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Experimental and Analytical Study of the Sputtering Phenomena

Description: An experimental apparatus was constructed to examine the heat-transfer characteristics of a sputtering front. In the present study, a heat source of sufficient intensity was located immediately below the sputtering front, which prevented its downward progress, thus permitting detailed measurements of steady-state surface temperatures throughout a sputtering front. A two-dimensional analytical model was developed to describe a stationary sputtering front where the wet-dry interface corresponds to a CHF phenomena and the dry zone is adiabatic. This model is nonlinear because of the temperature dependence of the heat-transfer coefficient in the wetted region and has yielded good agreement with data. A simplified one-dimensional approximation was developed which adequately describes these data. Finally, by means of a coordinate transformation and additional simplifying assumptions, this analysis was extended to analyze moving sputtering fronts, and reasonably good agreement with reported data was shown.
Date: March 1976
Creator: Howard, Paul A.

Experimental Study of the Neutronics of the First Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Benchmark Assembly (GCFR Phase 1 Assembly)

Description: The Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) Phase I Assembly is the first in a series of ZPR-9 critical assemblies designed to provide a reference set of reactor physics measurements in support of the 300 MW(e) GCFR Demonstration Plant designed by General Atomic Company. The Phase I Assembly was the first complete mockup of a GCFR core ever built. A set of basic reactor physics measurements were performed in the assembly to characterize the neutronics of the assembly and assess the impact of the neutron streaming on the various integral parameters. The analysis of the experiments was carried out using ENDF/B-IV based data and two-dimensional diffusion theory methods. The Benoist method of using directional diffusion coefficients was used to treat the anisotropic effects of neutron streaming within the framework of diffusion theory. Calculated predictions of most integral parameters in the GCFR showed the same kinds of agreements with experiment as in earlier LMFBR assemblies.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Bhattacharyya, S. K.

Explosive Interaction of Molten UO2 and Liquid Sodium

Description: The interim report presented describes a continuation of the work reported in ANL-7890, Interaction of Sodium with Molten Uranium dioxide and Stainless Steel Using a Dropping Mode of Contact. In the current study, sodium was injected into a pool of molten uranium dioxide. The experiment consistently produced vapor explosions, both with the injection nozzle above and beneath the surface of the uranium dioxide. Although the efficiency of the conversion of thermal to mechanical energy was small (due in part to very conservative data analysis and an inefficient geometry), the results did demonstrate that there is no intrinsic reason why reactor materials cannot produce a vapor explosion.
Date: March 1976
Creator: Armstrong, D. R.; Goldfuss, G. T. & Gebner, R. H.

Final Report on Test L4, a Loss-of-Flow Experiment

Description: The behavior of FTR-type, mixed-oxide, pre-irradiated "high-power-structure" fuel during a simulation of an FTR loss-of-flow accident was studied in the Mark-IIA integral TREAT loop. Analysis of the data leads to a postulated scenario (sequence and timing) of events in this test. This scenario is presented, together with the calculated timing of events obtained by use of SAS code.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Eberhart, James G.; Lo, R. & Barts, E. W.

Final Report on the Small-Scale Vapor-Explosion Experiments Using a Molten NaCl-H2O System

Description: Vapor explosions were produced by injecting small quantities of water into a container filled with molten sodium chloride. Minimum explosion efficiencies, as evaluated from reaction-impulse measurements, were relatively large. Subsurface movies showed that the explosions resulted from a two-step sequence: an initial bulk-mixing phase in which the two liquids intermix on a large scale, but remain locally separated by an insulating gas-vapor layer; and a second step, immediately following breakdown of the gas layer, during which the two liquids locally fragment, intermix, and pressurize very rapidly. The experimental results were compared with various mechanistic models that had been proposed to explain vapor explosions. Early models seemed inconsistent with the results. More recent theories suggest that vapor explosions may be caused by a nucleation limit or by dynamic mixing combined with high surface-heat-transfer rates. Both types of models are consistent with the results.
Date: April 1976
Creator: Anderson, R. P. & Bova, L.

Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) : Upgrading of Plant Protection System, Volume 1

Description: This report is a compilation of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA's) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum that have been prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant protection system. Each major section is an edited version of the original FSAA for a particular modification and provides a description of the pre - and post -modification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis.
Date: March 1976
Creator: Sackett, J. I. & Gale, N. L.

