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Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in Lincoln and Flathead Counties, northwest Montana

Description: Between mid-May and late June 1976, 3409 water and water-transported sediment samples were collected from 1781 locations spread over an approximate 17000-km/sup 2/ area of northwestern Montana. All of the samples were analyzed for total uranium at the LASL, using standardized procedures and rigorous quality controls, the waters by fluorometry and the sediment (and those waters with greater than 10 ppb uranium) by delayed-neutron counting methods. All of the field collection, treatment, and packaging of the samples was performed following strict LASL specifications. The uranium concentrations measured in the waters range from undetectable (less than 0.2) ppb to 173.6 ppb, but average only 0.66 ppb. The low uranium concentrations in the waters of this area are thought to be due primarily to a general lack of readily soluble uranium and dilution with spring runoff. Those locations which did have abnormally high uranium were examined more closely, and follow-up field examinations are recommended in the vicinity of some of these sites. The uranium content of the sediment samples range from 0.5 ppM to 52.2 ppM and average 4.56 ppM. Sample locations with high and/or anomalous uranium values were examined with respect to the local geology, water chemistry, and other relevant factors. A distinct correlation between the high uranium in sediment and epithermal and mesothermal veins associated with nearby faults and folds is evident at several locations. Areas believed to be favorable for follow-up field investigations based on the sediment data are indicated. A correlation between high uranium in water and high uranium in sediment is evident at only a single location. The generally low uranium concentrations in water and moderate concentrations in sediment seem to indicate that most of the uranium that does exist in this area is bound up in resistant minerals.
Date: May 1, 1977
Creator: Aamodt, P. L.

Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in Lincoln and Flathead Counties, Northwest Montana

Description: From abstract: Between mid-May and late June 1976, 3409 water and water-transported sediment samples were collected from 1781 locations spread over an approximate 17 000 kilometer area of northwestern Montana. All of the samples were analyzed for total uranium at the LASL, using standardized procedures and rigorous quality controls--the waters by fluorometry and the sediment (and those waters with >10 parts per billion uranium) by delayed-neutron counting methods.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Aamodt, Paul L.

Hydraulic fracture experiments in GT-1 and GT-2

Description: Hydraulic fracturing experiments were conducted in granite rock, at temperatures near 100 and 150/sup 0/C, in two wells 0.785 km (2575 ft) and 1.98 km (6500 ft) deep near Los Alamos, New Mexico. No unusual difficulty was observed in fracturing crystalline rock hydraulically. The apparent surface energy (energy required to create new fracture surface by breaking the rock) was measured as 100 J/m/sup 2/. Orientation of the deeper fracture was measured as N35/sup 0/E (+-5/sup 0/). The fraction of fluid injected into the rock that could be recovered at hydrostatic surface pressure was measured. The efficiency of recovery was as high as 92 percent after the fracture impedance was lowered by ''propping'' the fracture with sand. Permeability of the rock over the face of the fracture was compatible with laboratory measurements (10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -8/ darcys). Downhole pressures required to extend the fractures were about 150 and 340 bars (2175 and 4900 psi), respectively.
Date: February 1, 1977
Creator: Aamodt, R. L.

Growth of molten core debris pools in concrete. Progress report, March 1, 1977--November 30, 1977. [LMFBR]

Description: Experiments have been conducted using a volumetrically-heated pool with noncondensable gas injection at the boundaries to simulate the heat transfer processes taking place in molten core debris/concrete systems. Measurements of the upward, downward, and sideward heat transfer rates have been made over wide ranges of internal Rayleigh number (6.0 x 10/sup 5/ < Ra < 2.7 x 10/sup 9/), superficial gas velocity (0 < V/sub g/ < 2.5 cm/min), and pool aspect ratio (1.32 < W/L < 5.16). Pools with either an isothermal solid upper boundary or a free surface have been examined. Detailed measurements of the temperature distribution within the pools have also been made. The results indicate that the downward heat transfer rates are significantly increased while the sideward heat transfer rates are slightly affected by gas injection. The heat transfer rates at the pool boundaries are sensitive to the upper surface boundary condition. Efforts are continuing on the second part of the present study where the phase-change and gas evolution processes are combined.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Abdel-Khalik, S I

