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Acceleration of high-pressure-ratio single-spool turbojet engine as determined from component performance characteristics I : effect of air bleed at compressor outlet

Description: An analytical investigation was made to determine from component performance characteristics the effect of air bleed at the compressor outlet on the acceleration characteristics of a typical high-pressure-ratio single-spool turbojet engine. Consideration of several operating lines on the compressor performance map with two turbine-inlet temperatures showed that for a minimum acceleration time the turbine-inlet temperature should be the maximum allowable, and the operating line on the compressor map should be as close to the surge region as possible throughout the speed range. Operation along such a line would require a continuously varying bleed area. A relatively simple two-step area bleed gives only a small increase in acceleration time over a corresponding variable-area bleed. For the modes of operation considered, over 84 percent of the total acceleration time was required to accelerate through the low-speed range ; therefore, better low-speed compressor performance (higher pressure ratios and efficiencies) would give a significant reduction in acceleration time.
Date: March 10, 1953
Creator: Rebeske, John J , Jr & Rohlik, Harold E

Adhesive and protective characteristics of ceramic coating A-417 and its effect on engine life of forged Refractaloy-26 (AMS 5760) and cast stellite 21 (AMS 5385) turbine blades

Description: The adhesive and protective characteristics of National Bureau of Standards Coating A-417 were investigated, as well as the effect of the coating on the life of forged Refractaloy 26 and cast Stellite 21 turbine blades. Coated and uncoated blades were run in a full-scale J33-9 engine and were subjected to simulated service operations consisting of consecutive 20-minute cycles (15 min at rated speed and approximately 5 min at idle). The ceramic coating adhered well to Refractaloy 26 and Stellite 21 turbine blades operated at 1500 degrees F. The coating also prevented corrosion of the Refractaloy 26, a corrosion-sensitive nickel-base alloy, and of the Stellite 21, a relatively corrosion-resistant cobalt-base alloy. Although the coating prevented corrosion of both alloys, it had no apparent effect on blade life.
Date: February 12, 1953
Creator: Garrett, Floyd B & Gyorgak, Charles A

Aerodynamic Characteristics in Pitch and Sideslip at High Subsonic Speeds of a 1/14-Scale Model of the Grumman XF104 Airplane with Wing Sweepback of 42.5 Degrees

Description: An investigation has been made at high subsonic speeds of the aerodynamic'characteristics in pitch and sideslip of a l/l4-scale model of the Grumman XF10F airplane with a wing sweepback angle of 42.5. The longitudinal stability characteristics (with the horizontal tail fixed) indicate a pitch-up near the stall; however, this was somewhat alleviated by the addition of fins to the side of the fuselage below the horizontal tail. The original model configuration became directionally unstable for small sideslip angles at Mach numbers above 0.8; however, the instability was eliminated by several different modifications.
Date: 1953~
Creator: Kuhn, Richard E. & Draper, John W.

Aerodynamic characteristics of a refined deep-step planing-tail flying-boat hull with various forebody and afterbody shapes

Description: An investigation was made in the Langley 300 mph 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a refined deep-step planing-tail hull with various forebody and afterbody shapes. For comparison, tests were made on a streamline body simulating the fuselage of a modern transport airplane. The results of the tests, which include the interference effects of a 21-percent-thick support wing, indicated that for corresponding configurations the hull models incorporating a forebody with a length-beam ratio of 7 had lower minimum drag coefficients than the hull models incorporating a forebody with a length-beam ratio of 5. Longitudinal and lateral stability was generally about the same for all hull models tested and about the same as that of a conventional hull.
Date: 1953
Creator: Riebe, John M & Naeseth, Rodger L

Aerodynamic characteristics of a two-blade NACA 10-(3)(062)-045 propeller and of a two-blade NACA 10-(3)(08)-045 propeller

