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Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Falls City, Texas

Description: Results of a radiological survey conducted at the Falls City, Texas, site in July 1976 are presented. There are seven partial to fully stabilized tailings piles, and an overburden pile from an open-pit mine. Above ground gamma-ray exposure rate measurements show moderate levels of contamination throughout the area with a maximum exposure rate of 500 ..mu..R/hr above tailings pile 2. The average exposure rate over the different areas varied from 14 ..mu..R/hr over the southwest end of tailings pile 7 to 207 ..mu..R/hr over the northeast end of the same pile. Analyses of surface soil and dry-wash sediment samples, as well as calculations of subsurface /sup 226/Ra distribution, serve to define the spread of tailings around the area. Water erosion of the tailings is evident, but, because of abundant growth of vegetation on the tailings piles, wind erosion probably is not a major problem.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Haywood, F. F.; Christian, D. J.; Loy, E. T.; Lorenzo, D. & Ellis, B. S.
open access

Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

Description: We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. We participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K, and the U and Th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures.
Date: March 23, 1984
Creator: Marsh, K.V. & Buddemeier, R.W.
open access

Hot helium flow test facility summary report

Description: This report summarizes the results of a study conducted to assess the feasibility and cost of modifying an existing circulator test facility (CTF) at General Atomic Company (GA). The CTF originally was built to test the Delmarva Power and Light Co. steam-driven circulator. This circulator, as modified, could provide a source of hot, pressurized helium for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) component testing. To achieve this purpose, a high-temperature impeller would be installed on the existing machine. The projected range of tests which could be conducted for the project is also presented, along with corresponding cost considerations.
Date: June 1, 1980
open access

Cross-Spectral Study of the Spatial Relationships in the North Pacific Sea-Surface Temperature Anomaly Field. Report No. 23

Description: Cross-spectral analysis is used to examine the dependence of the temporal covariation of sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies at pairs of spatially separated points in the North Pacific on (1) the time scale of the variations, (2) the relative displacement of the points and (3) their location within the North Pacific basin. Spatial scales considered here range from 1000 kilometers up to the width of the basin. The study focuses on cross-spectral estimates for the interannual frequency band, 0.125-0.75 yr/sup -1/ although estimates for three other bands spanning higher frequencies are also examined.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Middleton, J.W.
open access

Two exercises in supersymmetry: a low-energy supergravity model and free string field theory

Description: The new features of a supersymmetric standard model in the presence of heavy families are studied. The minimal set of Higgs fields, the desert between the electroweak and the grand unification scale and perturbative values of the dimensionless parameters throughout this region are assumed. Using the numerical as well as the approximate analytic solution of the renormalization group equations, the evolution of all the parameters of the theory are studied in the case of large Yukawa couplings for the fourth family. The desired spontaneous symmetry breaking of the electroweak symmetry takes place only for a rather unnatural choice of the initial values of certain mass parameters at the grand unification scale. If it is gravitino mass smaller than 200 GeV the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields emerge necessarily in an interplay of the tree level Higgs potential and its quantum corrections and are approximately equal. The qurak masses of the fourth family are roughly 135 GeV, while the mass of the fourth charged lepton has an upper bound of 90 GeV. Further characteristic features of this scenario are one light neutral Higgs field of mass 50 GeV and gluino masses below 75 GeV. If the gravitino mass is higher than 200 GeV one obtains a scaled up version of the well-known three family, heavy top scenario with quark masses between 40 and 205 GeV and all superparticle masses heavier than 150 GeV except the photino, gluino, one chargino and one neutralino. The gauge-invariant theory of the free bosonic open string is generalized to treat closed strings and superstrings. All of these theories can be written as theories of string differential forms defined on suitable spaces. All of the bosonic theories have exactly the same structure; the Ramond theory takes an analogous first-order form. We show explicitly, how to …
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Preitschopf, C.R.
open access

Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in ammonia safety and environmental control

Description: This report characterizes the ammonia industry operations, reviews current knowledge of ammonia release and subsequent impacts, summarizes the status of release prevention and control methods and identify research and development needs for safety and environmental control. Appendices include: accidental spills and human exposure; adiabatic mixing of liquid nitrogen and air; fire and explosion hazards; and environmental impact rating tables. (PSB)
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Brenchley, D.L.; Athey, G.F. & Bomelburg, H.J.
open access

Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

Description: Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.
Date: January 1, 1980
open access

Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ foam flooding. Annual report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

Description: The objective is to identify commercially available additives which are effective in reducing the mobility of carbon dioxide, CO/sub 2/, thereby improving its efficiency in the recovery of tertiary oil, and which are low enough in cost to be economically attractive. During the past year significant progress has been made in developing a commercial method of reducing the mobility of carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery processes. Four basic chemical structures, listed below, appear to show most promise for gas mobility control: (1) ethoxylated adducts of C/sub 8/ - C/sub 14/ linear alcohols; (2) sulfate esters of ethoxylated C/sub 9/ - C/sub 16/ linear alcohols; (3) low molecular weight co-polymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide; and (4) synthetic organic sulfonates. With the exception of the sulfonates, the above types are compatible with normal oil field brines, unaffected by the presence of crude oil and stable under conditions common in a petroleum reservoir. The second significant result during the year involves identification of several sulfonate structures that have high potential for mobility control for carbon dioxide. Commercial sulfonate additives are available that appear optimum for reservoirs where freshwater will be used to inject the surfactant solution. They can also be considered for limited brine applications, for as temperature increases the utility of sulfonates for mobility control also increases. This is encouraging since some of the previously identified additives are chemically unstable at temperatures encountered in most petroleum reservoirs. 113 references, 23 figures, 4 tables.
Date: December 22, 1983
open access

State-of-the-art for evaluating the potential impact of tectonism and volcanism on a radioactive waste repository

Description: Most estimates of the time required for safe isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere range from 100,000 to 1,000,000 years. For such long time spans, it is necessary to assess the potential effects of geologic processes such as volcanism and tectonic activity on the integrity of geologic repositories. Predictions of geologic phenomena can be based on probabilistic models, which assume a random distribution of events. The necessary historic and geologic records are rarely available to provide an adequate data base for such predictions. The observed distribution of volcanic and tectonic activity is not random, and appears to be controlled by extremely complex deterministic processes. The advent of global plate tectonic theory in the past two decades has been a giant step toward understanding these processes. At each potential repository site, volcanic and tectonic processes should be evaluated to provide the most thorough possible understanding of those deterministic processes. Based on this knowledge, judgements will have to be made as to whether or not the volcanic and tectonic processes pose unacceptable risk to the integrity of the repository. This report describes the potential hazards associated with volcanism and tectonism, and the means for evaluating these processes.
Date: July 16, 1980
open access

Pion correlations as a function of atomic mass in heavy ion collisions

Description: The method of two pion interferometry was used to obtain source-size and lifetime parameters for the pions produced in heavy ion collisions. The systems used were 1.70 {center dot} A GeV {sup 56}Fe + Fe, 1.82 {center dot} A GeV {sup 40}Ar + KCl and 1.54 {center dot} A GeV {sup 93}Nb + Nb, allowing for a search for dependences on the atomic number. Two acceptances (centered, in the lab., at {approximately} 0{degrees} and 45{degrees}) were used for each system, allowing a search for dependences on the viewing angle. The correlation functions were calculated by comparing the data samples to background (or reference) samples made using the method of event mixing, where pions from different events are combined to produce a data sample in which the Bose-Einstein correlation effect is absent. The effect of the correlation function on the background samples is calculated, and a method for weighting the events to remove the residual correlation effect is presented. The effect of the spectrometer design on the measured correlation functions is discussed, as are methods for correcting for these effects during the data analysis. 58 refs., 39 figs., 18 tabs.
Date: November 26, 1989
Creator: Chacon, A.D.
open access

Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

Description: This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Owen, P. T.; Michelson, D. C. & Knox, N. P.
open access

Low cost Czochralski crystal growing technology: near term implementation of the flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction of the Low Cost Solar Array Project. Fifth quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

Description: During this reporting period, the primary activity has been to develop microprocessor control of the crystal growth process and to develop and demonstrate the accelerated crystal growth program. Accelerated recharging of the quartz crucible by the RF melting of polycrystalline silicon feed rods was deemphasized by JPL primarily due to the unavailability of suitable quality feed rods at an effective economical price. The development of the cold crucible program as an alternative method of crucible recharging was continued, but at a lower priority. Work continued on the accelerated crystal growth program. Crystal growth runs were made utilizing the water cooled work coil previously used in the RF polycrystalline silicon rod melting program. Accelerated growth rates were demonstrated but an oxide build-up on the cold surface of the work coil, resulting in heavy flaking and consequent falling of oxide into the melt, resulted in abandoning this approach and redesigning, evaluating, and demonstrating an alternative heat sink arrangement. All necessary parts were received for the cold crucible premelter and system was assembled and interfaced to the multiturn high voltage RF power supply.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Roberts, E. G.
open access

Review of tribological sinks in six major industries

Description: Friction and material wear occur throughout all industries and are involved in many processes within each industry. These conditions make assessing tribological activity overall in industry very complex and expensive. Therefore, a research strategy to obtain preliminary information on only the most significant industrial tribological sinks was defined. The industries examined were selected according to both the magnitude of overall energy consumption (particularly machine drive) and the known presence of significant tribological sinks. The six industries chosen are as follows: mining, agriculture, primary metals, chemicals/refining, food, and pulp and paper. They were reviewed to identify and characterize the major tribology sinks. It was concluded that wear losses are greater than friction losses, and that reducing wear rates would improve industrial productivity.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Imhoff, C. H.; Brown, D. R.; Hane, G. J.; Hutchinson, R. A.; Erickson, R.; Merriman, T. et al.
open access

Geothermal energy impact in Brazoria County. Final report, 15 July 1978-November 30, 1979

Description: All activities performed by Alvin Community College and the University of Texas at Austin in association with the development of Geopressured-Geothermal energy are contained in this report. A discussion of the progress of the Test Well is also contained herein. Public seminars and workshops were presented to the local community. A summer institute in energy was also presented to local public school teachers. A compaign to publicize the development of the new energy resource was also waged. An overall evaluation of the project is also attached.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Horine, B.
open access

Magnetic field, closed orbit, and energy measurement in the Bevatron

Description: This report provides the information necessary for a better evaluation of particle energy in the Bevatron. Previously, the nominal magnetic field value and radius were used to calculate the value for the kinetic energy of the particle. This value was good to a few percent. Today, more and more experimenters would like to know the energy to a more precise value. To this end, corrections to the measured magnetic field values and the radial closed orbit are provided.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Crebbin, K. C.
open access

HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

Description: Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W et al.
open access

Quantitative analysis of the hydrothermal system in Lassen Volcanic National Park and Lassen Known Geothermal Resource Area

Description: The Lassen hydrothermal system is in the southern Cascade Range, approximately 70 kilometers east-southeast of Redding, California. The conceptual model of the Lassen system is termed a liquid-dominated hydrothermal system with a parasitic vapor-dominated zone. The essential feature of this model is that steam and steam-heated discharge at relatively high elevations in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) and liquid discharge with high chloride concentrations at relatively low elevations outside LVNP in the Lassen Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) are both fed by an upflow of high-enthalpy, two-phase fluid within the Park. Liquid flows laterally away from the upflow area towards the areas of high-chloride discharge, and steam rises through a vapor-dominated zone to feed the steam and steam-heated features. The geometric model corresponds to an areally restricted flow regime that connects the Bumpass Hell area in LVNP with regions of chloride hot springs in the Mill Creek canyon in the KGRA south of LVNP. Simulations of thermal fluid withdrawal in the Mill Creek Canyon were carried out in order to determine the effects of such withdrawal on portions of the hydrothermal system within the Park. 19 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Sorey, M.L. & Ingebritsen, S.E.
open access