Energy modeling and data support for the Electric Power Research Institute. Annual report, July 1977

Description: Progress for the period from July 1, 1976 to June 30, 1977 is reviewed in this second annual report in support of the Energy Modeling and Data Support program for EPRI. Reference Energy Systems were formulated for the base year 1972 and projections developed for the years 1980, 1985, and 2000 for the area serviced by the New York Power Pool. In addition, Brookhaven, EPRI, and the Tennessee Valley Authority have entered into a cooperative effort to develop demand projections for the area serviced by TVA. The RES and associated data will provide a baseline against which TVA can evaluate the effect of substituting alternate technologies and policies for one another. Development of the Dynamic Energy Systems Optimization Model is continuing, with effort this year directed toward better representation of the electrical sector within the model. The model has been reformulated such that the year is divided into three seasons and two daily divisions, thus allowing the model to choose whether a summer or winter peak will occur and better depict the yearly time dependence of demands.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Abilock, H; Beller, M; Cherniavsky, E A; Hermelee, A; Juang, L L & Marcuse, W

Neutron-induced mutation experiments. Progress report, March 1, 1977--February 28, 1978. [Drosophila female gonial cell exposure]

Description: Experiments have been carried out to study the relative mutagenic effectiveness for Drosophila female germ cells of neutrons of different energies employing X-linked recessive lethal and specific locus mutation tests. The energies and doses employed to date to study X-linked lethals are 0.43 MeV (500, 1000, 1500, 1900 R (in progress)), 0.68 MeV (250, 500, 1000, 1500 R), 2 MeV (250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 R), 6 MeV (250, 500, 1500, 3000 R) and 15 MeV (250, 500, 1000, 1500, 3000 R). 0.43-MeV neutrons appear to have an RBE in the range 1.9 to 4.7, 0.68 MeV 2.8 to 4.3, 2 MeV (incomplete data), 6 MeV 1.7 to 3.2, and 15 MeV 1.7 to 2.2. The data for 0.43-MeV and 0.68-MeV neutrons do not yet differentiate between a linear and a quadratic dose/frequency response curve for the doses studied, but suggest a quadratic relationship. The data for 2, 6 and 15 MeV are inconclusive. The specific locus mutation data indicate the highest RBE for 0.68-MeV neutrons, followed by 2 and 6 MeV, respectively.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Abrahamson, S.

Genetic effects of low x-ray doses. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977. [In Drosophila]

Description: A linear-quadratic model of dose-kinetics is proposed for x-ray induced recessive lethal mutations in oogonia of Drosophila. From this it should follow that at higher total doses fractionation treatments should give a lower yield of mutations than an equivalent acute exposure. A dose of 6000 R, given acutely and in 3 different fractionation regimes gave results in the expected direction for 2 x 3000 R, and a significant decrease for 3 x 2000 R and for 4 x 1500 R fractionations.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Abrahamson, S. & Meyer, H.U.

As low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) studies relative to the NWTS program

Description: The history of development of the as-low-as-is-reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept and ALARA criteria for radiation exposures as applied to both off-site (environmental) and on-site (occupational) exposures at nuclear power plants are reviewed. The current status of activities within the various federal agencies directed toward developing ALARA criteria for other areas of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented. Based on the historical development, the present activities, and on discussions with numerous people involved in this area, the future development of ALARA criteria and implications for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is forecast. Environmental ALARA criteria which relate to minimizing radiation to the surrounding populaltion are discussed along with current occupational ALARA criteria and quidelines for risk-benefit assessments that are under development and recommendations to assure that evolving ALARA concepts are periodically brought up to date and that such concepts be made available to those subcontractors who have responsibility for design and operation of a repository. An annotated bibliography of some 83 sources giving information on ALARA criteria and its application is included. (JRD)
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Abrams, L.A.; Schlegel, R.L. & Sullivan, R.P.

