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Single particle behavior in plasmas

Description: The paper follows the history of a neutral atom or molecule into a plasma--ionization, dissociation, radiation,--until it becomes a set of charged particles moving in the electromagnetic fields of the plasma system. The various useful forms of the method of averaging are displayed and applied to calculation of constants of motion. The breakdown of these constants is discussed along with some of the implications for fusion systems.
Date: March 10, 1977
Creator: McNamara, B.
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Analysis of Paraho oil shale products and effluents: an example of the multi-technique approach

Description: Inorganic analysis of solid, liquid and gaseous samples from the Paraho Semiworks Retort was completed using a multitechnique approach. The data were statistically analyzed to determine both the precision of each method and to see how closely the various techniques compared. The data were also used to determine the redistribution of 31 trace and major elements in the various effluents, including the offgas for the Paraho Retort operating in the direct mode. The computed mass balances show that approximately 1% or greater fractions of the As, Co, Hg, N, Ni, S and Se are released during retorting and redistributed to the product shale oil, retort water or product offgas. The fraction for these seven elements ranged from almost 1% for Co and Ni to 50 to 60% for Hg and N. Approximately 20% of the S and 5% of the As and Se are released. The mass balance redistribution during retorting for Al, Fe, Mg, V and Zn was observed to be no greater than .05%. These redistribution figures are generally in agreement with previous mass balance studies made for a limited number of elements on laboratory or smaller scale pilot retorts. 7 tables.
Date: June 10, 1979
Creator: Fruchter, J. S.; Wilkerson, C. L.; Evans, J. C. & Sanders, R. W.
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Supporting Analysis for Thermal Suitability of Fuel Elements for SM-1A Core I Loading

Description: A recommended SM-1A Core I loading chart was derived from available, metallurgically acceptable elements at the SM-1A and SM-1 sites. The derivation was based on local thermal and hydraulic considerations of minimum elementto- element coolant channel clearances. These clearances were determined from field inspection measurements of outer fuel plate spacing, as modified by analytical calculations of plate ripple growth during exposure to reactor operating thermal stresses. (auth)
Date: January 10, 1962
Creator: Brondel, J. O.
open access

Extracted current densities from surface conversion sources of negative ions

Description: The condition for extracting a maximum negative ion current density is found when the product of the radius of the negative ion conversion electrode, the cross-section for negative and positive ion recombination, and the density of positive ions in the ion source equals one. The optimum output is obtained at the highest positive ion density and the smallest electrode radius.
Date: February 10, 1982
Creator: Fink, J.H.
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SOME EXPERIENCES IN THE WELD FABRICATION OF REFRACTORY METALS

Description: Discussion is given on the welding fabrication of tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, and tantalum. Properties which make the four refractory metals important are tabulatcd along with titanium which is given for comparison. Extensive evaluation was conducted using the gas, tungsten arc welding process employing both manual and machine welding. Design data were obtained exclusively from machine welded sheet materials. Flash welding, resistance spot welding and brazing, electron beam welding, and high frequency resistance welding processes were also applied to molybdenum alloys. The oxidation of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium in flowing air at 2000 deg F is also given. (P.C.H.)
Date: February 10, 1961
Creator: Thompson, E.G.
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Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

Description: Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with pure electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential, in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: mission analysis and performance specification studies; design tradeoff studies; and preliminary design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report. A fourth task, sensitivity studies, is also included in the report on the design tradeoff studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and results, the body of this report has been prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.
Date: September 10, 1979
open access

Experimental device for measuring the momentum of disperse granular materials

Description: An experimental device for measuring the time averaged momentum associated with a steady stream of a disperse granular material has been developed. The mathematical basis for the device is presented including a discussion of using the momentum measurement to compute the local mass or energy fluxes. The analysis considers both nonuniform particle mass and nonuniform velocities for the various constituents of an aggregate material. The results of calibration experiments conducted with a prototype transducer are shown with theoretical predictions of these results.
Date: February 10, 1982
Creator: Watling, H.E. & Griffiths, S.K.
open access

HANFORD STUDIES FOR EGCR COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS. Summary Report

