h. The equivalent time interval in the exchange D/sub 2/ + T/sub 2/ = 2DT is 3 to 7 h. This measured isotope effect of two can be used to predict the rates of the DT exchange from the HT rates in the literature.
Date: January 11, 1978
Creator: Pyper, J. W.; Kelly, E. M.; Magistad, J. G.; Tsugawa, R. T.; Roberts, P. E. & Souers, P. C.
open access

AIRBLAST OVERPRESSURE AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE OVER VARIOUS SURFACES

Description: Static overpressure and dynamic pressure versus time over surfaces processing different physical properties were measured on two tower shots, 6 and 12. On Shot 12, three surfaces were provided: the natural desert, a water surface consisting of a flooded area, and an asphalt surface. On Shot 6, desert and asphalt areas only were available. There were 123 channels of instrumentation installed for Shot 12, and 24 for Shot 6. From the data, a system of wave-form classification was devised for overpressure and dynamic-pressure- versus-time measurements. Incorporation of this system into data analysios indicates that it is possible for an ideal peak pressure to be identified with a nonideal wave form. Introducing both variables, wave form and peak pressure, into analyses reduces ambiguioties associoated with comparing results of different nuclear tests. The data show the effect of the nature of the surface upon airblast phenomena from a nuclear explosion. The effects of surface conditions upon shock phenomena are made more understandable by a review of temperature computatioons, using shock wave parameters in addition to an analysis based upon the arrioval time of the thermal pulse. A phenomenological discussion of precursor formation is presented, and comparisons are made using data from all known precursor-forming nuclear shots. Two Shot 12 dragforce measurements on the H Beams are presented and discussed. (auth)
Date: September 11, 1957
Creator: Sachs, D. C.; Swift, L. M. & Sauer, F. M.
open access

Multi-temperature gas chromatography using isothermal columns in series. Technical report

Description: A computer-controlled three-oven gas chromatograph having a multi-position stream-switching valve has been used first to divide a wide-boiling mixture of n-alkanes into three cuts and then to fractionate each cut using a packed column at a different temperature. After initial injection of the sample into the highest temperature column, the low boilers were switched to a low temperature oven. Then, the mid-boilers were switched to a column at an intermediate temperature. For routine repetitive analyses, the multi-oven approach offers an attractive alternative.
Date: August 11, 1980
Creator: Spencer, W. A. & Rogers, L. B.
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