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Adverse Reactions to HIV Vaccines: Medical, Ethical, and Legal Issues

Description: The purpose of this background paper is to describe the current state of development of HIV vaccines, and to discuss what is known about adverse reactions that may occur. The background paper provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in the conduct of HIV vaccine trials. The report also discusses alternatives to the current product liability system to encourage the development of HIV vaccines and to fairly compensate those who are harmed as a result of adverse reactions to the vaccine.
Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Cleaning Up Contaminated Wood-Treating Sites

Description: This report reviews technologies available for hazardous waste cleanup at wood-treating sites throughout the United States. OTA found that there are many Superfund wood-treatment sites located in this country that are very similar in terms of the contaminants present and the options selected for cleanup.
Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Distributed Interactive Simulation of Combat

Description: This background paper complements OTA’s background paper, Virtual Reality and Technologies of Combat Simulation, which focuses on the human-computer interface technologies used in simulations.
Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Federal Technology Transfer and the Human Genome Project

Description: This report analyzes universities’, companies’, and researchers’ experiences and perspectives since enactment of federal laws to enhance technology transfer—especially as it pertains to research funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Energy, the agencies funding U.S. efforts in the Human Genome Project.
Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid

Description: This report examines the question of how telecommunication related aid policies might be designed to support both United States trade and foreign aid goals.
Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Improving the Prospects for Future International Peace Operations: Workshop Proceedings

Description: In June 1995, OTA convened a workshop that brought together some of the world’s leading practitioners, academic experts, experienced diplomats, and leading technologists in order to study and discuss this issue. This report contains a summary of the results of the workshop, along with the original papers presented.
Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture

Description: This report discusses different aquatic species that are produced in the United States, including various animal and plant ornamentals, species for environmental remediation, industrial and pharmaceutical feedstocks, and products for biomedical research.
Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Effectiveness and Costs of Osteoporosis Screening and Hormone Replacement Therapy, Vol. I: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Description: This paper assesses the medical benefits and costs of both screening and hormone replacement therapy. It is divided into two volumes. This volume presents the results of a model that estimates the cost per year of life gained from osteoporosis screening and hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.
Date: August 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Effectiveness and Costs of Osteoporosis Screening and Hormone Replacement Therapy, Vol. II: Evidence on Benefits, Risks, and Costs

Description: This paper assesses the medical benefits and costs of both screening and hormone replacement therapy. It is divided into two volumes. This volume provides the basis for the assumptions about the costs and effects of screening and hormonal replacement therapy used in the cost-effectiveness model.
Date: August 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

The Lower Tiers of the Space Transportation Industrial Base

Description: This background paper was prompted by a workshop held at OTA in early March 1995, at which a small group, representing a broad cross-section of lower-tier firms, discussed their views of the space transportation industry.
Date: August 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Electronic Surveillance in a Digital Age

Description: This background paper reviews the progress of the industry and the law enforcement agencies in implementing the Act since its approval in October 1994.
Date: July 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Hospital Financing in Seven Countries

Description: This report discusses a seven-country study of hospital financing is an attempt to find lessons for the United States. The individual experiences over the past decade of the United States and six of its international peers—Canada, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden—in hospital financing and payment systems are reviewed by experts in each country.
Date: May 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Other Approaches to Civil-Military Integration: The Chinese and Japanese Arms Industries

Description: The paper is divided into two sections, one on the PRC and one on Japan. Each section describes the structure and management of the respective defense industrial base and then compares it with its U.S. counterpart. The paper then assesses the degree to which lessons from the PRC and Japanese cases can be applied to the U.S. defense technology and industrial base (DTIB).
Date: March 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Health Care Technology and Its Assessment in Eight Countries

Description: This paper discusses the experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom—technology assessment with six technologies (or sets of technologies) including evaluation and management efforts and how the technologies diffused— are presented and compared.
Date: February 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Hip Fracture Outcomes in People Age 50 and Over

Description: This background paper is one of four documents resulting from OTA’s study of policy issues in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

International Comparisons of Administrative Costs in Health Care

Description: This paper examines what is known about administrative costs in the health care systems of the United States and several other countries. In addition to exploring the types of activities that constitute health care administration, it reviews studies that measure and compare these activities in different countries, and it explores the potential usefulness of such comparisons.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

International Health Statistics: What the Numbers Mean for the United States

Description: This paper reviews how the United States compares with other developed countries on available health status measures, evaluates the validity of the data used to make such comparisons, and describes how international comparisons might be interpreted in the context of health care reform.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Mental Disorders and Genetics: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Society

Description: The report reviews data concerning the contribution of genetic factors to several severe mental disorders; described methodologies used in the studies, and broached several policy issues relevant to this area of research.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Studies of the Environmental Costs of Electricity

Description: This report examines a set of environmental cost studies, compares and contrasts their methods and assumptions, and discusses how they could be made more useful to federal policy makers.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Virtual Reality and Technologies for Combat Simulation

Description: This paper describes applications of synthetic-environment technologies in simulating combat. This background paper is the first of several publications of the OTA’S assessment of combat modeling and simulation.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Understanding Estimates of the Impact of Health Reform on the Federal Budget

Description: This paper describes and evaluates the sources of variation in analysts’ estimates of the federal budget impacts of key reform provisions. The paper also discusses potential variations in the estimates of federal budget effects of the American Health Security Act and the Managed Competition Act, and of health reform proposals in general.
Date: July 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.