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1 mil gold bond wire study.

Description: In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W. & Rutherford, Brian Milne
open access

3-D Ray-tracing and 2-D Fokker-Planck Simulations of Radiofrequency Application to Tokamak Plasmas

Description: A state of the art numerical tool has been developed to simulate the propagation and the absorption of coexisting different types of waves in a tokamak geometry. The code includes a numerical solution of the three-dimensional (R, Z, {Phi}) toroidal wave equation for the electric field of the different waves in the WKBJ approximation. At each step of integration, the two-dimensional (v{sub {parallel}}, v{sub {perpendicular}}) Fokker-Planck equation is solved in the presence of quasilinear diffusion coefficients. The electron Landau damping of the waves is modeled taking into account the interaction of the wave electric fields with the quasilinearly modified distribution function. Consistently, the code calculates the radial profiles of non-inductively generated current densities, the transmitted power traces and the total power damping curves. Synergistic effects among the different type of waves (e.g., lower hybrid and ion Bernstein waves) are studied through the separation of the contributions of the single wave from the effects due to their coexistence.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Cardinali, A.; Paoletti, F. & Bernabei, S.
open access

7-GeV advanced photon source beamline initiative: Conceptual design report

Description: The DOE is building a new generation 6-7 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source known as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility, to be completed in FY 1996, can provide 70 x-ray sources of unprecedented brightness to meet the research needs of virtually all scientific disciplines and numerous technologies. The technological research capability of the APS in the areas of energy, communications and health will enable a new partnership between the DOE and US industry. Current funding for the APS will complete the current phase of construction so that scientists can begin their applications in FY 1996. Comprehensive utilization of the unique properties of APS beams will enable cutting-edge research not currently possible. It is now appropriate to plan to construct additional radiation sources and beamline standard components to meet the excess demands of the APS users. In this APS Beamline Initiative, 2.5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on four straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional four bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these eight x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build standard beamline components to meet scientific and technological research demands of the Collaborative Access Teams. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Beamline Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Beamline Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.
Date: May 1, 1993
open access

7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Beamline Initiative. Conceptual Design Report

Description: The DOE is building a new generation 6-7 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source known as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility, to be completed in FY 1996, can provide 70 x-ray sources of unprecedented brightness to meet the research needs of virtually all scientific disciplines and numerous technologies. The technological research capability of the APS in the areas of energy, communications and health will enable a new partnership between the DOE and US industry. Current funding for the APS will complete the current phase of construction so that scientists can begin their applications in FY 1996. Comprehensive utilization of the unique properties of APS beams will enable cutting-edge research not currently possible. It is now appropriate to plan to construct additional radiation sources and beamline standard components to meet the excess demands of the APS users. In this APS Beamline Initiative, 2.5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on four straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional four bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these eight x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build standard beamline components to meet scientific and technological research demands of the Collaborative Access Teams. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Beamline Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. The document also describes the preconstruction R & D plans for the Beamline Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R & D.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
open access

10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion

Description: The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located in the ATR Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), was constructed in the 1960s for the purpose of irradiating reactor fuels and materials. Other irradiation services, such as radioisotope production, are also performed at ATR. The ATR is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) matrix (UAlx) in an aluminum sandwich plate cladding. The National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) strategic mission includes efforts to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at civilian sites around the world. Converting research reactors from using HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) was originally started in 1978 as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Within this strategic mission, GTRI has three goals that provide a comprehensive approach to achieving this mission: The first goal, the driver for the modification that is the subject of this determination, is to convert research reactors from using HEU to LEU. Thus the mission of the ATR LEU Fuel Conversion Project is to convert the ATR and Advanced Test Reactor Critical facility (ATRC) (two of the six U.S. High-Performance Research Reactors [HPRR]) to LEU fuel by 2017. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Christensen, Boyd D.; Lehto, Michael A. & Duckwitz, Noel R.
open access

10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Advanced Test Reactor RDAS and LPCIS Replacement