Final Summary Report of Fuel-Dynamics Tests H2 and E4

Description: Results of two failure experiments using LMFBR-type fuel during simulated unprotected transient overpower accidents are reported and analyzed. In both experiments, a single fresh fuel pin in a Mark0IIA loop was subjected to a temperature-limited, step-reactivity irradiation in the TREAT reactor. Total energy was 490 MJ in Test H2 and in Test E4.
Date: 1976
Creator: Doerner, R. C.; Rothman, A. B.; De Volpi, A.; Dickerman, Charles Edward; Deitrich, L. W.; Stahl, D. et al.

Finite-Element Analysis of a Thick-Wall Tube Containing a Crater-Like Surface Flaw

Description: A three-dimensional finite-element elastic analysis is carried out for a thick-wall tube (as sued in typical LMFBR steam generators) that contains a surface flaw in the form of a paraboloid of revolution. Effects of the depth and aspect ratio of the flaw on the stress distribution and stress concentration in the tube are explored.
Date: June 1976
Creator: Majumdar, S.

The First Spectrum of Hafnium (HF I)

Description: Report continuing W. K. Meggers' previous analysis in LS-coupling. This coupling is not rigorous in Hf I, and many intervals are irregular. Consequently, the levels are given also in numerical order with the even and odd levels presented in separate tables. The long line lists are given in two Appendices: Appendix A contains the observed Zeeman data for the individual lines, 531 in all; Appendix B consists of the complete line list of observed and classified lines. By far the greater part of the analysis is that of Meggers.
Date: July 1976
Creator: Meggers, William F. & Moore, Charlotte E.

Fission-Product Releases to the Primary System of EBR-II, January 1974-March 1975

Description: Seven releases of fission products occurred in EBR-II from January 1974 to March 1975 - - five from mixed-oxide elements and two from sodium-bonded driver-fuel elements. Four releases were from elements that contained a xenon tag, which aided considerably in locating three of the elements; data from the fourth element allowed estimation of changes of tag composition with reactor exposure. Rapid release of fission from two breached mixed-oxide elements caused the reactor to trip because of increased delayed-neutron activity, the first time such behavior has been observed. Identification of a subassembly of Mark-1A driver-fuel elements was complicated by multiple failure of its untagged elements during the diagnosis period. Several of these elements had some exposed fuel in the core, which was the likely cause of increasing delayed-neutron signals from the subassembly.
Date: October 1976
Creator: So, B. Y. C.; Lambert, J. D. B.; Johnson, D. L.; Ebersole, E. R. & Brunson, G. S.

Floods in New York, 1972, with Special Reference to Tropical Storm Agnes

Description: From introduction: Flooding and flood damage in New York during the calendar year 1972 are summarized in this report. The report was prepared at the request of the New York State Department of Transportation under provisions of an agreement between the department and the U.S. Geological Survey for a cooperative, statewide program to investigate the water resources of the State.
Date: January 1976
Creator: Robison, F. Luman

FORTIO: a FORTRAN I/O Interface

Description: A set of OS/370 Basic Assembly Language programs is described which provides a FORTRAN IV interface with OS/370 Macros.
Date: April 1976
Creator: Shalla, L.

Fuel Dynamics Loss-of-Flow Test L3 : Final Report

Description: The behavior of FTR-type, mixed-oxide, pre-irradiated, ''intermediate-power-structure'' fuel during a simulation of an FTR loss-of-flow accident was studied in the Mark-IIA integral TREAT loop. Analysis of the data reported here leads to a postulated scenario (sequence and timing) of events in the test. This scenario is presented, together with the calculated timing of events obtained by use of the SAS code.
Date: June 1976
Creator: Fischer, A. K.; Lo, R. K. & Barts, E. W.

Gasification of Chars Produced Under Simulated in situ Processing Conditions

Description: This effort is being directed toward support studies for the national endeavor on in situ coal gasification. This task involves the investigation of reaction-controlling variables and product distributions for the gasification of both coals and chars utilizing steam and oxygen. Included in this task is the investigation of the effects of using brackish water as the water supply. The high-pressure char gasification system has been received from the manufacturer and is currently undergoing testing. The types of experiments that would be most useful in their studies have been discussed with two of the three laboratories carrying out field tests of in-situ gasification.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Fischer, J.; Lo, R.; Young, J. & Jonke, A. A.

