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Temperature tests of high frequency SLIFER oscillator, LEA73-2176. [For monitoring underground nuclear detonations at Nevada Test Site]

Description: SLIFER (Short Location Indication by Frequency of Electrical Resonance) systems measure stress wave velocity in solid or liquid materials. They monitor underground nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A shorted length of coaxial cable is a component in an oscillator's tank circuit. This sensor cable is inductive when less than one-fourth wavelength long at the oscillator's resonant frequency. The stress wave from a detonation crushes and shorts this sensor cable. As the short proceeds, inductance decreases and oscillator frequency increases. Later we convert frequency vs time to shock-front position vs time. Some doubt existed about the reliable operation of the oscillators in cold weather. Therefore these tests were conducted to check their reliability under several conditions: (1) at temperatures from -40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C; (2) with three sensor cable lengths; (3) with sensor cables shorted or open at the far end; and (4) at two input power voltages. Results are presented.
Date: June 7, 1976
Creator: Aaron, Carl C., Jr.

Environmental tests of the Meteorological Data Acquisition system's remote station

Description: We subjected the Meteorological Data Acquisition (MEDA) remote station hardware to temperature, vibration, and road tests. The MEDA equipment was designed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) for the Air Resources Laboratory (ARL). ARL supplied all MEDA sensors. The prototype system passed these tests.
Date: May 10, 1976
Creator: Aaron, Jr., C. C.

Prototype gauge for measuring contour and wall thicknesses of hemispherical parts. [Interferometer]

Description: A prototype gauge (gage) was designed and fabricated using air bearings in a new configuration to provide less error and distortion during inspection of hemispherical parts. No wear occurs on the moving parts during operations and accuracy of alignment is maintained. The gauge will check outside radial distance, inside radial, and outside radial and wall, and inner radial and wall thicknesses of parts. The gauge contains only four moving parts, which increases the measuring accuracy. A horizontal table rotates. A table mounted on the horizontal table at 45/sup 0/ rotates through two transducers. All moving parts are mounted on hydrostatic gas bearings. Laser interferometric, air-bearing gauge heads are used to obtain the required data. Investigation of a hemispherical part is in any desired spiral path from equator to pole. Measurement information is obtained from two laser interferometric transducers using linear air bearings. The transducers use a Spectra Physics Model-120 helium and neon laser. Working range of each transducer is 1.5 inches. The fringe voltage signals are amplified and converted to inches to be displayed on a digital readout. A punched paper tape contains the nominal inside diameter (ID) and outside diameter (OD) information in Binary Coded Decimal form. The tape is fed into a digital computer which calculates error information on ID, OD, and wall thickness. This information is converted to analog form and displayed simultaneously on a strip-chart recorder.
Date: March 1, 1976
Creator: Aarts, H. J. & Robertson, J. H.

Rankine cycle energy conversion system design considerations for low and intermediate temperature sensible heat sources. Geothermal, waste heat, and solar thermal conversion

Description: Design considerations are described for energy conversion systems for low and intermediate temperature sensible heat sources such as found in geothermal, waste heat, and solar-thermal applications. It is concluded that the most cost effective designs for the applications studied did not require the most efficient thermodynamic cycle, but that the efficiency of the energy conversion hardware can be a key factor.
Date: October 1, 1976
Creator: Abbin, J. P. Jr.

Diffusion of gases in solids: rare gas diffusion in solids; tritium diffusion in fission and fusion reactor metals. Final report

