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3 MW, 110 GHz ECH system for the DIII-D tokamak

Description: To support the Advanced Tokamak (AT) operating regimes in the DIII-D tokamak, methods need to be developed to control the current and pressure profiles across the plasma discharge. In particular, AT plasmas require substantial off-axis current in contrast to normal tokamak discharges where the current peaks on-axis. An effort is under way to use Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) as a method of sustaining the off-axis current in AT plasmas. The first step in this campaign is the installation of three megawatts of electron cyclotron heating power. This involves the installation of three rf systems operating at 110 GHz, the second harmonic resonance frequency on DIII-D, with each system generating nominally 1 MW. The three systems will use one GYCOM (Russian) gyrotron and two CPI (formerly Varian) gyrotrons, all with windowless evacuated corrugated low loss transmission lines. The first two of three 1 MW ECH systems is operating routinely at DIII-D with injected power at 110 GHz of approximately 1.5 MW with good power accountability. Transport experiments using modulated ECH have been performed confirming the power deposition location. On-axis and off-axis current drive experiments have been successfully performed with on-axis ECCD currents of 170 kA being observed.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Callis, R. W.; Lohr, J.; Ponce, D.; Harris, T. E.; O`Neill, R. C.; Remsen, D.B. et al.

3(omega) damage threshold evaluation of final optics components using Beamlet mule and off-line testing

Description: A statistics-based model is being developed to predict the laser-damage-limited lifetime of UV optical components on the NIF laser. In order to provide data for the model, laser damage experiments were performed on the Beamlet laser system at LLNL. An early prototype NIF focus lens was exposed to twenty 35 1 nm pulses at an average fluence of 5 J/cm{sup 2}, 3ns. Using a high resolution optic inspection system a total of 353 damage sites was detected within the 1160 cm{sup 2} beam aperture. Through inspections of the lens before, after and, in some cases, during the campaign, pulse to pulse damage growth rates were measured for damage initiating both on the surface and at bulk inclusions. Growth rates as high as 79 {micro}m/pulse (surface diameter) were observed for damage initiating at pre-existing scratches in the surface. For most damage sites on the optic, both surface and bulk, the damage growth rate was approximately l0{micro}m/pulse. The lens was also used in Beamlet for a subsequent 1053 {micro}m/526 {micro}m campaign. The 352 {micro}m-initiated damage continued to grow during that campaign although at generally lower growth rate.
Date: July 27, 1998
Creator: Kozlowski, M. F.; Maricle, S.; Mouser, R.; Schwartz, S.; Wegner, P. & Weiland, T.

209-E Building -- Response to ventilation failure evaluation

Description: This document provides an evaluation and recommendations for radiological workplace air monitoring and response to ventilation failure for the Critical Mass Laboratory, 209-E Building. The Critical Mass Laboratory, part of the 209-E Building, was designed to provide a heavily shielded room where plutonium and uranium liquid solutions could be brought into various critical configurations under readily controlled and monitored conditions. The facility is contained within a one-story L-shaped concrete block and reinforced concrete building. One wing houses offices, a control room, shops, and a common area while the other wing includes an equipment room, the change room, work areas, and the two-story Critical Assembly Room (CAR). Three of the rooms contain radiologically contaminated equipment and materials.
Date: July 27, 1998
Creator: Foust, D.J.

303-K Storage Facility report on FY98 closure activities

Description: This report summarizes and evaluates the decontamination activities, sampling activities, and sample analysis performed in support of the closure of the 303-K Storage Facility. The evaluation is based on the validated data included in the data validation package (98-EAP-346) for the 303-K Storage Facility. The results of this evaluation will be used for assessing contamination for the purpose of closing the 303-K Storage Facility as described in the 303-K Storage Facility Closure Plan, DOE/RL-90-04. The closure strategy for the 303-K Storage Facility is to decontaminate the interior of the north half of the 303-K Building to remove known or suspected dangerous waste contamination, to sample the interior concrete and exterior soils for the constituents of concern, and then to perform data analysis, with an evaluation to determine if the closure activities and data meet the closure criteria. The closure criteria for the 303-K Storage Facility is that the concentrations of constituents of concern are not present above the cleanup levels. Based on the evaluation of the decontamination activities, sampling activities, and sample data, determination has been made that the soils at the 303-K Storage Facility meet the cleanup performance standards (WMH 1997) and can be clean closed. The evaluation determined that the 303-K Building cannot be clean closed without additional closure activities. An additional evaluation will be needed to determine the specific activities required to clean close the 303-K Storage Facility. The radiological contamination at the 303-K Storage Facility is not addressed by the closure strategy.
Date: July 17, 1998
Creator: Adler, J. G.

324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

Description: This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.
Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Ham, J.E.

324 Facility B-cell quality process plan

Description: B-Cell is currently being cleaned out (i.e., removal of equipment, fixtures and residual radioactive materials) and deactivated. TPA Milestone M-89-02 dictates that all mixed waste and equipment be removed from B-Cell by 5/31/99. The following sections describe the major activities that remain for completion of the TPA milestone. These include: Size Reduce Tank 119 and Miscellaneous Equipment; Load and Ship Low-Level Waste; Remove and Size Reduce the 1B Rack; Collect Dispersible Material from Cell Floor; Remove and Size Reduce the 2A Rack; Size Reduce the 1A Rack; Load and Ship Mixed Waste to PUREX Tunnels; and Move Spent Fuel to A-Cell;
Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Carlson, J.L.