Description: The temperature, geometry, and flow conditions which exist in the EGCR were duplicated in a mock-up designated as the EGCR Burning Rig to establish the combustion conditions in the reactor. The conditions under which the EGCR Burning Rig will ignite were established and an analytical model was developed which predicts these conditions. Because the Burning Rig cannot exactly dupIicate the reactor situation the final prediction of the safety of the EGCR must rest on computer calculations employing the above analytical model. No advantage in retarding combustion was found in using silicon carbide coated fuel sleeves. The negative results of these tests are due both to the particular geometry of the EGCR moderator and sleeves as well as to the fact that all sleeves tested contained imperfections in the coatings. Chlorine was demonstrated to be an effective agent for extinguishing graphite fires. Concentrations in air of about 1% were observed to extinguish graphite fires at temperatures as high as 1000 deg C. (auth)
Date: October 10, 1961
Creator: de Halas, D.R.; Dahl, R.E. & Jackson, J.L.
open access

Tar sand extraction by steam stimulation and steam drive: measurement of physical properties

Description: The measurement of the following thermophysical properties of Utah tar sands is in progress: thermal conductivity, specific heat relative permeability, and viscosity (of the recovered bitumen). During the report period (October 1, 1978 to November 1, 1979), experimental procedures have been developed and a basic data set has been measured. Additionally, standard core analysis has been performed for four drill sites in the Asphalt Ridge, Utah area.
Date: September 10, 1980
Creator: Linberg, W.R.
open access

Delayed Failure Hydrogen Embrittlement of Zirconium. Summary Report, September 15, 1961 to September 14, 1962

Description: The extent to which zirconium and zirconium alloys exhibit delayed failure (static fatigue) as caused by a combination of absorbed hydrogen and applied stress was investigated. Susceptibility to time-dependent fracture was evaluated for unalloyed zirconium and Zircaloy-2 with 200 and 500 ppm hydrogen as well as for an experimental Zr Al-Sn-Mo alloy and the Canadian Zr-2.5Nb cladding material. For unalloyed zirconium and Zircaloy-2 containing up to 500 ppm hydrogen, no room-temperature, timedependent fracture occurred which could be definitely attributed to the delayed failure phenomenon; an increased grain size, 20% cold deformation by rolling, or corrosion in 750 deg F steam did not significantly affect this behavior. The curve of applied stress versus time to failure at room temperature for the high-strength Zr-Al-Sn--Mo alloy containing 500 ppm hydrcgen established a strong susceptibility to delayed failure due to hydrogen absorption; studies on vacuum-annealed material showed no failures. Further, reduced temperature indicated that the occurrence of static fatigue is temperature dependent. Data for heattreated Zr 2.5Nb containing 500 ppm hydrogen indicated that this material is moderately sensitive to delayed failure at room temperature; higher hydrogen contents caused a greatly increased susceptibility to time-dependent fracture. (auth)
Date: October 10, 1962
Creator: Weinstein, D. & Holtz, F. C.
open access

THE RECOVERY OF FISSION PRODUCT RARE EARTH SULFATES FROM PUREX 1WW

Description: Cerium- and 144 promethium-147, accompanied by rare earths resulting from fission or decay can be removed from Purex 1WW in>90% yield as an insoluble, crystalline sodium-rare earth double sulfate. Precipitation is initiated by a one-to-three hour equilibration at 90 deg C and centrifugation at 90 deg C to take advantage of the lower solubility of the double sulfate salt at a higher temperature. The sulfate concentration should be one molar and the solution pH at the time of precipitation should be 0.5 to 1.5. The addition of tartrate ion to complex the iron allows the use of a higher pH and sulfate concentration, gives a more complete separation from iron, and a quantitative recovery of the rare earths. The double sulfate precipitate can be dissolved in dilute nitric acid or converted to the carbonate and then dissolved to yield a solution for further processing. The double sulfate precipitation of the rare earths, with tartrate added, gives a good separation from impurities. One-cycle decontamination factors of 150 for Zr-Nb and 1100 for Ru-Rh have been achieved in laboratory tests. Tests in the Purex head-end equipment with up to twomegacurie batches of cerium have corroborated the laboratory results. Decontamination factors of 70 for iron, 10 for zirconium, 20 for niobium and 25 for ruthenium have been obtained. It was found wise to limit the batch size because decay heat leads to partial calcination in the centrifuge and to difficulty in redissolution. (auth)
Date: May 10, 1961
Creator: Wheelwright, E.J. & Swift, W.H.
open access

