UNT Libraries Government Documents Department - 3,753 Matching Results

Search Results

open access

1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

Description: This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Deshaye, J. A. & Kerstetter, J. D.
open access

1990 Waste Tank Inspection Program

Description: Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: McNatt, F. G.
open access

2DPUF: A sequential gaussian puff model

Description: This report documents the Environmental Transport Section`s (ETS) two-dimensional, sequential gaussian puff transport and dispersion model for emergency response. The sequential puff scheme is described, and the dispersion equations are presented. The advantages of this model over the ETS`s PUFF/PLUME model are discussed. Options are calculating a two-dimensional wind field, interpolation procedures, and the wind field grid are described. The various grid systems for puff transport calculations and dose estimates are also described. A flow diagram for the modules comprising the 2DPUF code and a description of each module is presented.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Addis, R. P. & O`Steen, B. L.
open access

[The Activation and Decomposition of Alkanes on Group VIII Transition Metal Surfaces: Dynamics, Kinetics and Spectroscopy]. Progress Report

Description: Significant progress has been achieved in a number of areas with the support of this Department of Energy grant which began on July 1, 1989. We have quantified experimentally the kinetics of the initial (low-coverage) alkane activation reaction, i.e., alkane {yields} alkyl + hydrogen adatom, for the following systems: (1) C{sub 2}H{sub 6} on Ir(110)-(1{times}2), and (2) CH{sub 4}, CD{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 2}D{sub 6} on Pt(110)-(1{times}2). In addition, we have employed dynamic Monte Carlo simulations to study two important aspects of surface reactivity, namely, reactant segregation during a steady-state surface reaction, and the compensation effect in a transient surface reaction. Experimentally determined values of the initial adsorption probability of ethane on Ir(110)(1{times}2) were employed to probe the dynamics of the interaction. Experimentally determined values of the initial trapping probability {zeta}{sub 0} of ethane into a physically adsorbed state at T{sub s} = 77 K as a function of E{sub i} and {Theta}{sub i} and experimentally determined values of the initial probability of dissociative chemisorption P{sub r} as a function of E{sub i}, {Theta}{sub i} and T{sub s} were obtained.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Weinberg, W. H.
open access

Activity composition relationships in silicate melts. Final report

Description: Equipment progress include furnace construction and electron microprobe installation. The following studies are underway: phase equilibria along basalt-rhyolite mixing line (olivine crystallization from natural silicic andensites, distribution of Fe and Mg between olivine and liquid, dist. of Ca and Na between plagioclase and liquid), enthalpy-composition relations in magmas (bulk heat capacity of alkali basalt), density model for magma ascent and contamination, thermobarometry in igneous systems (olivine/plagioclase phenocryst growth in Quat. basalt), high-pressure phase equilibria of alkali basalt, basalt-quartz mixing experiments, phase equilibria of East African basalts, and granitic minerals in mafic magma. (DLC)
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Glazner, A. F.
open access

Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1990

Description: (1) A ZrO{sub 2} oxygen sensor was calibrated successfully over the concentration range from 0 to 21 percent O{sub 2} at temperatures from ambient to 400{degrees}F. This inexpensive automotive sensor provides 8 signal which will be used to monitor and automatically control combustion conditions to maintain consistently high combustion efficiency combined with low NO{sub x} emissions; (2) An improved burner was designed and fabricated with an initial ``stage`` which functions as a coal-eductor/coal-air mixer. Now coal can be transported in dense phase to the burner without pressurizing the coal-storage hopper which had approximately a four-hour capacity. This permits refilling the hopper during periods of continuous operation of the boiler as required for commercial use; (3) The improved burner produced the highest boiler efficiency to date. Carbon burnout improved to 98.9 Percent, compared to about 97 percent during Phase I testing for the same Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal with 2.7% ash. We expect to exceed 99% Combustion efficiency with all of the test coals during more optimized future testing; and (4) Although the new burner proved to be very efficient, emissions of NO{sub x} were higher than those observed during Phase I testing. The new-burner design was modified. Capability for deep air-staging was added to the new burner to promote low-NO{sub x} operation.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Wagoner, C. L.; Foote, J. P.; Millard, W. P.; Attig, R. C. & Schulz, R. J.
open access

Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1990

Description: During Phase I of the project, a coal injector was designed, fabricated, and tested. It is a direct replacement for the oil gun in the original equipment of a 200 hp CleaverBmoks fire-tube boiler. The system was tested at coal-firing rates in the range of 2 to 6 million Btu`s per hour, firing Upper Elkhorn No. 3 (eastern bituminous, ``UE3``) coal supplied by Energy International, Incorporated. For these tests, propane was used to preheat the boiler before initiation of coal firing. The propane flow was turned off after coal combustion was established. No combustion air preheat was used. During these tests, boiler efficiency was typically about 85 to 86 percent, while carbon conversion efficiency was approximately 94 percent. Concentrations of CO were less than 150 ppm. The NO{sub x} emissions were less than 0.6 pounds per million Btu`s. Following a series of laser-illuminated cold-flow-visualization tests, a new burner was also designed, fabricated, and tested during Phase 1. The arrangement is shown in Figure 1.2. It is a two-stage, swirl burner which fits in the space previously occupied by the original Cleaver-Brooks burner, and uses the existing section of refractory. Air flow can be regulated independently into each of the two stages. Additionally, the angle is adjustable for individual swirl blades. Upper Elkhorn No. 3 ultra fine coal was used as the standard fuel for most UTSI-burner tests. Firing rates were in the range of 2 to 6 million Btu`s per hour. Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coals were tested with three levels of ash. These were approximately 1.4%, 2.7%, and 4.8% ash, on an as-fired basis. The 2.7%-ash UE3 coal was used for most tests because it exhibited a good balance between ash content and ash-fusion characteristics.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Wagoner, C. L.; Foote, J. P.; Millard, W. P.; Attig, R. C. & Schulz, R. J.
open access

Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1990

Description: Initial work in Phase II concentrated on: (a) adapting a commercially available automotive oxygen sensor for use in the boiler control system; (b) developing a more commercially oriented dense-phase coal transport system; (c) designing, fabricating and testing an improved burner for better combustion efficiency; and (d) adding deep-air-staging capabilities to the new burner to decrease NO{sub x} emissions.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Wagoner, C. L.; Foote, J. P.; Millard, W. P.; Attig, R. C. & Schulz, R. J.
open access

Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

Description: This During this quarter, work continued on development/improvement of the low-NO{sub x} coal combustor for the boiler system. Reburning tests were conducted in the external, water-cooled test duct with a length of 15 feet using ultra fine coal with propane to reduce the NO{sub x} levels to as low as 0.295 lb-NO{sub x}/MBtu. Work also continued on design/construction of the new coal-feed system that will be used for the 100-hour demonstration test with the on-line refillable coal hopper operating in air at atmospheric pressure. Coal will be loaded into the hopper from bulk bags. Initial testing of the UTSI boiler control and automation system was successful. Normally-pulverized coal with approximately 70% passing a number 200 sieve was burned in the external test duct. Initial flame-visualization tests were successful, and the burner was able to handle coal without being micronized to the ultra fine level. Refractory was poured for a new combustor second-stage assembly. Subsequently, the combustor was installed inside the 200 hp fire-tube boiler.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Wagoner, C. L.; Foote, J. P.; Millard, W. P.; Attig, R. C. & Schulz, R. J.
open access

Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, January, February, March, 1990

Description: Fabrication of repeat parts for the small area short stack is nearing completion and assembly activities are being initiated. Electrolyte reservoir plates (ERPs) were completed and processed into integral separator plates, and acid fill of parts was initiated. Fabrication of electrodes was also completed, including catalyzation and applications of seals and matrices.
Date: December 31, 1990
open access

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. Phase 1

Description: Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii`s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Kinoshita, C. M.
open access

Alkali/TX{sub 2} catalysts for CO/H{sub 2} conversion to C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols. Technical progress report, December 1989--February 1990

Description: The objective of this research is to investigate and develop novel catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols by a highly selective process. Therefore, the variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO {le}1 synthesis gas for a series of A/TX{sub 2} compounds, where A is a surface alkali dopant, T is a transition metal, and X is a S, Se, or Te, will be determined. The alkali component A, which is essential for C-O and C-C bond forming reactions leading to alcohols, will be highly dispersed on the TX{sub 2} surfaces by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical complexation/anchoring (CCA) methods. The target alcohol space time yields are of the order of 1 kg of alcohol product per kg of catalyst per hour and the target selectivity is > 90% to alcohols. Among the A/TX{sub 2} compounds initially investigated, preference will be given to A = Cs, T = Group VB element (V, Nb, Ta), and X = S or Se. So delimited A/TX{sub 2} catalysts possess the strongest base (Cs), and the CCA preparation method using crown ethers is expected not only to disperse the alkali ions atomically but also to enhance the basicity of their counterions, thus further increasing the specific rates of the base-catalyzed C-O and C-C bond forming reactions.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G.; Richards, Michelle & Bastian, Roy D.
open access