Gasification of Chars Produced Under Simulated in situ Processing Conditions Quarterly Report: April-June 1976

Description: This effort is being directed toward support studies for the national endeavor on in situ coal gasification. This task involves the investigation of reaction-controlling variables and product distributions for the gasification of both coals and chars utilizing steam and oxygen. Included in this task is the investigation of the effects of using brackish water as the water supply. The high-pressure char gasification system has been received from the manufacturer and is currently undergoing testing. The types of experiments that would be most useful in their studies have been discussed with two of the three laboratories carrying out field tests of in-situ gasification.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Fischer, J.; Lo, R.; Young, J. & Jonke, A. A.

Gasification of Chars Produced Under Simulated in situ Processing Conditions Quarterly Report: January-March 1976

Description: This effort is being directed toward support studies for the national endeavor on in situ coal gasification. This task involves the investigation of reaction-controlling variables and product distributions for the gasification of both coals and chars utilizing steam and oxygen. Included in this task is the investigation of the effects of using brackish water as the water supply. The high-pressure char gasification system has been received from the manufacturer and is currently undergoing testing. The types of experiments that would be most useful in their studies have been discussed with two of the three laboratories carrying out field tests of in-situ gasification.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Fischer, J.; Lo, R.; Young, J. & Jonke, A. A.

Gasification of Chars Produced Under Simulated in situ Processing Conditions Quarterly Report: October-December 1975

Description: This effort is being directed toward support studies for the national endeavor on in situ coal gasification. This task involves the investigation of reaction-controlling variables and product distributions for the gasification of both coals and chars utilizing steam and oxygen. Included in this task is the investigation of the effects of using brackish water as the water supply. The high-pressure char gasification system has been received from the manufacturer and is currently undergoing testing. The types of experiments that would be most useful in their studies have been discussed with two of the three laboratories carrying out field tests of in-situ gasification.
Date: 1976
Creator: Fischer, J.; Lo, R.; Young, J. & Jonke, A. A.

Geohydrology of the Anza-Terwilliger Area, Riverside County, California

Description: The Anza-Terwilliger area consists of about 96 square miles (24-9 square kilometers) in the upper parts of the Santa Margarita River and Coyote Creek drainage basins in Riverside County, Calif., about 90 miles (145 kilometers) southeast of Los Angeles. This report deals with geology, steady state and transient state of ground water, net depletion of ground water, surface-water flow, precipitation, chemistry of water, land and water use, and gravity data for the Anza-Terwilliger area. The data indicate that the rate of ground-water depletion ha's accelerated since 1950. Pumping depressions adjacent to the Cahuilla Indian Reservation have increased the hydraulic gradient and are.causing water beneath the reservation to flow toward these depressions. Total depletion of ground water since 1950 is about 14,000 acre-feet (17.3 cubic hectometers). Chemical analyses indicate that the ground water in local areas contains concentrations of nitrate above that recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for human consumption.
Date: March 1976
Creator: Moyle, W. R., Jr.

Geology and Ground-Water Resources of Camden County, New Jersey

Description: From introduction: The purpose of this investigation is to collect and interpret the basic hydrologic and geologic data and to appraise and report on the ground-water resources of Camden County. The objectives were to define the thickness and areal extent of the hydrologic units, evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifers, determine the effect of pumpage on the water levels of the area, define the source of recharge of the aquifers, and to evaluate the chemical quality of the ground water.
Date: June 1976
Creator: Farlekas, George M.; Nemickas, Bronius & Gill, Harold E.

Germanium-Lithium Argon Scanning System (GLASS) : Design and Experience Through 1974

Description: The germanium-lithium argon scanning system (GLASS) was installed in EBR-II to monitor and analyze the gamma activity of the reactor cover gas and the reactor building air. GLASS has the capability to identify and measure 20 or more gamma peaks. Applied to the reactor cover gas, this capability has proven useful in identifying the source of fission-gas leakage from fuel elements. The gamma-peak data can clearly distinguish a carbide-fuel source from an oxide-fuel source and can often help distinguish and oxide-fuel source from a metallic-fuel source.
Date: July 1976
Creator: Brunson, G. S.

Ground Water in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico

Description: From introduction: A post-drought analysis of the sources of water supply for the metropolitan area indicated a need for better knowledge of the ground-water resources. A study was implemented through the cooperative water-resources investigation program between Commonwealth agencies of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Geological Survey.
Date: July 1976
Creator: Anderson, Henry R.