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BTS strategic plan executive summary

Description: This Strategic Plan positions the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) to be more effective in reducing energy consumption in homes, offices, schools and other buildings, and in reducing environmental impacts associated with energy use.
Date: January 6, 1999

Bureau of the Public Debt: Areas for Improvement in Computer Controls

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed the general and application controls that support key automated financial systems maintained and operated by the Bureau of Public Debt (BPD). GAO also followed up on the corrective actions BPD took in response to GAO's previous recommendations on improving BPD's financial system controls."
Date: August 6, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Calculating the shrapnel generation and subsequent damage to first wall and optics components for the National Ignition Facility

Description: The purpose of this work is to computationally assess the threat from shrapnel generation on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) first wall, final optics, and ultimately other target chamber components. Shrapnel is defined as material.that is in a solid, liquid, or clustered-vapor phase with sufficient velocity to become a threat to exposed surfaces as a consequence of its impact. Typical NIF experiments will be of two types, low neutron yield shots in which the capsule is not cryogenically cooled, and high yield shots for which cryogenic cooling of the capsule is required. For non-cryogenic shots, shrapnel would be produced by spaIIing, melting and vaporizing of ``shine shields`` by absorption and shock wave loading following 1-{omega} and 2-{omega} laser radiation. For cryogenic shots, shrapnel would be generated through shock wave splitting, spalling, and droplet formation of the cryogenic tubes following neutron energy deposition. Motion of the shrapnel is determined not only by particle velocities resulting from the neutron deposition, but also by both x-ray and debris loading arising from explosion of the hohlraum. Material responses of different target area components are computed from one- dimensional and two-dimensional stress wave propagation codes. Well developed rate-dependent spall computational models are used for stainless steel spall and splitting,. Severe cell distortion is accounted for in shine-shield and hohlraum-loading computations. Resulting distributions of shrapnel particles are traced to the first wall and optics and damage is estimated for candidate materials. First wall and optical material damage from shrapnel includes crater formation and associated extended cracking.
Date: August 6, 1996
Creator: Tokheim, R.E.; Seaman, L.; Cooper, T.; Lew, B.; Curran, D.R.; Sanchez, J. et al.

Capturing asteroids into bound orbits around the earth: Massive early return on an asteroid terminal defense system

Description: Nuclear explosives may be used to capture small asteroids (e.g., 20--50 meters in diameter) into bound orbits around the earth. The captured objects could be used for construction material for manned and unmanned activity in Earth orbit. Asteroids with small approach velocities, which are the ones most likely to have close approaches to the Earth, require the least energy for capture. They are particularly easy to capture if they pass within one Earth radius of the surface of the Earth. They could be intercepted with intercontinental missiles if the latter were retrofit with a more flexible guiding and homing capability. This asteroid capture-defense system could be implemented in a few years at low cost by using decommissioned ICMs. The economic value of even one captured asteroid is many times the initial investment. The asteroid capture system would be an essential part of the learning curve for dealing with larger asteroids that can hit the earth.
Date: February 6, 1992
Creator: Hills, J. G.

Capturing asteroids into bound orbits around the earth: Massive early return on an asteroid terminal defense system

Description: Nuclear explosives may be used to capture small asteroids (e.g., 20--50 meters in diameter) into bound orbits around the earth. The captured objects could be used for construction material for manned and unmanned activity in Earth orbit. Asteroids with small approach velocities, which are the ones most likely to have close approaches to the Earth, require the least energy for capture. They are particularly easy to capture if they pass within one Earth radius of the surface of the Earth. They could be intercepted with intercontinental missiles if the latter were retrofit with a more flexible guiding and homing capability. This asteroid capture-defense system could be implemented in a few years at low cost by using decommissioned ICMs. The economic value of even one captured asteroid is many times the initial investment. The asteroid capture system would be an essential part of the learning curve for dealing with larger asteroids that can hit the earth.
Date: February 6, 1992
Creator: Hills, J.G.

Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

Description: The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford`s plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford`s 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.
Date: May 6, 1991
Creator: Last, G. V. & Rohay, V. J.

Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

Description: The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.
Date: May 6, 1991
Creator: Last, G.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)) & Rohay, V.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

CASTOR GSF packaging design criteria

Description: Encapsulated vitrified materials (Isotopic Heat Sources) are currently stored in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) 324 Building located in the 300 Area. As part of the 324 Building transition program, the vitrified material, encapsulated in stainless steel canisters, must be removed. These canisters were originally intended to be used by the German government, but are no longer desired. As part of an agreement with the German government, the Germans are providing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with six (6) CASTOR GSF and four (4) GNS-12 casks.The canisters will be transported onsite in CASTOR GSF and GNS-12 casks for interim storage until final disposition of the material is determined.
Date: August 6, 1996
Creator: Burnside, M.E.