Boron reclamation

Description: A process to recover high purity /sup 10/B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Smith, R. M.
open access

ETRANS: an energy transport system optimization code for distributed networks of solar collectors

Description: The optimization code ETRANS was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to design and estimate the costs associated with energy transport systems for distributed fields of solar collectors. The code uses frequently cited layouts for dish and trough collectors and optimizes them on a section-by-section basis. The optimal section design is that combination of pipe diameter and insulation thickness that yields the minimum annualized system-resultant cost. Among the quantities included in the costing algorithm are (1) labor and materials costs associated with initial plant construction, (2) operating expenses due to daytime and nighttime heat losses, and (3) operating expenses due to pumping power requirements. Two preliminary series of simulations were conducted to exercise the code. The results indicate that transport system costs for both dish and trough collector fields increase with field size and receiver exit temperature. Furthermore, dish collector transport systems were found to be much more expensive to build and operate than trough transport systems. ETRANS itself is stable and fast-running and shows promise of being a highly effective tool for the analysis of distributed solar thermal systems.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Barnhart, J.S.
open access

Stress analysis of MFTF-B getter system bellows. Final report

Description: The MFTF-B design includes a retractable getter system. Eight getter assemblies are planned (4 in each end plug). Electrically heated Ti wires are mounted on a telescoping insertion mechanism and, between machine shots (pulses), are extended into the chamber in the vicinity of inward-facing water-cooled magnet liners. During the shots, the sublimators must be withdrawn because they will intrude into plasma and diagnostic space. Each of the getter assemblies will be mounted on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Bellows are used to keep essentially all of the mechanism isolated from the vessel vacuum. The bellows come in two sizes (8.25'' O.D. and 14'' O.D.). The smaller of the two bellows has been qualified by testing up to 94,000 cycles by empirically adjusting details of the bellow design (geometry and thickness). The process required 12 different test samples and took over a one-year period to accomplish. The bellows consistently failed in the inside diameter weld heat-affected zone. Results from stress analysis studies are presented.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Tokarz, F. J.; Johnson, J. J.; Mukherjee, A. N. & Dalder, E. N.
open access

Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

Description: The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.
Date: April 11, 1980
Creator: Clifford, J E & Diegle, R B
open access

850/sup 0/C VHTR plant technical description

Description: This report describes the conceptual design of an 842-MW(t) process heat very high temperature reactor (VHTR) plant having a core outlet temperature of 850/sup 0/C (1562/sup 0/F). The reactor is a variation of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant concept. The report includes a description of the nuclear heat source (NHS) and of the balance of reactor plant (BORP) requirements. The design of the associated chemical process plant is not covered in this report. The reactor design is similar to a previously reported VHTR design having a 950/sup 0/C (1742/sup 0/F) core outlet temperature.
Date: June 1, 1980
open access

Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 May-31 May, 1980

Description: This report summarizes the progress of the government-sponsored project directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States. The planning activities for the multi-well experiment continued in May. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued formation evaluation and reservoir simulation studies. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued calculations of fracturing near interfaces. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory focused work on the permanent magnet system for NMR logging. Results of the 3-D Seismic Reflection Survey were presented by Sandia Laboratories. Production and injection experiments continued for the Colorado Interstate Gas Company Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells. The DOE Well Test Facility was transported to Las Vegas for repairs and modifications. In situ testing continued at the Nevada Test Site for the Sandia Mineback program.
Date: January 1, 1980
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