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The 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel at the Washington Navy Yard

Description: Report discussing the 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel and its auxiliary equipment has proven itself capable of continuous and reliable output of data. The real value of the tunnel will increase as experience is gained in checking the observed tunnel performance against full-scale performance. Such has been the case of the 8- by 8-foot tunnel, and for that reason the comparison in the calibration tests have been presented.
Date: August 1935
Creator: Desmond, G L & Mccrary, J A

The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues

Description: This report provides a brief history of the 8(a) Program, summarizes key requirements, and discusses legal challenges alleging that the program's presumption that members of certain racial and ethnic groups are socially disadvantaged violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection.
Date: October 12, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Luckey, John R.

8(a) Program: Fourteen Ineligible Firms Received $325 Million in Sole-Source and Set-Aside Contracts

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Small Business Administration (SBA) helps socially and economically disadvantaged small businesses gain access to federal contracting opportunities through its 8(a) program. To participate, firms must be at least 51 percent owned and controlled by an individual who meets SBA's criteria of socially and economically disadvantaged. The firm must also qualify as a small business. Once certified, 8(a) firms are eligible to receive sole-source and set-aside contracts for up to 9 years. GAO was asked to (1) determine whether ineligible firms are participating in the 8(a) program, (2) proactively test SBA's controls over the 8(a) application process, and (3) determine what vulnerabilities, if any, exist in SBA's fraud prevention system. To identify cases, GAO reviewed SBA data and complaints to GAO's fraud hotline. To perform its proactive testing, GAO created four bogus businesses and applied for 8(a) certification. GAO did not attempt to project the extent of fraud and abuse in the program."
Date: March 30, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

9/11 Commission Recommendations: A Civil Liberties Oversight Board

Description: This report discusses the recommendation made by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission) regarding the creation of a board within the executive branch to oversee adherence to guidelines on, and the commitment to defend, civil liberties by the federal government.
Date: December 22, 2004
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.

15 Mile Road/Edison Corridor Sewer Tunnel Failure Study, Detroit Area, Michigan

Description: Partial abstract: "The study consisted of field and laboratory investigations, construction evaluation, and geotechnical and structural analyses to determine the cause(s) of distress and failure of a 2600-ft section of 12-ft 9-in. diameter concrete-lined sanitary sewer tunnel in the Detroit, Mich., area. [...] The report includes summaries of all pertinent construction records, results of all pertinent past and current field and laboratory tests on construction and geotechnical materials, and detailed geotechnical and structural analyses based on observed conditions and measured parameters."
Date: January 1981
Creator: Albert, Dick

35 Years of Water Policy: The 1973 National Water Commission and Present Challenges

Description: This report presents the National Water Commission's (NWC) recommendations and analyzes how issues targeted by the recommendations have evolved during the intervening years. The report focuses on key federal-level recommendations, thereby targeting what has been accomplished since 1973, what issues remain unresolved, and what additional concerns have developed.
Date: May 11, 2009
Creator: Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.

S. 147/H.R. 309: Process for Federal Recognition of a Native Hawaiian Governmental Entity

Description: S. 147/H.R. 309, companion bills introduced in the 109th Congress, represent an effort to accord to Native Hawaiians a means of forming a governmental entity that could enter into government-to-government relations with the United States. This report describes the provisions of the reported version of S. 147; outlines some federal statutes and recent cases which might be relevant to the issue of federal recognition of a Native Hawaiian entity; and recounts some legal arguments that have been presented in the debate on this legislation. It includes a brief outline of the provisions of a substitute amendment expected to be offered in lieu of the reported version of S. 147, when Senate debate, which was interrupted by the filing of a cloture motion on July 29, resumes.
Date: September 27, 2005
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen

401(K) Plans: Certain Investment Options and Practices That May Restrict Withdrawals Not Widely Understood

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "401(k) plan sponsors are responsible for offering an array of appropriate investment options, and participants are responsible for directing their investments among those options. While participants expect to be able to switch investment options or withdraw money from their accounts, during the recent economic downturn, some 401(k) plan sponsors and participants found that they were restricted from doing so. GAO was asked to (1) identify some of the specific investments and practices that prevented plan sponsors and participants from accessing their 401(k) plan assets and (2) determine any changes the Department of Labor (Labor) could make to assist sponsors in understanding the challenges posed by the investments and practices that restricted withdrawals. To do this, GAO reviewed relevant federal laws and regulations and consulted with experts, federal officials, service providers, and plan sponsors."
Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

401(K) Plans: Improved Regulation Could Better Protect Participants from Conflicts of Interest

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Recent volatility in financial markets highlights the need for prudent investment decisions if 401(k) plans are to provide an adequate source of retirement income. While plan sponsors and participants may receive help in assessing their investment choices, concerns have been raised about the impartiality of the advice provided. GAO was asked to describe circumstances where service providers may have conflicts of interest in providing assistance related to the selection of investment options for (1) plan sponsors and (2) plan participants, and (3) steps the Department of Labor (Labor) has taken to address conflicts of interest related to the selection of investment options."
Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

401(k) Plans: Increased Educational Outreach and Broader Oversight May Help Reduce Plan Fees

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Plan sponsors and participants paid a range of fees for services, though smaller plans typically paid higher fees as a percentage of plan assets. For example, the average amount sponsors of small plans reported paying for recordkeeping and administrative services was 1.33 percent of assets annually, compared with 0.15 percent paid by sponsors of large plans. Larger plans were more likely to pass recordkeeping fees along to participants, but when fees were passed along to participants in small plans, those in large plans paid lower fees than those in small plans. Participants also paid for investment and plan consulting fees—through fees deducted from their plan assets—in more instances than sponsors."
Date: April 24, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