Description: Characteristics are given for the two-blade NACA 10-(3)(062)-045 propeller and for the two-blade NACA 10-(3)(08)-045 propeller over a range of advance ratio from 0.5 to 3.8, through a blade-angle range from 20 degrees to 55 degrees measured at the 0.75 radius. Maximum efficiencies of the order of 91.5 to 92 percent were obtained for the propellers. The propeller with the thinner airfoil sections over the outboard portion of the blades, the NACA 10-(3)(062)-045 propeller, had lower losses at high tip speeds, the difference amounting to about 5 percent at a helical tip Mach number of 1.10.
Date: January 1953
Creator: Solomon, William

Aerodynamic characteristics of low-aspect-ratio wings at high supersonic Mach numbers

Description: This paper presents some recently obtained data on the aerodynamic characteristics of low-aspect-ratio wings at supersonic Mach numbers of 4.04 and 6.9 and discusses some new methods of predicting the lift and drag of such wings. Data on lifting wings in the Mach number range above 2.5 are not plentiful and most of the available data may be found in NACA RM L51D17, NACA RM L51D30, NACA RM L52D15a, NACA RM L52K19, NACA RM L53D03, and NACA RM L53D30a.
Date: November 2, 1953
Creator: Ulmann, Edward F & Bertram, Mitchel H

The aerodynamic design and calibration of an asymmetric variable Mach number nozzle with a sliding block for the Mach number range 1.27 to 2.75

Description: A method of designing as asymmetric, fixed geometry, variable Mach number nozzle has been developed by using the method of characteristics. A small nozzle conforming to the analytically determined ordinates was constructed and calibrated over a range of Mach numbers extending from 1.27 to 2.75. The results show the variation in Mach number to be plus or minus 0.01 or less and in the flow direction to be plus or minus 0.2 degrees within the test section. The range of Mach numbers from 1.27 to 2.75 was obtained by translating the lower block in a straight line parallel to the test-section center line for a distance of 2.17 test-section heights.
Date: April 1953
Creator: Burbank, Paige B & Byrne, Robert W

Aerodynamic forces and loadings on symmetrical circular-arc airfoils with plain leading-edge and plain trailing-edge flaps

Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel and in the Langley two-dimensional low-pressure tunnel of 6- and 10-percent-thick symmetrical circular-arc airfoil sections at low Mach numbers and several Reynolds numbers. The airfoils were equipped with 0.15-chord plain leading-edge flaps and 0.20-chord plan trailing-edge flaps. The section lift and pitching-moment characteristics were determined for both airfoils with the flaps deflected individually and in combination. The section drag characteristics were obtained for the 6-percent-thick airfoil with the flaps partly deflected as low-drag-control flaps and for airfoils with the flaps neutral. Surface pressures were measured on the 6-percent-thick airfoil section with the flaps deflected either individually or in appropriate combination to furnish flap load and hinge-moment data applicable to the structural design of the airfoil. A generalized method is developed that permits the determination of the chordwise pressure distribution over sharp-edge airfoils with plain leading-edge flaps and plain trailing-edge flaps of arbitrary size and deflection.
Date: 1953
Creator: Cahill, Jones F; Underwood, William J; Nuber, Robert J & Cheesman, Gail A

Air admixture to exhaust jets

Description: The problem of thrust increase by air admixture to exhaust jets of rockets, turbojet, ram- and pulse-jet engines is investigated theoretically. The optimum ratio of mixing chamber pressure to ambient pressure and speed range for thrust increase due to air admixture is determined for each type of jet engine.
Date: July 1953
Creator: Sanger, Eugen

Air-water analogy and the study of hydraulic models

Description: The author first sets forth some observations about the theory of models. Then he established certain general criteria for the construction of dynamically similar models in water and in air, through reference to the perfect fluid equations and to the ones pertaining to viscous flow. It is, in addition, pointed out that there are more cases in which the analogy is possible than is commonly supposed.
Date: July 1, 1953
Creator: Supino, Giulio