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Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion, Volume 2, Combustion in Air-Breathing Jet Engines

Description: This volume continues the NACA study of combustion principles for aircraft propulsion. The various aspects of combustion pertinent to jet engines are organized and interpreted with quite extensive information, particularly for basic or fundamental. subject matter. The report concerns only air-breathing engines and hydrocarbon fuels, and not rocket engines and high-energy fuels. Since the references have been selected to illustrate important points, the bibliographies, while thorough, are not complete. This volumes describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. These include combustor-inlet conditions; starting, acceleration, combustion limits, combustion efficiency, coke deposits, and smoke formation in turbojets; ram-jet performance; and afterburner performance and design.
Date: May 2, 1956

Aerodynamic and lateral-control characteristics of a 1/28-scale model of the Bell X-1 airplane wing-fuselage combination: transonic-bump method

Description: Report discussing an investigation into the lateral-control characteristics and the pitching-moment characteristics of a scale model of the X-1 wing-fuselage configuration. Information about the estimated variation of rolling effectiveness and wing-fuselage pitching-moment coefficient is described in detail.
Date: May 5, 1950
Creator: Lockwood, Vernard E.

Aerodynamic characteristics at a Mach number of 1.25 of a 6-percent-thick triangular wing and 6- and 9-percent-thick triangular wings in combination with a fuselage: wing aspect ratio 2.31, biconvex airfoil sections

Description: Report discussing testing to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of two semispan delta-wing configurations. Information about the lift characteristics, drag characteristics, pitching-moment characteristics, and comparison with other results is provided.
Date: May 5, 1950
Creator: Hall, Albert W. & Morris, Garland J.

The Aerodynamic Characteristics in Pitch of a 1/15-Scale Model of the Grumman F11F-1 Airplane at Mach Numbers of 1.41, 1.61, and 2.01, TED No. NACA DE 390

Description: Tests have been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.41, 1.61, and 2.01 to determine the static longitudinal stability and control characteristics of various arrangements of the Grumman F11F-1 airplane. Tests were made of the complete model and various combinations of its component parts and, in addition, the effects of various body modifications, a revised vertical tail, and wing fences on the longitudinal characteristics were determined. The results indicate that for a horizontal-tail incidence of -10 deg the trim lift coefficient varied from 0.29 at a Mach number of 1.61 to 0.23 at a Mach number of 2.01 with a corresponding decrease in lift-drag trim from 3.72 to 3.15. Stick-position instability was indicated in the low-supersonic-speed range. A photographic-type nose modification resulted in slightly higher values of minimum drag coefficient but did not significantly affect the static stability or lift-curve slope. The minimum drag coefficient for the complete model with the production nose remained essentially constant at 0.047 throughout the Mach number range investigated.
Date: May 23, 1956
Creator: Driver, Cornelius

Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with unswept quarter-chord line, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A004 airfoil section: Transonic-bump method

Description: From Introduction: "This paper presents the results of the investigation of the wing alone and of the wing-fuselage configurations employing a wing with an unswept quarter-chord line, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and an NACA 65A004 airfoil section parallel to the air stream. The experimental results of a wing of identical plan from having an NACA 65A006 airfoil section which was tested as part of the transonic program are presented in reference 1.
Date: May 8, 1950
Creator: Myers, Boyd C., II & Wiggins, James W.

Aerodynamic characteristics of four bodies of revolution showing some effects of afterbody shape and fineness ratio at free-stream Mach numbers from 1.50 to 1.99

Description: The effects of fineness ratio (14.2 and 12.2) and boattailing on aerodynamic characteristics of four bodies of revolution at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 1.99 within a range of angles of attack from 0 degrees 10 degrees at an approximate Reynolds number of 35x10(superscript)6 based on body length were investigated. A comparison of experimental data with available theory is included. At zero angle of attack, fineness ratio has no appreciable effect on model characteristics while boattailing and boattail convergence significantly affect fore drag and base drag. At angle of attack the effects are singular. The theory presented by H. J. Allen is a significant improvement over linearized potential theory in predicting aerodynamic characteristics.
Date: May 22, 1951
Creator: Cohen, Robert J.