Description: The replacement of the ATR Control Complex's obsolete computer based Reactor Data Acquisition System (RDAS) and its safety-related Lobe Power Calculation and Indication System (LPCIS) software application is vitally important to ensure the ATR remains available to support this national mission. The RDAS supports safe operation of the reactor by providing 'real-time' plant status information (indications and alarms) for use by the reactor operators via the Console Display System (CDS). The RDAS is a computer support system that acquires analog and digital information from various reactor and reactor support systems. The RDAS information is used to display quadrant and lobe powers via a display interface more user friendly than that provided by the recorders and the Control Room upright panels. RDAS provides input to the Nuclear Engineering ATR Surveillance Data System (ASUDAS) for fuel burn-up analysis and the production of cycle data for experiment sponsors and the generation of the Core Safety Assurance Package (CSAP). RDAS also archives and provides for retrieval of historical plant data which may be used for event reconstruction, data analysis, training and safety analysis. The RDAS, LPCIS and ASUDAS need to be replaced with state-of-the-art technology in order to eliminate problems of aged computer systems, and difficulty in obtaining software upgrades, spare parts, and technical support. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project design did not lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification. The negative major modification determination is driven by the fact that the project requires a one-for-one equivalent replacement of existing systems that protects and maintains functional and operational requirements as credited in the safety basis.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Korns, David E.
open access

10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement

Description: The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnel’s capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007.Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent sub-projects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the fifty year old antiquated marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety-related emergency diesel generators (EDGs), switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply. The second project will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps and motors. The third project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the current emergency firewater injection system (EFIS). The replacement water injection system will function as the primary emergency water injection system with the EFIS being retained as a defense-in-depth backup. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus (E-3) and switchgear and replacement of the existent aged primary coolant pumps and motors) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion …
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Duckwitz, Noel
open access

10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Replacement of ATR Primary Coolant Pumps and Motors

Description: The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnel’s capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007.Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the 50-year-old obsolescent marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety related emergency diesel generators, switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The second project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps (PCPs) and motors. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus [E-3] and switchgear and replacement of the existent emergency firewater injection system) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The proposed strategy for equipping the replacement PCPs with VFDs and having the PCPs also function as ECPs will require significant safety …
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Duckwitz, Noel
open access

10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

Description: Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: • Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. • Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. • Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. 2. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary object to maintain or reduce CDF and does not negatively affect the efficacy of the currently approved strategy. 3. …
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Duckwtiz, Noel
open access

20% Wind Energy - Diversifying Our Energy Portfolio and Addressing Climate Change (Brochure)

Description: This brochure describes the R&D efforts needed for wind energy to meet 20% of the U.S. electrical demand by 2030. In May 2008, DOE published its report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, which presents an in-depth analysis of the potential for wind energy in the United States and outlines a potential scenario to boost wind electric generation from its current production of 16.8 gigawatts (GW) to 304 GW by 2030. According to the report, achieving 20% wind energy by 2030 could help address climate change by reducing electric sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 825 million metric tons (20% of the electric utility sector CO2 emissions if no new wind is installed by 2030), and it will enhance our nation's energy security by diversifying our electricity portfolio as wind energy is an indigenous energy source with stable prices not subject to fuel volatility. According to the report, increasing our nation's wind generation could also boost local rural economies and contribute to significant growth in manufacturing and the industry supply chain. Rural economies will benefit from a substantial increase in land use payments, tax benefits and the number of well-paying jobs created by the wind energy manufacturing, construction, and maintenance industries. Although the initial capital costs of implementing the 20% wind scenario would be higher than other generation sources, according to the report, wind energy offers lower ongoing energy costs than conventional generation power plants for operations, maintenance, and fuel. The 20% scenario could require an incremental investment of as little as $43 billion (net present value) more than a base-case no new wind scenario. This would represent less than 0.06 cent (6 one-hundredths of 1 cent) per kilowatt-hour of total generation by 2030, or roughly 50 cents per month per household. The report concludes that while achieving the 20% wind …
Date: May 1, 2008
open access

25 Can Verification Report for the LLNL Plutonium Packaging System (PuPS)

Description: This document reports the results of the 25 Can Verification Run. The 25 Can Verification Run was performed as outlined in Section 1.d of SRS Acceptance Criteria (Reference 1). The run was performed over the period of February 16 to the 28, 2001. Each of these cans was welded with a dummy Inner Can containing about 5 kg of surrogate material. The cans were then analyzed using radiography and metallography of samples taken at four locations of the weld. The radiographs were examined for porosity. The micrographs of the metallurgical samples were examined for porosity, cracks, and lack of fusion. The results were reviewed by Derrill Rikard (a level 3 inspector at LLNL) and by Ken Durland (a level 3 inspector from WSRC). These reviews did not find anything of concern. Therefore we are submitting these results to SRS for concurrence.
Date: May 7, 2001
Creator: Riley, D C & Dodson, K E
open access