REACTIVITY CALIBRATIONS AND FISSION-RATE DISTRIBUTIONS IN AN UNMODERATED, UNREFLECTED URANIUM-MOLYBDENUM ALLOY RESEARCH PROGRAM

Description: Completion of zero-power critical experiments with the ORNL Health Physics Research Reactor is reported. A description is given concerning these experiments which were used to determine the critical size, fission-rate distributions, reactivity calibrations of its movable parts, the temperature coefficient of reactivity, and the reactivity effects of the presence of neutron- reflecting materials adjacent to the reactor. (J.R.D.)
Date: May 10, 1962
Creator: Mihalczo, J.T.
open access

Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary]

Description: This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner's acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.
Date: October 10, 1991
open access

Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component test report for the ground demonstration system accumulator. 77-KIPS-100

Description: The purpose of this test was to demonstrate that the system accumulator for the developmental program to be conducted on the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) fulfilled the requirements of the test procedure (TP 400) test objectives. The results of the expulsion testing performed on the system accumulator are presented.
Date: October 10, 1977
Creator: Brainard, E.L.
open access

LOADING AND ELUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES

Description: The cation exchange characteristics of several commercially available zeolites were evaluated, Equilibrium loading characteristics and exchange capacities were determined experimentally in the binary systems cesium-lithium, cesium-- sodium, cesium--potassium, cesium-Tubidium, cesium -- hydrogen, cesium-- ammonium, strontium-- magnesium, strontium-- calcium, strontium-- barium, and strontium-- hydrogen for several zeolites. Exchangeable cation fractions in the equilibrium solutions were varied from 0.2 to 0.00001, while the total normality of the system constituents was held constant. Results were plotted as equivalent fraction of the traced cation on the zeolite at equilibrium vs. the fraction of traced cation remaining in the equilibrium solution. If an influent composition is known, and falls in the system listed above, zeolite column loading may be read directly in univalent-univalent or divalent-divalent systems. However, in the strontium-sodium or strontium-- hydrogen systems, a k value must be used because squared terms appear in the equilibrium expression as follows: 2 Na- zeolite plus or minus Sr-solution in equilibrium 2 Nasolution + Sr-zeolite, or k = (Sr-zeolite)(Na-solution)/ (Na-zeolite)2(Sr-solution). The k for a given cation is a function of zeolite loading with that cation. Several column 50% loading capacities were determined to randomly test the validity of the above curves to predict column capacities, Several columns loaded with known amounts of cesium and strontium radioisotopes were heated to 800 deg C for 24 hours to simulate a zeolite packaging dehydration cycle. Losses of cesium and strontium activity during the 24-hr period were determined. Elution of the remaining activity on the columns was accomplished with various eluting agents including dilute HNO/sub 3/, NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, CaCl/sub 2/ and La(NO/su b 3/)/sub 3/, and elution curves were calculated. (auth)
Date: August 10, 1962
Creator: Ames, L.L. Jr. & Knoll, K.C.
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Progress in development of low density polymer foams for the ICF Program

Description: This report describes the status of CH foam development with densities of 50 mg/ccs and cell sizes of 1 ..mu..m for the ICF Program. Two approaches that both involve polymer phase separation are being investigated. The first involves a gelation-crystallization of high molecular weight polyethylene from solution, whereas the second approach involves the modification of the phase separation morphology of water-styrene emulsions by molecularly-tailored surfactants followed by polymerization of the continuous styrene phase.
Date: June 10, 1985
Creator: Letts, S.A.; Lucht, L.M.; Morgan, R.J.; Cook, R.C.; Tillotson, T.M.; Mercer, M.B. et al.
open access

RLPORINC: the RELAP4/MOD5 interface to ORINC

Description: The Oak Ridge Inverse code, ORINC, calculates the temperature distribution in an electric core pin from internal temperatures and the conditions in the surrounding environment. While the internal temperatures can be obtained from thermocouples in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility, the needed environmental conditions cannot be determined as directly from experimental data. However, this information can be determined from a modified version of the Reactor Linearized Analysis Program, RELAP. In particular, the IBM form of RELAP/MOD5 UPDATE2, as released by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, was modified to save the proper information in a convenient format. This document describes this RELAP-to-ORINC interface version of RELAP4 which has been named RLPORINC.
Date: January 10, 1978
Creator: Cliff, S.B.
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