Aerodynamic characteristics of two-plane, unswept tapered wings of aspect ratio 3 and 3-percent thickness from tests on a transonic bump

Description: From Introduction: "The Ames Aeronautical Laboratory has in progress an experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of wings of interest in the design of high-speed fighter aircraft. This program included an investigation in the Ames 6-by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel at both subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers of a wing-body combination having a 3-percent-thick, unswept, tapered wing with circular-arc sections and an aspect ratio of 3.1 (reference 1).
Date: May 2, 1952
Creator: Emerson, Horace F. & Gale, Bernard M.

Aerodynamic characteristics of various configurations of a model of a 45 degree swept-wing airplane at a Mach number of 2.01

Description: An investigation has been conducted at the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at a Mach nmber of 2.01 to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of several configurations of a model of a 45 deg swept-wing airplane. The basic configuratin had a wing with 45 deg sweepback at the quarter-chord line, aspect ration 3.2, taper ration 0.468, NACA 65A005.5 sections just outboard of the inlet and NACA 65A003.7 sections at the tip. The wing was mounted slightly above the body center line and an all-movable horizantal tail was located slightly below the extended chord line of the wing. Tre design incorporated twin wing-root supersonic inlets ducted to a single exit at the base of the fuselage. The configurations investigated included an extended nose length, a bumped-fuselage afterbody, an inlet droop, an lncreased wing aspect ratio, and a revised canopy shape. Configurations employing the wing of increased aspect ratio of 3.7, which constituted the bulk of the tests, produced about a 10-percent increase in lift and in longitudinal stability as compared with the basic wing of aspect ratio 3.2. There was a slight but masurable increase in minimum drag and maximum lift-drag ratio.
Date: May 26, 1955
Creator: Spearman, M. Leroy; Driver, Cornelius & Robinson, Ross B.

Aerodynamic characteristics with fixed and free transition of a modified delta wing in combination with fuselage at high subsonic speeds

Description: From Introduction: "An investigation of the high-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a modified delta wing in combination with a fuselage was conducted in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel. The model was tested on the sting support system through a Mach number range of 0.40 to 0.90 with both free and fixed transition. Because of the nature of the transition effect, the results seemed to be of the general interest and are presented in the present paper."
Date: May 2, 1950
Creator: Polhamus, Edward C. & King, Thomas J., Jr.

Aerodynamic Damping at Mach Numbers of 1.3 and 1.6 of a Control Surface on a Two-Dimensional Wing by a Free-Oscillation Method

Description: Memorandum presenting tests at two supersonic speeds to obtain experimentally the aerodynamic damping characteristics of a control surface on a two-dimensional wing. The control surface had a chord of 1.67 inches and a span of 7.25 inches and was supplied in three materials with different mass, inertia, and stiffness properties. Results regarding the presentation of data and comparison with theory and comparison with control-surface data for a triangular wing are provided.
Date: May 1, 1956
Creator: Tuovila, W. J. & Hess, Robert W.

Aerodynamic loading characteristics of a wing-fuselage combination having a wing of 45 degrees sweepback measured in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the aerodynamic loading characteristics of a wing-fuselage combination in the slotted test section of the transonic tunnel. The test was part of a systematic investigation of the effects of varying the amount of sweepback on wings in order to determine their suitability for transonic flight. Results regarding span load characteristics, normal-force characteristics, wing-tip angle of twist, spanwise distribution of section pitching-moment coefficient, pitching-moment characteristics, and fuselage characteristics in presence of wing are provided.
Date: May 19, 1952
Creator: Loving, Donald L. & Williams, Claude V.