401(K) Plans: Labor and IRS Could Improve the Rollover Process for Participants

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The current rollover process favors distributions to individual retirement accounts (IRA). Waiting periods to roll into a new employer plan, complex verification procedures to ensure savings are tax-qualified, wide divergences in plans' paperwork, and inefficient practices for processing rollovers make IRA rollovers an easier and faster choice, especially given that IRA providers often offer assistance to plan participants when they roll their savings into an IRA. The Department of Labor (Labor) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) provide oversight and guidance for this process generally and can take steps to make plan-to-plan rollovers more efficient, such as reducing the waiting period to roll over into a 401(k) plan and improving the asset verification process. Such actions could help make staying in the 401(k) plan environment a more viable option, allowing participants to make distribution decisions based on their financial circumstances rather than on convenience."
Date: March 7, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

401(k) Plans: Other Countries' Experiences Offer Lessons in Policies and Oversight of Spend-down Options

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The six countries GAO reviewed can offer U.S. regulators lessons on how to expand access to a mix of spend-down options for 401(k) participants that meet various retirement needs. Five of the six countries generally ensure that participants can choose among three main plan options: a lump sum payment, a programmed withdrawal of participants' savings, or an annuity. In the last several decades, all the countries took steps to increase participant access to multiple spend-down options, with some first conducting reviews of participants' retirement needs that resulted in policy changes, as shown below. In the United States, 401(k) plans typically offer only lump sums, leaving some participants at risk of outliving their savings. The U.S. Departments of Labor (DOL) and the Treasury (Treasury) have begun to explore the possibility of expanding options for participants, but have not yet helped plan sponsors address key challenges to offering a mix of options through their plan."
Date: November 20, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

401(k) Plans: Policy Changes Could Reduce the Long-term Effects of Leakage on Workers' Retirement Savings

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Under federal regulations, 401(k) participants may tap into their accrued retirement savings before retirement under certain circumstances, including hardship. This "leakage" from 401(k) accounts can result in a permanent loss of retirement savings. GAO was asked to analyze (1) the incidence, amount, and relative significance of the different forms of 401(k) leakage; (2) how plans inform participants about hardship withdrawal provisions, loan provisions, and options at job separation, including the short- and long-term costs of each; and (3) how various policies may affect the incidence of leakage. To address these matters, GAO analyzed federal and 401(k) industry data and interviewed federal officials, pension experts, and plan administrators responsi- ble for managing the majority of 401(k) participants and assets."
Date: August 28, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

501(c)(3) Hospitals and the Community Benefit Standard

Description: This report examines the standard under which hospitals qualify for tax-exempt charitable status under federal law, recent inquiries made by Congress and the IRS into whether hospitals are conducting sufficient activities to justify their exemption, and section 6007 of S. 1796.
Date: November 10, 2009
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Liu, Edward C.

501(c)(4)s and the Gift Tax: Legal Analysis

Description: This report discusses whether substantial donations to tax-exempt 501(c)(4) organizations are subject to the federal gift tax.
Date: August 10, 2012
Creator: Luckey, John R. & Lunder, Erika K.

S. 852: The Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution Act of 2005

Description: This report provides an overview of S. 852, the Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution (FAIR) Act of 2005. The bill would establish the Office of Asbestos Disease Compensation to award damages to asbestos claimants from the Asbestos Injury Claims Resolution Fund.
Date: February 7, 2006
Creator: Cohen, Henry

911 Services: Most States Used 911 Funds for Intended Purposes, but FCC Could Improve Its Reporting on States' Use of Funds

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Although states faced challenges and delays in the past, states have made significant progress implementing wireless Enhanced 911 (E911) since 2003. Wireless E911 deployment usually proceeds through two phases: Phase I provides general caller location information by identifying the cell tower or cell site that is receiving the wireless call; Phase II provides more precise caller-location information, usually within 50 to 300 meters. Currently, according to the National Emergency Number Association (NENA), nearly 98 percent of 911 call centers, known as Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs), are capable of receiving Phase I location information, and 97 percent have implemented Phase II for at least one wireless carrier. This represents a significant improvement since 2003 when implementation of Phase I was 65 percent and Phase II was 18 percent. According to NENA's current data, 142 U.S. counties (representing roughly 3 percent of the U.S. population) do not have some level of wireless E911 service. The areas that lack wireless E911 are primarily rural and tribal areas that face special implementation challenges, according to federal and association officials."
Date: April 18, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.

The 1350 F stress-rupture properties of two wrought alloys and three cast alloys

Description: From Summary: "These properties compare favorably with those of the strongest similar alloys previously investigated. However, compared with a 60Cr-25Fe-15Mo alloy, the three cobalt-chronium-nickel cast alloys are inferior. A correlation of NACA and OSRD (Project NRC-8) data is presented, showing the variation of rupture strengths with temperature in the range of 1350^o to 2000^o for alloys."
Date: November 1947
Creator: Reynolds, E E; Freeman, J W & White, A E

The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference: Issues for U.S. International Spectrum Policy

Description: This report examines the U.S. preparations process for WARC-92, highlighting efforts to integrate the needs and concerns of various interest groups. It also reviews the forces and trends affecting the United States as it approaches WARC-92, and is intended to inform future congressional oversight of the domestic and international radio communication policy process.
Date: November 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.