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Hazards Ahead: Managing Cleanup Worker Health and Safety at the Nuclear Weapons Complex

Description: This paper concludes that, thus far, Department of Energy has (DOE) and its contractors have devoted little attention to cleanup worker health and safety. They have not convinced workers and managers that a “new culture” of accountability in environment, safety, and health is truly ascendent.
Date: February 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Health Care Technology and Its Assessment in Eight Countries

Description: This paper discusses the experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom—technology assessment with six technologies (or sets of technologies) including evaluation and management efforts and how the technologies diffused— are presented and compared.
Date: February 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

High Performance Computing and Networking for Science

Description: This background paper explores key issues concerning the Federal role in supporting national high performance computing facilities and in developing a national research and education network.
Date: September 1989
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Hip Fracture Outcomes in People Age 50 and Over

Description: This background paper is one of four documents resulting from OTA’s study of policy issues in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Hospital Financing in Seven Countries

Description: This report discusses a seven-country study of hospital financing is an attempt to find lessons for the United States. The individual experiences over the past decade of the United States and six of its international peers—Canada, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden—in hospital financing and payment systems are reviewed by experts in each country.
Date: May 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Identifying and Controlling Immunotoxic Substances

Description: This background paper, which describes the state-of the- art of identifying substances that can harm the immune system, represents one response to the committee’s request. Chapter 2 provides basic information about the principal components of the immune system and the general consequences that stem from perturbations to it. Chapter 3 describes methods for evaluating chemical immunotoxicity and reports on some known or suspected immunotoxicants. Chapter 4 summarizes Federal research and regulatory activities related to immunotoxicity.
Date: April 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Identifying and Controlling Pulmonary Toxicants

Description: This Background Paper examines whether the agencies responsible for administering Federal environmental and health and safety laws have taken this concern for respiratory health to heart. This paper provides a partial response to the committees’ request for an assessment of noncancer health risks in the environment and follows OTA’s previous work on carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and immunotoxic substances.
Date: June 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Impact of Legal Reforms on Medical Malpractice Costs

Description: This report discusses the indirect cost of medical malpractice, commonly referred to as “defensive medicine,” that may add to overall health care costs. The cost of defensive medicine remains unknown and is subject to much speculation because there are no sound empirical data.
Date: September 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Improving the Prospects for Future International Peace Operations: Workshop Proceedings

Description: In June 1995, OTA convened a workshop that brought together some of the world’s leading practitioners, academic experts, experienced diplomats, and leading technologists in order to study and discuss this issue. This report contains a summary of the results of the workshop, along with the original papers presented.
Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

International Comparisons of Administrative Costs in Health Care

Description: This paper examines what is known about administrative costs in the health care systems of the United States and several other countries. In addition to exploring the types of activities that constitute health care administration, it reviews studies that measure and compare these activities in different countries, and it explores the potential usefulness of such comparisons.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

International Health Statistics: What the Numbers Mean for the United States

Description: This paper reviews how the United States compares with other developed countries on available health status measures, evaluates the validity of the data used to make such comparisons, and describes how international comparisons might be interpreted in the context of health care reform.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Issues in Medical Waste Management

Description: The paper examines the adequacy of current medical waste disposal practices and the potential for human health impacts to occur as a result of such practices. It also addresses the need for additional research and databases, and discusses probable trends in future costs and capacity as new regulations are adopted around the country. Finally, the paper considers the possible need for further Federal involvement in regulating the handling, treatment, storage, and disposal of medical wastes.
Date: October 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Lessons in Restructuring Defense Industry: The French Experience

Description: This background paper first describes the structure and management of the French defense-industrial base and then reviews a variety of strategies the French Government and industry are pursuing to rationalize the base, while preserving key technological assets and strengthening the competitive position of French defense contractors in world markets.
Date: June 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Long-Lived Legacy: Managing High-Level and Transuranic Waste at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex

Description: This report describes, documents, and analyzes available data about two key waste management problems at the Department of Energy Weapons Complex—those of high-level radioactive waste and transuranic waste. The paper is organized in two chapters—” Chapter 1: Managing High Level Waste’ and ‘Chapter 2: Managing Transuranic Waste. ” Each chapter contains a summary overview followed by a discussion and analysis of important areas in the waste management problem that the DOE faces at present and in its future operations.
Date: May 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

The Lower Tiers of the Space Transportation Industrial Base

Description: This background paper was prompted by a workshop held at OTA in early March 1995, at which a small group, representing a broad cross-section of lower-tier firms, discussed their views of the space transportation industry.
Date: August 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Managing Industrial Solid Wastes From Manufacturing, Mining, Oil and Gas Production, and Utility Coal Combustion

Description: This background paper examines wastes generated by industrial activities that play a dominant role in our national economy-oil and gas production, mining and mineral processing, coal combustion, and manufacturing. In previous reports on municipal solid waste and medical waste, OTA examined other solid wastes not classified as hazardous.
Date: March 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Medical Monitoring and Screening in the Workplace: Results of a Survey

Description: This OTA Background Paper presents the results of a survey of 1,500 U.S. companies, the 50 largest utilities, and the largest unions. The survey was designed to obtain information about the types of medical monitoring and screening done in the United States and the extent of their use. OTA finds that virtually all large U.S. employers use some of these tests.
Date: September 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

The Menopause, Hormone Therapy, and Women's Health

Description: This background paper describes what is known about the natural progression of the menopause and its effect on women’s health, hormone treatment and prescribing practices, alternative approaches, and research needs.
Date: May 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Mental Disorders and Genetics: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Society

Description: The report reviews data concerning the contribution of genetic factors to several severe mental disorders; described methodologies used in the studies, and broached several policy issues relevant to this area of research.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Nonferrous Metals: Industry Structure

Description: This report profiles the structures of four domestic nonferrous metals industries (copper, aluminurn, lead, and zinc) and the changes they have undergone since 1980. The study also outlines the U.S. position in the world markets.
Date: September 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Orbiting Debris: A Space Environmental Problem

Description: This background paper, OTA sought the contributions of abroad spectrum of knowledgeable individuals and organizations. Some provided information, others reviewed drafts. OTA gratefully acknowledges their contributions of time and intellectual effort. As with all OTA studies, the content of this background paper is the sole responsibility of the Office of Technology Assessment and does not necessarily represent the views of our advisors or reviewers.
Date: October 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Other Approaches to Civil-Military Integration: The Chinese and Japanese Arms Industries

Description: The paper is divided into two sections, one on the PRC and one on Japan. Each section describes the structure and management of the respective defense industrial base and then compares it with its U.S. counterpart. The paper then assesses the degree to which lessons from the PRC and Japanese cases can be applied to the U.S. defense technology and industrial base (DTIB).
Date: March 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.