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Final report, September 1, 1990--January 31, 1994

Description: Previous work on isosynthesis (conversion of synthesis gas to isobutane and isobutylene) was performed at very low conversions or extreme process conditions. The objectives of this research were (1) determine the optimum process conditions for isosynthesis; (2) determine the optimum catalyst preparation method and catalyst composition/properties for isosynthesis; (3) determine the kinetics for the best catalyst; (4) develop reactor models for trickle bed, slurry, and fixed bed reactors; and (5) simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for isosynthesis. More improvement in catalyst activity and selectivity is needed before isosynthesis can become a commercially feasible (stand-alone) process. Catalysts prepared by the precipitation method show the most promise for future development as compared with those prepared hydrothermally, by calcining zirconyl nitrate, or by a modified sol-gel method. For current catalysts the high temperatures (>673 K) required for activity also cause the production of methane (because of thermodynamics). A catalyst with higher activity at lower temperatures would magnify the unique selectivity of zirconia for isobutylene. Perhaps with a more active catalyst and acidification, oxygenate production could be limited at lower temperatures. Pressures above 50 atm cause an undesirable shift in product distribution toward heavier hydrocarbons. A model was developed that can predict carbon monoxide conversion an product distribution. The rate equation for carbon monoxide conversion contains only a rate constant and an adsorption equilibrium constant. The product distribution was predicted using a simple ratio of the rate of CO conversion. This report is divided into Introduction, Experimental, and Results and Discussion sections.
Date: May 6, 1994
Creator: Anthony, R.G. & Akgerman, A.

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

Description: The presence of potassium or calcium in sol gel catalysts increase the production of C{sub 4} hydrocarbon and that of methane while maintaining high activities. Characterization of catalysts using temperature programmed desorption of carbon dioxide indicates that activity and product distribution over an isosynthesis catalyst depend on its acid-base properties. Low activity was observed for catalysts with very weak basicity, and high oxygenate production for catalysts with strong basicity. An optimum strength of basic sites is crucial to achieve high activity while minimizing the amount of oxygenates. A kinetic model was developed based on the reaction mechanisms, and the simulation from the model produces reasonable fit with the experimental data.
Date: October 6, 1993
Creator: Anthony, R. G. & Akgerman, A.

Catalysts and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

Description: The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. The goals for this year were to recruit and organize the project team, complete the literature and patent searches, complete the management plan and other reporting requirements, complete the revision and upgrading of existing bench scale units for the project, and synthesize, characterize and evaluate the catalytic activity of zirconia prepared (1) by co-precipitation of zirconyl nitrate with ammonium hydroxide and (2) by preparing a hydrous zirconium oxide using the modified sol gel method developed at the Sandia National Laboratories followed by calcination. The same preparation procedure would be used to prepare supports for impregnation with thorium nitrate, a potassium salt and a sodium salt. The synthesis of new crystalline zirconates were to be attempted with the objective of producing new compositions of matter which might have higher activities and selectivities than zirconia. Substantial progress on reactor and kinetic models for slurry and trickle bed reactors was to be achieved. Accomplishments for the year are described.
Date: November 6, 1991
Creator: Anthony, R.G. & Akgerman, A.

Caustic rings of dark matter

Description: It is shown that the infall of collisionless dark matter onto isolated galaxies produce a series of caustic rings in the halo dark matter distribution. The properties of these caustics are investigated. It is found in particular that the density profile of the caustic behaves as the inverse distance to the ring. Bumps in the rotation curve of NGC 3198 are interpreted as due to caustic rings of dark matter.
Date: May 6, 1997
Creator: Sikivie, P.

CENRTC Project {number_sign}2F3EOA, OCB A-386, acceptance test procedure

Description: This test procedure provides the steps necessary to verify correct functional operation of controls, annunciators, alarms, protective relays and related systems impacted by CENRTC {number_sign}2F3EOA, Microwave Transfer Trip Project, modification work performed under work package 6B-93-00043/M (CENRTC 2F3EOA MWTT OCB A-386 PACKAGE). This procedure separates four tests into separate sections: Energization of A-386 Duplex Panel and Circuits; Local RFL 6750 function tests and start-up; SCADA tests; and A-386 local trip tests.
Date: March 6, 1995
Creator: Akerson, A.W.

Challenges of Extracting and Purifying Fission-Produced Molybdenum-99

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has produced limited quantities of fission-produced molybdenum-99 ~%lo) within industry purity specifications using the Cintichem production process. The chemical extraction and purification of `%lo was petiormed using the Hot Cell Facility (HCF) located at Technical Area-V. To thoroughly understand the production process, two series of tests were designed, the first was a series of cold tests using 20 g samples of depleted or low irradiated uranium dioxide powder and the second series was conducted using irradiated targets. In addition, radiation effects tests were petiormed at the SNL Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) on chemicals and hardware used in the processing to evaluate the degradation due to the high radiation field expected during the chemical separation. Unique production hardware, fixtures and tools were developed for remote processing of irradiated targets at the HCF.
Date: November 6, 1998
Creator: Carson, S.D.; McDonald, M.J.; Naranjo, G.E. & Wemple, J.A.