Description: Major results of tritium and rare gas diffusion research conducted under the contract are summarized. The materials studied were austenitic stainless steels, Zircaloy, and niobium. In all three of the metal systems investigated, tritium release rates were found to be inhibited by surface oxide films. The effective diffusion coefficients that control tritium release from surface films on Zircaloy and niobium were determined to be eight to ten orders of magnitude lower than the bulk diffusion coefficients. A rapid component of diffusion due to grain boundaries was identified in stainless steels. The grain boundary diffusion coefficient was determined to be about six orders of magnitude greater than the bulk diffusion coefficient for tritium in stainless steel. In Zircaloy clad fuel pins, the permeation rate of tritium through the cladding is rate-limited by the extremely slow diffusion rate in the surface films. Tritium diffusion rates through surface oxide films on niobium appear to be controlled by cracks in the surface films at temperatures up to 600/sup 0/C. Beyond 600/sup 0/C, the cracks appear to heal, thereby increasing the activation energy for diffusion through the oxide film. The steady-state diffusion of tritium in a fusion reactor blanket has been evaluated in order to calculate the equilibrium tritium transport rate, approximate time to equilibrium, and tritium inventory in various regions of the reactor blanket as a function of selected blanket parameters. Values for these quantities have been tabulated.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Abraham, P. M.; Chandra, D.; Mintz, J. M.; Elleman, T. S. & Verghese, K.

Neutron-induced mutation experiments. Progress report, March 1, 1976--February 28, 1977. [In Drosophila]

Description: Results are from studies of experiments in Drosophila on the relative mutagenic effectiveness of neutrons of different energies employing X-linked recessive lethal and specific locus mutation tests. The energies and doses employed to data are .43 MeV (500, 1000, and 1500 R, in progress), .68 MeV (250, 500, 1000, and 1500 R), 2 and 6 MeV (250 and 500 R), and 15 MeV (250, 500, 1000, 1500 and 3000 R). .68 MeV neutrons appear to have an RBE between 3.3 to 4.5, 15 MeV neutrons an RBE between 1.9 to 2.2, and 2 and 6 MeV neutrons RBE's of intermediate values. The data for both .68 and 15 MeV neutrons do not yet differentiate between a linear and quadratic dose/frequency response curve for the doses studied. The specific locus mutation data also indicate the highest RBE for .68 MeV, followed by 2 and 6 MeV respectively.
Date: November 1, 1976
Creator: Abrahamson, S.

Genetic effects of low x-ray doses. Progress report, October 1, 1975--September 30, 1976. [Drosophila oogonia]

Description: Experiments on dose-kinetics of x-ray induced sexlinked lethal mutations in Drosophila oogonia were continued. A wide range of doses was tested, with special emphasis on the low-dose range (20 to 500R). This year more data were added for O R, 200, 500, 1500R and some high doses. Oogonia of adult females were irradiated, and only one daughter from each experimental parent-female was analyzed for a new lethal in her maternal X-chromosome. Thus no clusters of mutations of identical origin are encountered. The extensive accumulated data do not support the linearity principle, firmly established for recessive mutations induced in mature spermatozoa for high doses down to very low x-ray doses. A mathematical model describing the mutational yield is included that suggests that recessive mutations, like chromosome aberrations, result from both one-track and two-track events, with the latter playing an increasingly important role at higher doses.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Abrahamson, S. & Meyer, H. U.

Brownian motion of interacting particles

Description: Guided by the descriptions which are used to describe noninteracting particles, it is argued that the generalized Smoluchowski equation, including the hydrodynamic interaction and corrections for ion cloud effects may be used to describe interacting particles for the temporal and spatial regimes probed by light beating spectroscopy. This equation is then used to find cumulants of decay of the intermediate scattering function. The generalized Smoluchowski equation is reduced to a simple diffusion equation. The resulting diffusion constant depends upon the interparticle forces and is reminiscent of some early descriptions for interacting systems. The generalized Smoluchowski equation is solved for the model system of a linear chain of colloidal particles interacting via nearest neighbor harmonic couplings. The results for the intermediate scattering function and the static structure factor are very reminiscent of corresponding measurements made for interacting colloidal systems. (GHT)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Ackerson, B. J.

Distribution of xenon between gaseous and liquid CO/sub 2/

Description: The distribution of xenon at low concentrations between gaseous and liquid CO/sub 2/ was measured over essentially the entire liquid range of CO/sub 2/. These measurements involved using a collimated radiation-detection cell to determine the relative quantities of /sup 133/Xe-traced xenon in the separate phases contained in a vertical cylinder under isothermal conditions. The results are expressed in terms of a distribution ratio (mole fraction of xenon in the gaseous phase divided by mole fraction of xenon in the liquid phase) which decreased from 7.53 at -54.8/sup 0/C to 1.10 at 30.5/sup 0/C. These data were used to calculate various other solubility-related quantities.
Date: October 1, 1976
Creator: Ackley, R. D. & Notz, K. J.