Advanced fuel cell development progress report, April--June 1977. [Electrolyte mixtures of Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ containing rod-shaped particles of. beta. -LiAlO/sub 2/]

Description: This report describes advanced fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period April--June 1977. These efforts have been directed toward understanding and improvement of molten-carbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operating at temperatures near 923 K. A primary focus of the work has been on developing electrolyte structures which have high strength and conductivity, as well as good electrolyte retention, and on developing methods of synthesis for electrolyte structures that are amenable to mass production. A low temperature synthesis which produces material having rodlike particles of ..beta..--LiAlO/sub 2/ has been refined and is now used for preparing electrolytes. Cell testing is essential for understanding and evaluating individual component behavior and the interactions of the components under realistic operating conditions. Most of the testing to date has been conducted in a 7-cm (2/sup 3///sub 4/-in.)-dia cylindrical cell with Type 316 stainless steel housings and current collectors, a nickel anode, and a nickel oxide cathode. Testing has begun to probe the roles of anode, cathode, and electrolyte in cell performance, and has provided verification of an acceptable technique for prevention of seal corrosion for at least 1400 hours. Components evaluation and development include post-test analysis and evaluation of cell components and materials, as well as development of out-of-cell diagnostic tests for the individual components. Particular attention is being paid to evaluation of the physical properties of the electrolyte and of the porous nickel and nickel oxide electrodes.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Ackerman, J P; Kinoshita, K; Sim, J W; Swaroop, R & Nelson, P A

Advanced fuel cell development. Progress report for January--March 1977.

Description: Advanced fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period January to March 1977 is described. Efforts have been directed toward understanding and improvement of molten carbonate electrolyte fuel cells operating at temperatures near 650/sup 0/C. A primary focus of the work has been on developing electrolyte structures which have high strength and conductivity, as well as good electrolyte retention, and on developing methods of synthesis for electrolyte structures that are amenable to mass production. Several synthesis methods have been investigated, and at least one appears to yield a highly desirable product and to greatly simplify production. Cell testing is essential for understanding and evaluating individual component behavior and the interactions of the components under realistic operating conditions. Most of the testing to date has been conducted in a 2/sup 3///sub 4/-in.-dia cylindrical cell with Type 316 stainless steel housings and current collectors, a nickel anode, and a nickel oxide cathode. Reproducible cell operation has been achieved in these cells, and operational parameters have been brought under control. Necessary improvements in cell components have been defined, and a systematic program of optimization has begun. Components evaluation and development include post-test analysis and evaluation of all the cell components and materials as well as development of out-of-cell diagnostic tests for the individual components. Particular attention is being paid to evaluation of the physical properties of the electrolyte and to corrosion of metallic materials in the cell housings.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Ackerman, J P; Kinoshita, K; Sim, J W; Swaroop, R & Nelson, P A

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: January-March 1978

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes the development of electrolyte structures which have good electrolyte retention and mechanical properties as well as long term stability, and on developing methods of synthesis amenable to mass production.
Date: 1977?
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, Robert Dean; Nelson, P. A.; Arons, R. M.; Kinoshita, K. et al.

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1977

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes activities directed toward understanding and improvement of molten-carbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operating at temperatures near 923 Kelvin.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, R. D.; Nelson, P. A. & Arons, R. M.

Wellsite verification testing of an advanced geothermal primary heat exchanger (APEX)

Description: The well-site test phase is described of a research program conducted by Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company to establish the feasibility of using a recirculating solid bed material to eliminate heat exchanger fouling in geothermal service. The concept was directed towards application as the primary heat exchanger in a geothermal power plant which utilizes a binary cycle. The APEX approach was shown to be effective for condenser operation with fouling cooling water. Similarly, APEX could be applied for geothermal direct heat utilization, for example, the vapor generator in an absorption refrigeration system. Phase I of this program culminated in a laboratory demonstration of APEX concept feasibility with brine simulants. Testing under the current project phase of the research effort was conducted at the Geothermal Component Test Facility at East Mesa, California. Technical feasibility was established by testing the effectiveness of the bed material in preventing the fouling of a heat exchanger test section. The elimination of fouling was demonstrated using both geothermal well water and facility cooling water as the fouling fluids.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Addoms, J.F. & Gracey, C.M.