Changes in Fe site occupancy and Tc in YBa sub 2 (Cu sub 1-x Fe sub x ) sub 3 O sub y through processing

Description: Fe substitution for Cu in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} can give information about the local environment on the two crystallographic Cu sites through Mossbauer effect measurements. In this paper, we explore the possibility of forcing larger amounts of Fe onto the Cu (2) site which represents the CuO planes. At values near y = 6, the chain Cu (1) site is characteristic for Cu{sup +} in its linear 0 coordination and should preclude Fe occupation. We therefore prepared materials at elevated temperatures under N{sub 2} where y {approximately}6. Oxygenation to y {approximately}7 was achieved at temperatures where metal diffusion is minimized. We used Mossbauer spectroscopy to determine the Fe site occupancy. Site preference can be expressed in terms of a distribution ratio r = MCul/ MCu2. Creating materials with low r allows studying the effects of spatially constrained Fe on T{sub c}, separating influences from the spatially more complex Cu (1) site.
Date: April 6, 1990
Creator: Oesterreicher, H. (California Univ., San Diego, CA (USA)); Smith, M.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., San Diego, CA (USA)) & Taylor, R.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

Characterization and reactivity of organic monolayers on gold and platinum surfaces

Description: Purpose is to understand how the mobilization, dielectric, orientation, composition, coverage, and structure of self-assembled organic monolayers on metal surfaces affects the surface reactivities and properties of these films in order to facilitate the construction of desired films. Two model systems were used: tiols at Au and aromatic acids at Pt. Surface analysis methods, including contact angle, electrochemistry, ellipsometry, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), and x-ray photospectroscopy, were used to study the self-assembled organic monolayers on Au and Pt. IRRAS, contact angle, and electrochemistry were used to determine the surface pK{sub a} of phenylcarboxylic acids and pyridylcarboxylic acids monolayers on Pt. These techniques were also used to determine the orientation of polymethylene chain axis and the carboxylic follow the structural evolution of the chains and end group of the thiolate monolayers during formation. IRRAS was also used to assess the carboxylic acid group in terms of its possible existence as the non-hydrogen-bonded species, the hydrogen-bonded dimeric group, and the hydrogen-bonded polymeric group. These different forms of the end group were also followed vs coverage, as well as the reactivity vs solution pH. IRRAS and contact angle were used to calculate the rate constant of the esterification of carboxylic acid-terminated monolayers on Au.
Date: December 6, 1995
Creator: Wu, Chien-Ching

Characterization of Transport and Solidification in the Metal Recycling Processes

Description: The characterization of the transport and solidification of metal in the melting and casting processes is significant for the optimization of the radioactively contaminated metal recycling and refining processes. . In this research project, the transport process in the melting and solidification of metal was numerically predicted, and the microstructure and radionuclide distribution have been characterized by scanning electron microscope/electron diffractive X-ray (SEWEDX) analysis using cesium chloride (CSC1) as the radionuclide surrogate. In the melting and solidification process, a resistance furnace whose heating and cooling rates are program- controlled in the helium atmosphere was used. The characterization procedures included weighing, melting and solidification, weighing after solidification, sample preparation, and SEM/EDX analysis. This analytical methodology can be used to characterize metal recycling and refining products in order to evaluate the performance of the recycling process. The data obtained provide much valuable information that is necessary for the enhancement of radioactive contaminated metal decontamination and recycling technologies. The numerical method for the prediction of the melting and solidification process can be implemented in the control and monitoring system-of the melting and casting process in radioactive contaminated metal recycling. The use of radionuclide surrogates instead of real radionuclides enables the research to be performed without causing harmfid effects on people or the community. This characterization process has been conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University since October 1995. Tests have been conducted on aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) using cesium chloride (CSCI) as a radionuclide surrogate, and information regarding the radionuclide transfer and distribution in melting and solidification process has been obtained. The numerical simulation of the solidification of molten metal has been very successful for aluminium; however, a stability problem in the simulation of iron/steel solidification poses a challenge. Thus, additional development is needed to simulate ...
Date: August 6, 1997
Creator: Ebadian, M. A.; Xin, R. C. & Dong, Z. F.

Charter Schools: State Developments and Federal Policy Options

Description: Charter schools are public elementary or secondary schools which are released from a variety of state, local, and possibly federal regulations in return for new forms of accountability in terms of outcomes for pupils. Approximately one-half of the states authorize the establishment of charter schools, and a federal Public Charter Schools (PCS) program provides start-up funds for such schools. The House has passed (H.R. 2616), and the Senate is considering (S. 1380) legislation to modify and expand the PCS program. This report provides background information on charter schools and their characteristics, plus discussion and analysis of current legislation regarding the PCS program. Issues have also arisen regarding the participation of charter schools in other federal aid programs.
Date: April 6, 1998
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C.; Stedman, James B. & Aleman, Steven R.

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Description: U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. China is now the third largest U.S. trading partner, its second largest source of imports, and its fourth largest export market. However, U.S.-China commercial ties have been strained by a number of issues, including a surging U.S. trade deficit with China, China's refusal to float its currency, and failure to fully comply with its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments, especially its failure to provide protection for U.S. intellectual property rights (IPR). This report explores these issues in detail, especially concerning the lack of protection for U.S. IPR.
Date: February 6, 1995
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.