Research and development efforts relative to superconducting materials. Final report. [Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes]

Description: Three processes for the production of low-loss superconducting tapes of Nb/sub 3/Sn were investigated. They are the rolled-bronze process, the electron beam (EB) bronze deposition process, and the high-rate sputtering process. Shortly after the start of the investigation, effort on the last two processes was suspended because the process-development time that would be needed to arrive at a suitable transmission-line tape appeared most likely to be the shortest with the rolled-bronze process. Long lengths of Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were prepared by the rolled-bronze process from extruded and rolled bronze-clad niobium billets. Tapes were stabilized by removing the bronze layer after reaction and then coating the exposed Nb/sub 3/Sn with high-purity copper by EB evaporation. Several meters of high quality Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were produced by the rolled-bronze process. Even when the tapes were stabilized with copper, the losses were as low as 1.8 ..mu..W/cm/sup 2/ at 4.2 K and a surface current density of 500 rms A/cm. Despite early curtailment of the effort on the EB bronze-deposition process, short samples of Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were produced.
Date: April 1, 1976
Creator: Adam, E; Beishcher, P; Marancik, W; Lucariello, R & Young, M

SYN3D: a Single-Channel, Spatial Flux Synthesis Code for Diffusion Theory Calculations

Description: This report is a user's manual for SYN3D, a computer code which uses single-channel, spatial flux synthesis to calculate approximate solutions to two- and three-dimensional, finite-difference, multi-group neutron diffusion theory equations. SYN3D is designed to run in conjunction with any one of several one- and two-dimensional, finite-difference codes (required to generate the synthesis expansion functions) currently being used in the fast reactor community. The report describes the theory and equations, the use of the code, and the implementation on the IBM 370/195 and CDC 7600 of the version of SYN3D available through the Argonne Code Center.
Date: 1976
Creator: Adams, C. H.

LX-13 component development scale up evaluation

Description: The intermediate phase oif the continuous PETN process development has been completed. After the initial development oif the process on a small scale, the intermediate step was to determine if the process will scale up to a production lot size and still maintain adequate performance. Preliminary data indicate that this process is feasible on a production scale. Three 18-kg lots (production size) showed good repeatable performance, firing on all tracks while maintaining acceptable extrudability.
Date: October 1, 1976
Creator: Adams, J. C.; Osborn, A. G. & Stallings, T. L.

LX-13 processing. Progress report, January--March 1976

Description: Results were obtained from two LX-13 lots formulated from PETN precipitated at a reduced temperature by the continuous method. The firing performance of the LX-13 was significantly improved while maintaining acceptable extrudability. Burning was complete in all of the tracks. Three additional PETN batches have been precipitated at reduced temperatures in order to further evaluate the effect of reduced temperatures on extrudability and detonability. One of these PETN batches was scaled up to the production PETN batch size of 18 kg.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Adams, J. C.; Osborn, A. G. & Stallings, T. L.

Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 2. Surry Power Plants, Units 1 and 2

Description: A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 1 and 2 of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant was carried out for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1973 through 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The two primary methods used for temperature monitoring employ a fixed thermographs network and boat measurements. Review of data indicates that both the application and formulation of the hydrothermal monitoring program are inadequate to fully characterize the operation of the plant and the behavior of the thermal plume. Furthermore, there are no existing data that can be used to adequately verify or disprove the validity of the various Surry plume predictions. The ecological analysis includes validation of impacts predicted in the Final Environmental Statement using the operational monitoring data. Phytoplankton cell concentrations, chlorophyll a, and carbon-14 measurements were used to monitor changes in the primary producers. Densities of consumers (i.e., zooplankton, benthos, and fish) were sed to monitor changes in the primary producers. Models based on operating data were constructed to determine whether changes were occurring at each trophic level. Analysis of the monitoring data suggests that the thermal discharges at Surry are having a negative effect on the phytoplankton and zooplankton but are enhancing the benthic and nekton populations in the discharge area.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Cunningham, P. A.; Gray, D. D. & Kumar, K. D.

Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

Description: A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Cunningham, P. A.; Gray, D. D. & Kumar, K. D.

Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Program description, summary, and recommendations. Vol. 1

Description: A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for eight nuclear power plants was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory commission. This report includes a summary of the screening phase in which the adequacy of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data for each plant were evaluated, and the summary and recommendations resulting from a detailed examination of the three nuclear power plants selected in the initial screening.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Cunningham, P. A.; Gray, D. D.; Kumar, K. D. & Witten, A. J.

Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 3. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3

Description: A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant was conducted for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1967 through 1976. Specific recommendations are made for improving both the present hydrothermal and ecological monitoring programs. Hydrothermal monitoring would be improved by more complete reporting of in-plant operating parameters. In addition, the present boat surveys could be discontinued, and monitoring efforts could be directed toward expanding the present thermograph network. Ecological monitoring programs were judged to be of high quality because standardized collection techniques, consistent reporting formats, and statistical analyses were performed on all of the data and were presented in an annual report. Sampling for all trophic groups was adequate for the purposes of assessing power plant induced perturbations. Considering the extensive period of preoperational data (six years) and operational data (three years) available for analysis, consideration could be given to reducing monitoring effort after data have been collected for a period when both units are operating at full capacity. In this way, an assessment of the potential ecological impact of the Peach Bottom facility can be made under conditions of maximum plant induced perturbations.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Cunningham, P. A.; Gray, D. D.; Kumar, K. D. & Witten, A. J.

Safety analysis report for packaging: DOT-7A fiberglass-coated plywood box for transuranium solid waste

Description: A DOT Specification 7A, fiberglass-coated plywood box for shipping alpha-emitting transuranic waste has been developed. Nominal size for the box is 4 by 4 by 7 ft; maximum gross weight is 5000 lb. Construction is of /sup 3///sub 4/-in. plywood with internal framing members of 2- by 4-in. lumber. The entire box, including the glued and nailed lid, is covered with a 0.12-in.-thick fiberglass coating. The required four-foot drop tests were passed without the box being damaged. Additional drops from 12 ft resulted in some cracking in a 2600-lb box and in cracking plus some loss of contents in a test box loaded to 5700 lb. A static load of 25,000 lb caused no deformation or damage. This box costs $3.50/ft/sup 3/, which is approximately half the cost of steel drums with rigid polyethylene liners.
Date: July 23, 1976
Creator: Adcock, F. E. & Cash, C. L.

Advanced geothermal primary heat exchanger (APEX). Quarterly progress report Q-3, 1 January 1976-31 March 1976

Description: The APEX program is designed to investigate the concept that a continuously recirculating flow of fine solid particles in the brine stream will substantially retard the formation of scale in the primary heat exchanger. The primary technical effort during this reporting period has been the installation, checkout and calibration of the test system under a variety of flow conditions. The baseline heat transfer tests and the baseline recirculating bed tests have been completed. Work is in progress for the characterization of candidate geothermal fluid simulants. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Addoms, J. F.

Advanced geothermal primary heat exchanger (APEX). Quarterly progress report Q-4, 1 October 1976-31 December 1976

Description: The current program status relative to the schedule and key mileposts is described. The technical progress meetings held between ALRC and LBL personnel are summarized. A technical discussion is presented covering the experiment design, process equipment selection and laboratory testing. The process flow schematic is described with the rationale for the selected approach. The process and instrumentation schematics are reviewed in detail and the operation of each test loop is described. The selected process equipment is itemized and reviewed. The status of laboratory testing at Aerojet for selected component evaluation prior to system assembly is described. A detailed test plan for laboratory and on-site field testing was prepared. The work effort planned is described. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Addoms, J.F.