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Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion, Volume 1, Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

Description: The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.
Date: April 1, 1955
Creator: Barnett, Henry C. & Hibbard, Robert R.

The adhesion of molten boron oxide to various materials

Description: This report includes the description and results of an experiment evaluating the amount of adhesion existing between the liquid boron oxide and various materials used in engines.
Date: April 1, 1958
Creator: Witzke, W. R.

Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of models of some aircraft-towed mine-sweeping devices : TED No. NACA AR 8201

Description: This report details a study that was conducted by the U.S. Naval Air Development Center to "determine the feasibility of several airborne magnetic mine-sweeping methods. The advantages of a satisfactory airborne method are greater safety and speed than are possible with existing surface methods." The configurations and results of the double Q-sweep, the modified double-catenary sweep, and the M-sweep are examined.
Date: December 1, 1955
Creator: Shanks, Robert E.

Aerodynamic Design of Axial-Flow Compressors, Volume 2

Description: Available experimental two-dimensional-cascade data for conventional compressor blade sections are correlated. The two-dimensional cascade and some of the principal aerodynamic factors involved in its operation are first briefly described. Then the data are analyzed by examining the variation of cascade performance at a reference incidence angle in the region of minimum loss. Variations of reference incidence angle, total-pressure loss, and deviation angle with cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and Reynolds number are investigated. From the analysis and the correlations of the available data, rules and relations are evolved for the prediction of the magnitude of the reference total-pressure loss and the reference deviation and incidence angles for conventional blade profiles. These relations are developed in simplified forms readily applicable to compressor design procedures.
Date: August 1, 1956

Aerodynamic design of axial-flow compressors: Volume III

Description: Chapters XI to XIII concern the unsteady compressor operation arising when compressor blade elements stall. The fields of compressor stall and surge are reviewed in Chapters XI and XII, respectively. The part-speed operating problem in high-pressure-ratio multistage axial-flow compressors is analyzed in Chapter XIII. Chapter XIV summarizes design methods and theories that extend beyond the simplified two-dimensional approach used previously in the report. Chapter XV extends this three-dimensional treatment by summarizing the literature on secondary flows and boundary layer effects. Charts for determining the effects of errors in design parameters and experimental measurements on compressor performance are given in Chapters XVI. Chapter XVII reviews existing literature on compressor and turbine matching techniques.
Date: August 1, 1956
Creator: Johnsen, Irving A.; Bullock, Robert O.; Graham, Robert W.; Costilow, Eleanor L.; Huppert, Merle C.; Benser, William A. et al.

An air-borne target simulator for use in optical sight tracking studies

Description: From Introduction: "The development of this air-borne optical target simulator and the results of evaluation flight tests (including a comparison of airplane tracking performance against the simulated and an actual target airplane) are presented herein."
Date: September 1, 1955
Creator: Doolin, Brian F.; Smith, G. Allan & Drinkwater, Fred J., III

Analysis of V-g records from the Grumman F8F-2 airplane

Description: From Introduction: "In the present paper, which supplements reference 1, V-g records obtained from F8F-2 airplanes in 1949 are analyzed statistically to determine the frequency of experiencing large values of normal load factor and airspeed. These results are compared with the results from the F8F-1 airplane."
Date: July 1, 1952
Creator: Thornton, James O

Analytical evaluation of effect of inlet-air temperature and combustion pressure on combustion performance of boron slurries and blends of pentaborane

Description: From Summary: "The effects of variation in inlet-air temperature, combustion pressure, and boron or pentaborane concentration on combustion performance were discussed. It was shown how the theoretical data herein could be employed in obtaining the combustion efficiency of experimental combustors. Data were presented by which combustion efficiencies obtained with a water-quench heat balance could be adjusted for the heat of dissociation of the combustion products."
Date: June 1, 1955
Creator: Tower, Leonard K

A brief hydrodynamic investigation of a Navy seaplane design equipped with a hydro-ski

Description: Report presenting testing of a model of a Navy Bureau of Aeronautics design in Langley tank no. 2 to determine the calm-water take-off and rough-water landing characteristics of the design with particular attention paid to the take-off resistance and landing accelerations. Results regarding resistance, take-off stability, landing stability, spray, and landing acceleration are provided.
Date: September 1, 1953
Creator: Fisher, Lloyd J. & Hoffman, Edward L.

Calibration of Instruments for Measuring Wind Velocity and Direction

Description: Signal Corps wind equipment AN/GMQ-1 consisting of a 3-cup anemometer and wind vane was calibrated for wind velocities from 1 to 200 miles per hour. Cup-shaft failure prevented calibration at higher wind velocities. The action of the wind vane was checked and found to have very poor directional accuracy below a velocity of 8 miles per hour. After shaft failure was reported to the Signal Corps, the cup rotors were redesigned by strengthening the shafts for better operation at high velocities. The anemometer with the redesigned cup rotors was recalibrated, but cup-shaft failure occurred again at a wind velocity of approximately 220 miles per hour. In the course of this calibration two standard generators were checked for signal output variation, and a wind-speed meter was calibrated for use with each of the redesigned cup rotors. The variation of pressure coefficient with air-flow direction at four orifices on a disk-shaped pitot head was obtained for wind velocities of 37.79 53.6, and 98.9 miles per hour. A pitot-static tube mounted in the nose of a vane was calibrated up to a dynamic pressure of 155 pounds per square foot, or approximately 256 miles per hour,.
Date: January 1, 1950
Creator: Vogler, Raymond D. & Pilny, Miroslav J.

Comparative dispersion data from ground-launched 2.25-inch rockets equipped with cruciform and monoplane fins

Description: Report presenting testing of about 150 rounds of 2.25-inch subcaliber aircraft rockets equipped with standard cruiform fins and twisted monoplane fins. No significant difference in dispersion was observed for the different configurations of fins on the rockets. Results regarding the stability of the different types of rockets, and general characteristics of the flight paths are provided.
Date: November 1, 1955
Creator: Purser, Paul E.

Comparison of the Drag of a Fin-Stabilized Body of Revolution and of a Complete Airplane Configuration as Obtained at Transonic Speeds in a Slotted Wind Tunnel and in Free Flight

Description: A comparison of the zero-lift drag coefficients at Mach numbers from 0.81 to 1.41 of a fin-stabilized parabolic body of revolution as measured in the Langley transonic blowdown tunnel has been made with measurements obtained in free-flight on a larger but geometrically similar model. The absolute values of drag coefficient obtained in the slotted wind tunnel were equivalent to the free-flight drag-coefficient values up to a Mach number of 1.4 when adjustments were made for the effect on viscous drag of differences in Reynolds number between the two test conditions. Excellent agreement was obtained between the two tests for the pressure-drag variation with Mach number, regardless of whether the scale effect on skin friction was considered. Favorable agreement was also obtained between the pressure-drag increments due t o the presence of the stabilizing fins as determined in the wine tunnel from fins-on and fins-off tests and as obtained by a different method in free flight. Tests of a specific airplane configuration to obtain an indication of the problems involved in the construction and tests of small-scale (approximately 7-inch span) complete airplane configuration with internal air flow indicated that reliable zero-lift drag-coefficient measurements at Mach numbers up to 1.4 can be attained with such models, provided the model is constructed with a high but not an unreasonable degree of accuracy.
Date: August 1, 1955
Creator: Howell, Robert R. & Braslow, Albert L.