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ADDENDUM I : HENRYS LAW CONSTANTS OF OH AND HO2.

Description: The Henry's law type constants of OH and HO{sub 2} have not been experimentally determined for obvious reasons: it is extremely difficult to measure the concentrations of these reactive species in either the gas phase or the aqueous phase, let alone simultaneously in both phases. At a more fundamental level, because these radicals react rapidly in both phases, compared with mass-transfer rates characterizing typical laboratory multi-phase systems, the gas-liquid equilibrium which is necessary for such measurements to be feasible is typically not attainable. Consequently, the Henry's law constants of these radicals are traditionally evaluated from the free energy of solution, {Delta}{sub sol}G{sup 0}(X) accompanying the process of transferring a molecule X from the gas phase, denoted g, to the aqueous phase, a, i.e. X{sub g} {rightleftharpoons} X{sub a} (9.10); using the equation {Delta}{sub sol}G{sup o}(X) = -RT ln k{sub H} (9.11); {Delta}{sub sol}G{sup o}(X) is defined as {Delta}{sub sol}G{sup o}(X) = {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o}(X){sub a} - {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o}(X){sub g} (9.12) where the free energies of formation of X in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase are typically evaluated using thermochemical cycles.
Date: May 23, 2003
Creator: Lee, Y. N.

Agriculture--Industry of the Future

Description: This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' Agriculture Industry of the Future, a partnership between the Department of Energy and the agriculture industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.
Date: January 23, 2001

Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 2

Description: This special issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the Fifth National Clean Cities Conference held in Louisville, Kentucky. The momentum for the program is stronger than ever and the coalitions are working to propel the alternative fuel industry forward.
Date: September 23, 1999

Aluminum--Industry of the Future

Description: This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' Aluminum Industry of the Future; a partnership between the Department of Energy and the aluminum industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.
Date: January 23, 2001

BestPractices--Industries of the Future

Description: This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' BestPractices initiative, which helps manufacturers implement energy and cost saving technologies and practices that are available today.
Date: January 23, 2001

Biofuels for sustainable transportation

Description: Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.
Date: May 23, 2000
Creator: Neufeld, S.

Building America Developments Informational Bulletin (No. 3, February 2001)

Description: This document is one in a series of information bulletins about the Building America program, member teams, and current projects. This bulletin highlights the construction completed in Atlanta, Georgia, and will focus on the projects related to the International Builders' Show.
Date: January 23, 2001
Creator: Anderson, J.

Chemicals--Industry of the Future

Description: This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' Chemicals Industry of The Future, a partnership between the Department of Energy and the chemicals industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.
Date: January 23, 2001

Combustion--Industry of the Future

Description: This 8-page brochure describes the OIT's Combustion initiative, a research and development program that works with manufacturers to increase the energy efficiency of heat-delivery systems.
Date: January 23, 2001

Excellence in biotechnology for fuels and chemicals

Description: The Biotechnology Center for Fuels and Chemicals (BCFC) leads a national effort, in cooperation with industry, to develop innovative, market-driven biotechnologies for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. The BCFC researchers focus on using bioprocesses to convert renewable biomass feedstocks into valuable products.
Date: April 23, 1999
Creator: Neufeld, S.

First regional super ESPC a success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

Description: The Coast Guard military base on Kodiak Island, Alaska, is the largest Coast Guard base in the world. By taking a leadership role in a pilot program to streamline Federal financing and procurement for energy saving projects, the Coast Guard is saving more than $220,000 a year in energy costs at this base. Using the Super ESPC (Energy Savings Performance Contracting) program, the Coast Guard was able to quickly contract with an experienced contractor with energy savings expertise. Working with ERI, one of FEMP's (Federal Energy Management Program) approved energy services contractors, the Coast Guard determined areas of potential energy savings and designed a retrofit to upgrade inefficient equipment and infrastructure. When energy-efficient modifications are complete, the base will be 30% more cost effective.
Date: December 23, 2000
Creator: Epstein, K.

Glass--Industry of the Future

Description: This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' Glass Industry of The Future; a partnership between the Department of Energy and the glass industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.
Date: January 23, 2001

High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

Description: It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 {micro}m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis are familiar to laboratory diffractionists. This is reflected in the fact that ...
Date: April 23, 1999
Creator: Cox, D. E.

Metal Casting--Industry of the Future

Description: This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies Metal Casting Industry of The Future; a partnership between the Department of Energy and the metal casting industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.
Date: January 23, 2001

Petroleum--Industry of the Future

Description: This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' Petroleum Industry of The Future, a partnership between the Department of Energy and the petroleum refining industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.
Date: January 23, 2001