25 content of initial lots of Hanford UO{sub 3}

Description: At the time the first UO{sub 3} from so-called ``full-level`` Redox runs was shipped from 224U, the % U{sub 235} as determined in 222-S appeared high when compared with theoretical values from the burn-out curve. Close agreement between the 222-S results and % U{sub 235} determined by K-25 on lots 007, 008, and 009, however, indicated that a considerable heel of cold uranium in Redox had been blended with the first ``full level`` material. This explanation has been verified by data collected over the past weeks and provided this report. It has also been verified by the % U{sub 235} found in lots later than 010* (after most of cold uranium flushed out of Redox) which ranged from 0.66% to 0.64%.
Date: May 28, 1952
Creator: Work, J. B.
open access

26 - LMFBR flexible pipe joint development

Description: Objective is the qualification of a PLBR-size primary loop flexible piping joint to the ASME Band PVC rules. Progress and activities are reported for: Class 1 flexible joint code approval support, engineering and design, material development, component testing, and manufacturing development. (DLC)
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Anderson, R.V.
open access

35 Years of Water Policy: The 1973 National Water Commission and Present Challenges

Description: This report presents the National Water Commission's (NWC) recommendations and analyzes how issues targeted by the recommendations have evolved during the intervening years. The report focuses on key federal-level recommendations, thereby targeting what has been accomplished since 1973, what issues remain unresolved, and what additional concerns have developed.
Date: May 11, 2009
Creator: Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.
open access

45-day safety screen results and final report for Tank 241-C-203, Auger samples 95 AUG-020 and 95-AUG-021

Description: This document serves as the 45-day report deliverable for the tank C-203 auger samples collected on April 5, 1995 (samples 95-AUG-20 and 95-AUG-021). As no secondary analyses were required and no other analyses have been requested, this document also serves as the final report for C-203 auger sampling. Each sample was received, extruded, and analyzed by the 222-S Laboratories in accordance with the Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) referenced below. Included in this report are the primary safety screening results (DSC, TGA, and alpha) and density results. The worklists and raw data are included in this report. Photographs of the auger samples were taken during extrusion and, although not included in this report, are available.
Date: May 18, 1995
Creator: Conner, J.M.
open access

45-Day safety screen results for Tank 241-B-112, auger samples 95-AUG-014 and 95-AUG-015

Description: Two auger samples from Tank 241-B-112 (B-112) were received in the 222-S Laboratories and underwent safety screening analyses, consisting of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and total alpha activity. All results for all analyses (DSC, TGA, and total alpha) were within the safety screening notification limits specified in the Tank Characterization Plan (TCP). No notification nor secondary analyses were required. Tank B-112 is not part of any of the four Watch Lists.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Conner, J.M.
open access

45-Day safety screen results for Tank 241-C-101, auger sample 95-AUG-019

Description: One auger sample from Tank 241-C-101 was received by the 222-S Laboratory and underwent safety screening analyses--differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and total alpha analysis--in accordance with the tank characterization plan. Analytical results for the TGA on the crust sample (the uppermost portion of the auger sample) (sample number S95T000823) were less than the safety screening notification limit of 17 weight percent water. Verbal and written notifications were made on May 3, 1995. No exotherms were observed in the DSC analyses and the total alpha results were well below the safety screening notification limit. This report includes the primary safety screening results obtained from the analyses and copies of all DSC and TGA raw data scans as requested per the TCP. Although not included in this report, a photograph of the extruded sample was taken and is available. This report also includes bulk density measurements required by Characterization Plant Engineering. Additional analyses (pH, total organic carbon, and total inorganic carbon) are being performed on the drainable liquid at the request of Characterization Process Control; these analyses will be reported at a later date in a final report for this auger sample. Tank C-101 is not part of any of the four Watch Lists.
Date: May 11, 1995
Creator: Sasaki, L.M.
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