Aerodynamic study of a wing-fuselage combination employing a wing swept back 63 degrees : effectiveness of an elevon as a longitudinal control and the effects of camber and twist on the maximum lift-drag ratio at supersonic speeds

Description: Report presenting an investigation concerned with the measurement of the characteristics of longitudinal-control devices for a wing-fuselage combination with a wing with the leading edge swept back 63 degrees. Most of the investigation was devoted to testing a 30-percent-chord, 50-percent-semispan elevon, but some used upper-surface spoilers. Results regarding the characteristics of the wing with the elevon undeflected and control-surface effectiveness are provided.
Date: May 8, 1950
Creator: Olson, Robert N. & Mead, Merrill H.

Aerodynamics of slender bodies at Mach number of 3.12 and Reynolds numbers from 2 x 10(exp 6) to 15 x 10(exp 6) 2: aerodynamic load distributions of series of five bodies having conical noses and cylindrical afterbodies

Description: Report presenting an experimental investigation to determine the aerodynamic load distributions of a series of five bodies with conical or slightly blunted noses and cylindrical afterbodies in the 1- by 1-foot supersonic wind tunnel. Pressure distributions and viscous drags were measured at Mach number 3.12 for a range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack.
Date: May 8, 1952
Creator: Jack, John R. & Gould, Lawrence I.

Aerodynamics of slender bodies at Mach number of 3.12 and Reynolds numbers from 2 x 10(exp 6) to 15 x 10(exp 6) 5: aerodynamic load distributions for a series of four boattailed bodies

Description: Pressure distributions for a series of four boattailed bodies of revolution were obtained and compared with theory for a Mach number of 3.12, a Reynolds number range of 2 x 10 to 6th power to 14 x 10 to the 6th power, and angles of attack from zero to 9 degrees. Second-order theory adequately predicted the pressure distribution for regions free of the effects of cross-flow separation.
Date: May 6, 1954
Creator: Moskowitz, Barry & Jack, John R.

An air-borne target simulator for use with scope-presentation type fire-control systems

Description: Report describing the design and flight evaluation of an air-borne target simulator using precomputed relative kinematics for use in tracking studies of fighter aircraft equipped with scope-presentation type fire-control systems. Testing occurred in an F86D airplane equipped with a Hughes E-4 fire-control system. Results regarding relative kinematic programming considerations and restrictions to system evaluation are provided.
Date: May 10, 1957
Creator: Foster, John V.; Fulcher, Elmer C. & Heinle, Donovan R.

Altitude investigation of XJ34-WE-32 engine performance without electronic control

Description: From Introduction: "As a part of the comprehensive investigation of the XJ34-WE-32 engine conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel, the over-all-performance was determined over a range of altitudes and flight Mach numbers. Other phases of the investigation are reported in reference 1. The results are given in tables and also in graphical form to show the trends of engine performance associated with changes of altitude, flight Mach number, and exhaust-nozzle area."
Date: May 29, 1953
Creator: Bloomer, Harry E.; Walker, William J. & Pantages, George L.

Altitude-performance and Reynolds number investigation of centrifugal-flow-compressor turbojet engine

Description: From Introduction: "Altitude-chamber and wind-tunnel investigations of the performance of turbojet engines such as those reported in references 1 to 4 have shown that the conventional correction factors fail to generalize the engine performance variables at high altitudes. An investigation was therefore made at the NACA Lewis laboratory to determine the altitude performance of the J33-A-23 turbojet engine and to demonstrate the magnitude of departure of actual altitude performance from that predicted from sea-level performance."
Date: May 15, 1951
Creator: Wilsted, H. D. & Grey, R. E.

Altitude Performance Investigation of Two Single-Annular Type Combustors and the Prototype J40-WE-8 Turbojet Engine Combustor With Various Combustor-Inlet Air Pressure Profiles

Description: Report presenting data obtained three single annular-type combustors with different combustor inlet-air pressure profiles over a range of engine speeds. Results regarding effect of changing combustor inlet-air pressure profile and hole geometry on combustor performance, performance of the prototype J40-WE-8 turbojet engine combustor, correlation of combustion efficiency with engine fuel-air ratio and combustion parameter, and comparison of several combustors from different turbojet engines are provided.
Date: May 29, 1953
Creator: Sobolewski, Adam E.; Miller, Robert R. & McAulay, John E.