[Analysis of momentum and impurity confinment in TFTR (1990)]

Description: Work during the present grant period has been concentrated in two areas and are discussed in this report: (1) a review of momentum confinement experiments in tokamaks, of momentum confinement theories and of previous comparisons of the two; and (2) analysis and documentation of the dedicated power-scan rotation experiment performed on TFTR in September 1988.
Date: December 31, 1990
open access

The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1990

Description: The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R&D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.
Date: December 31, 1990
open access

Apportionment of multiple aerosol size distributions modes using factor analysis techniques

Description: This research in progress is concerned with developing the capability to ojectively partition aerosol size distribution data into a small number of modes, that together explain most of the variation of the observed data. It is desired to determine from analysis in the field of the optical spectrometer data when a particular mode is present and to collect filter samples to determine the chemical composition of that mode. The results would relate aerosol size distributions to chemical composition.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Williams, Allen
open access

Arctic hydrology and meteorology. Annual report

Description: During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Kane, Douglas L.
open access

An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

Description: These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G. & Revis, N.
open access

Biological Production of Ethanol From Coal. [Quarterly Report], December 22, 1989--March 21, 1990

Description: A batch kinetic study involving Clostridium lungdahlii in a mineral medium was carried out in order to provide baseline data for the effects of nutrients on product ratio and kinetics. The use of this minimal medium containing vitamins, minerals, select amino acids and salts showed both a lower maximum specific growth rate and a lower maximum specific uptake rate than found when using a complex medium supplemented with 0.01% yeast extract. At the same time, the product ratio was improved slightly in favor of ethanol over acetate. Future experiments will measure the effects of ammonia and phosphate limitation on product ratio and process kinetics.
Date: December 31, 1990
open access

Biological Production of Ethanol From Coal. [Quarterly Report], June 22, 1990--September 21, 1990

Description: Previous results have shown that the yeast extract concentration and the medium pH significantly affect the ratio of ethanol to acetate in the product stream when fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas to products by Clostridium ljungdahlii. Further experimentation has demonstrated the impact of eliminating yeast extract from the medium (except for the slight quantity transferred with the inoculm), especially when coupled with low pH. An ethanol to acetate product ratio of 4.0 was obtained at pH 4.5 without yeast extract present in the medium when using culture previously exposed to growth-limiting H{sub 2}S. The product ratio was 2.0 at pH 4.0 (nearly three times the value of pH 4.5 and nine times the value of pH 5.0) without yeast extract present in the media when using the standard (unexposed) culture.
Date: December 31, 1990
open access

Biological Production of Ethanol From Coal. [Quarterly Report], March 22, 1990--June 21, 1990

Description: The fermentation pH has been observed to be the key parameter affecting the ratio of ethanol to acetate produced by Clostridium ljungdahlii. The effects of controlled pH on cell growth and product formation by C. ljungdahlii were measured. It was found that cell concentration and acetate concentration increased with pH, while the ethanol concentration was highest at the lower pH. The molar product ratio of ethanol to acetate was 0.74 at pH 4.0, 0.39 at pH 4.5 and 0.12 at pH 5.0. Future experiments will concentrate on studying other important parameters such as agitation rate and nutrients concentrations with controlled pH as a preclude to continuous reactor studies.
Date: December 31, 1990
open access

Biological Production of Ethanol From Coal. [Quarterly Report], September 22, 1990--December 21, 1990

Description: Previous results have shown that the medium pH, the composition of the medium and concentration of medium constituents significantly affect the ratio of ethanol to acetate in the product stream when fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas to products by Clostridium ljungdahlii. An additional batch study was carried out varying the agitation rate at pH 4, 4.5 and 5.0. It was speculated that increased agitation rates in combination with low pH might result in increased ethanol production while, at the same time, yielding higher cell concentrations which could eventually result in higher ethanol concentrations.
Date: December 31, 1990
Back to Top of Screen