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The Eurozone Crisis: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of the causes, challenges, political dynamics, and other aspects of the Eurozone's economic crisis and discusses the related issues that Congress may address, such as: how this situation will impact the U.S. economy, IMF (International Monetary Fund) involvement, and how the US and Europe will cooperate to solve these issues. The report also contains supplemental figures and charts.
Date: August 29, 2012
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul; Mix, Derek E. & Weiss, Martin A.

Features of Producer-Gas Power-Plant Development in Europe

Description: From Introduction: "Because the limited time available would not permit a careful inspection, much less a detailed study of all the plants visited, the writer has not aimed in this bulletin to present a comprehensive review of producer-gas power-plant development in Europe, or even to give such conclusions as might be drawn from what he saw, but has simply described some interesting features of European practice that attract the attention of even a casual observer."
Date: 1911
Creator: Fernald, R. H.

The Financial Crisis: Impact on and Response by the European Union

Description: According to the most recent National Threat Assessment, the global financial crisis and its geopolitical implications pose the primary near-term security concern of the United States. Over the short run, both the EU and the United States are attempting to resolve the financial crisis while stimulating domestic demand to stem the economic downturn. These efforts have born little progress so far as the economic recession and the financial crisis have become reinforcing events, causing EU governments to forge policy responses to both crises. This report discusses this situation in detail and also discusses individual efforts by both the U.S. and EU to combat the effects of the crisis.
Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.

The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

Description: Seventeen of the European Union's 27 member states share an economic and monetary union (EMU) with the euro as a single currency. These countries are effectively referred to as the Eurozone. What has become known as the Eurozone crisis began in early 2010 when financial markets were shaken by heightened concerns that the fiscal positions of a number of Eurozone countries, beginning with Greece, were unsustainable. This report provides background information and analysis on the future of the Eurozone in six parts, including discussions on the origins and design challenges of the Eurozone, proposals to define the Eurozone crisis, possible scenarios for the future of the Eurozone, and the implications of the Eurozone crisis for U.S. economic and political interests.
Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.; Jackson, James K.; Nelson, Rebecca M. & Weiss, Martin A.

The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

Description: Seventeen of the European Union's 27 member states share an economic and monetary union (EMU) with the euro as a single currency. These countries are effectively referred to as the Eurozone. What has become known as the Eurozone crisis began in early 2010 when financial markets were shaken by heightened concerns that the fiscal positions of a number of Eurozone countries, beginning with Greece, were unsustainable. This report provides background information and analysis on the future of the Eurozone in six parts, including discussions on the origins and design challenges of the Eurozone, proposals to define the Eurozone crisis, possible scenarios for the future of the Eurozone, and the implications of the Eurozone crisis for U.S. economic and political interests.
Date: January 17, 2012
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.; Jackson, James K.; Mix, Derek E. & Nelson, Rebecca M.

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Description: This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future. The members of the G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.
Date: August 10, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Description: This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future.
Date: December 9, 2009
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Description: This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future. The members of the G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.
Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.

The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

Description: This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future. The members of the G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.
Date: October 23, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.

The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

Description: This report discusses Germany's recent trends in economic performance and trade relations with the U.S. This report elaborates on these themes in three parts: historical economic performance; reform challenges facing German political leaders; and selected U.S.-German economic policy differences.
Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J. & Belkin, Paul

German Low-Temperature Coal-Tar Industry

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing a low-temperature coal-tar industry in Germany. As stated in the Purpose and Scope of the Investigation, "the primary purpose of the investigation covered by this report was to determine to what extent the production and use of low-temperature tar in Germany had advanced during the 10-year period prior to the close of the last war" (p. 7). This report includes tables, illustrations, and a photograph.
Date: February 1949
Creator: Rhodes, E. O.

German Unification

Description: No Description Available.
Date: November 6, 1990
Creator: Gallis, Paul E. & Woehrel, Steven

Green Payments in U.S. and European Union Agricultural Policy

Description: This report compares current United States and European Union (EU) efforts in the area of green payments. Green payments refer to "payments made to agricultural producers as compensation for environmental benefits that accrue at levels beyond what producers might otherwise achieve under existing market and regulatory conditions" (summary). The report gives an overview of policies, programs, financing, and various other aspects of comparison related to the topic.
Date: November 22, 2005
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E. & Zinn, Jeffrey A.

Hydrogenation of Coal and Tar

Description: From Abstract: "This bulletin traces the development of high-pressure, coal and tar hydrogenation technology, based on intensive review of the pertinent literature. The bulletin was written as a part of the Bureau of Mines research program on synthetic liquid fuels. It covers the history and economics of the process; the chemical aspect of hydrogenation of coal, tar, and middle oil; the engineer aspect of converting coal and tar to liquid fuels, principally gasoline; and the equipment of the process."
Date: unknown
Creator: Wu, W. R. K. & Storch, H. H.

Index of Oil-Shale and Shale-Oil Patents, 1946-56: A Supplement to Bulletins 467 and 468: (In Three Parts) [Part 3]. European Patents and Classification

Description: From Introduction: "This part of Bulletin contains 250 European patents that relate to retorting (and distilling underground), refining, and utilization of oil shale and its products. The largest single group, of which the majority was assigned to a single company, relates to fluidized handling shale. The patents are arranged numerically, and alphabetical list of investors and assignees follow them. A classified list of all the patents follows the author index of Part III. Parts I and II were published in 1958."
Date: 1959
Creator: United States. Bureau of Mines.

An Index of Shale-Oil Patents

Description: From Introduction: "Work on this project was begun early in 1944; and the results with respect to shale oil are reported in this Bulletin. Since this bulletin is only an index to this large repository of ideas relating to the the treatment of shale oil, the material is presented in the form of short notices describing the subject material of each patent, which consist of an abridgment of the patent (if British or Australian) or a typical claim in the case of the United States or foreign patents."
Date: 1948
Creator: Klosky, Simon

Low-Temperature Carbonization of Coal

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies on low-temperature carbonization of coal. Methods and equipment used during the studies are discussed. This paper includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1926
Creator: Fieldner, Arno Carl

Mining Petroleum by Underground Methods: A study of Methods used in France and Germany and Possible Application to Depleted Oil Fields under American Conditions

Description: From Introduction: "That the percentages of extraction of petroleum from the ground may and undoubtedly will be greatly increased in the future by underground mining methods where natural conditions will permit seems logical. The limitations imposed by depth, temperature, and flow of water under high pressure through the sands will be discussed later."
Date: 1932
Creator: Rice, George S.

Muslims in Europe: Promoting Integration and Countering Extremism

Description: This report examines policies aimed at promoting integration, combating terrorism, and countering violent extremism in five European countries with significant Muslim populations: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The report also evaluates the role of the 27-member European Union (EU) in shaping European laws and policies related to integration and counter-radicalization.
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Belkin, Paul; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Ek, Carl & Mix, Derek E.