Wellsite verification testing of an advanced geothermal primary heat exchanger (APEX). Final report 2146: 02-F, 25 September 1976-13 November 1977

Description: The well-site test phase of a research program to establish the feasibility of using a recirculating solid bed material to eliminate heat exchanger fouling in geothermal service is described. The concept was directed towards application as the primary heat exchanger in a geothermal power plant which utilizes a binary cycle. The APEX approach was shown to be effective for condenser operation with fouling cooling water. Similarly, APEX could be applied for geothermal direct heat utilization, for example, the vapor generator in an absorption refrigeration system. Phase I of this program culminated in a laboratory demonstration of APEX concept feasibility with brine simulants. Testing was conducted at the Geothermal Component Test Facility located at East Mesa, California. Technical feasibility was established by testing the effectiveness of the bed material in preventing the fouling of a heat exchanger test section. The elimination of fouling was demonstrated using both geothermal well water and facility cooling water as the fouling fluids.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Addoms, J.F. & Gracey, C.M.

A Field Test of Selected Insects and Pathogens for Control of Waterhyacinths, Report 1: Preliminary Results for the 1975-76 Season

Description: "During the growing season of 1975, a field experiment was initiated on Lake Concordia, Louisiana, to test the potential effectiveness of selected organisms as control agents against waterhyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. [...] This report describes the experiment, presents the collected data, and summarizes the observations. Statistical analyses and interpretation of the data are also presented" (abstract).
Date: September 1977
Creator: Addor, Eugene E.

Water Resources of the Maunabo Valley, Puerto Rico

Description: Report providing information about the water resources of the Munabo Valley in southeastern Puerto Rico, including the principal source of water, chemical composition, hydraulic conductivities, average transmissivity, and suggestions for water supplementation.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Adolphson, D. G.; Seijo, M. A. & Robison, T. M.

Hydrogen-engine performance-analysis project. Third quarterly report first year of program

Description: The objective of this research effort is to obtain the design data-base covering performance, operational characteristics and emissions essential for making a rational decision regarding the selection and design of prototype hydrogen-fueled, air-breathing engines capable of being manufactured for general automotive use. To this end hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines were divided into fourteen subgroups. An engine representative of each subgroup will be tested during the course of the three year program. The Project Program Plan calls for investigation of pre-intake valve closing fuel ingestion (Pre IVC) hydrogen-fueled engines during the first two years. Work accomplished during the third 3-month period of the project is reported. Activities in this quarter included: water injection experiments with the throttled and unthrottled engine mode of operation; design and construction of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) equipment for use with the EGR experiments with the throttled and unthrottled engine configuration; construction of lithium-filled exhaust valves; and analysis of data for annual report preparation purposes. (LCL)
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Adt, R. R., Jr.; Swain, M. R. & Pappas, J. M.

Hydrogen engine performance analysis project. Quarterly report

Description: The objective of this project is to address the problems identified in order to obtain the data-base covering performance, operational characteristics and emissions essential for making a rational decision regarding the selection and design of prototype hydrogen-fueled, air-breathing engines capable of being manufactured for general automotive use. The project program plan calls for investigation of pre-intake valve closing fuel ingestion (Pre IVC) hydrogen-fueled engines during the first two of the three year project. With Pre IVC engines the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber prior to closing of the intake valve. This is in contrast to Post IVC engines in which fuel is introduced in the cylinder after the intake valve closes. Post IVC engines are to be investigated during the third year according to the project program plan. This quarterly report is a summary of the work accomplished during the first three months of the project.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Adt, R.R. Jr. & Swain, M.R.