1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change on trace gases and the biosphere

Description: This proposal seeks multi-agency funding to conduct an international, multidisciplinary 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change to take place from August 7 through 21, 1988, on the topic: Trace Gases and the Biosphere. The institute, to be held in Snowmass, Colorado, is envisioned as a pilot version of a continuing series of institutes on Global Change (IGC). This proposal seeks support for the 1988 pilot institute only. The concept and structure for the continuing series, and the definition of the 1988 pilot institute, were developed at an intensive and multidisciplinary Summer Institute Planning Meeting in Boulder, Colorado, on August 24--25, 1987. The theme for the 1988 PIGC, Trace Gases and the Biosphere, will focus a concerted, high-level multidisciplinary effort on a scientific problem central to the Global Change Program. Dramatic year-to-year increases in the global concentrations of radiatively-active trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are now well documented. The predicted climatic effects of these changes lend special urgency to efforts to study the biospheric sources and sinks of these gases and to clarify their interactions and role in the geosphere-biosphere system.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Eddy, J. A. & Moore, B., III

The 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste that has been generated at government defense installations in the United States. The WIPP is located in an area of low population density in southeastern New Mexico. Waste disposal will take place in excavated chambers in a bedded salt formation approximately 655 m below the land surface. This presentation describes a performance assessment (PA) carried out at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) made by the DOE to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. Based on the CCA supported by the PA described in this presentation, the EPA has issued a preliminary decision to certify the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. At present (April 1998), it appears likely that the WIPP will be in operation by the end of 1998.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Shephard, L.E.; Helton, J.C. et al.

1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

Description: This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ``dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.`` This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD.
Date: July 2, 1998
Creator: Jensen, C.E.

2K nonvolatile shadow RAM and 265K EEPROM SONOS nonvolatile memory development

Description: This paper describes Silicon Oxide Nitride Oxide Semiconductor (SONOS) nonvolatile memory development at Sandia National Laboratories. A 256K EEPROM nonvolatile memory and a 2K nonvolatile shadow RAM are under development using an n-channel SONOS memory technology. The technology has 1.2 {micro}m minimum features in a twin well design using shallow trench isolation.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Nasby, R.D.; Murray, J.R.; Habermehl, S.D.; Bennett, R.S.; Tafoya-Porras, B.C.; Mahl, P.R. et al.

3D EM imaging from a single borehole; a numerical feasibility study

Description: Often the drilling of an oil well is followed by a logging process to characterize the region immediately surrounding the well bore. The electromagnetic (EM) induction tool, which provides the formation resistivity, is among the most frequently run logs. A preliminary study has been conducted to analyze the feasibility of three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) imaging from a single borehole. The logging tool consists of a vertical magnetic dipole source and multiple 3 component magnetic field receivers offset at different distances from the source. Synthetic data calculated with a 3D finite difference code demonstrate that the phase of the horizontal magnetic fields provides the critical information on the three dimensionality of the medium. A 3D inversion algorithm is then employed to demonstrate the plausibility of 3D inversion using 3 component magnetic field data. Finally, problems associated with introducing biased noise into the horizontal components of the field through misalignment of the logging tool is discussed.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Alumbaugh, D. L. & Wilt, M. J.

702AZ aging waste ventilation facility year 2000 test procedure

Description: This test procedure was developed to determine if the 702AZ Tank Ventilation Facility system is Year 2000 Compliant. The procedure provides detailed instructions for performing the operations necessary and documenting the results. This verification procedure will document that the 702AZ Facility Systems are year 2000 compliant and will correctly meet the criteria established in this procedure.
Date: July 22, 1998
Creator: Winkelman, W. D.

Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

Description: This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.
Date: July 24, 1998
Creator: Kriskovich, J.R.

Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

Description: Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.
Date: July 24, 1998
Creator: Kriskovich, J.R.

Achieving and maintaining cleanliness in NIF amplifiers

Description: Cleanliness measurements made on AMPLAB prototype National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser amplifiers during assembly, cassette transfer, and amplifier operation are summarized. These measurements include particle counts from surface cleanliness assessments using filter swipe techniques and from airborne particle monitoring. Results are compared with similar measurements made on the Beamlet and Nova lasers and in flashlamp test fixtures. Observations of Class 100,000 aerosols after flashlamp firings are discussed. Comparisons are made between typical damage densities on laser amplifier optics from Novette, NOVA, Beamlet, and AMPLAB.
Date: July 28, 1998
Creator: Burnham, A. K.; Horvath, J. A.; Letts, S. A.; Menapace, J. A. & Stowers, I. F.

Achieving WIPP certification for software: A white paper

Description: The NMT-1 and NMT-3 organizations within the Chemical and Metallurgical Research (CMR) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is working to achieve Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) certification to enable them to transport their TRU waste to WIPP. In particular, the NMT-1 management is requesting support from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to assist them in making the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) software WIPP certifiable. Thus, LIMS must be compliant with the recognized software quality assurance (SQA) requirements stated within the QAPD. Since the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has achieved WIPP certification, INEEL personnel can provide valuable assistance to LANL by sharing lessons learned and recommendations. Thus, this white paper delineates the particular software quality assurance requirements required for WIPP certification.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Matthews, S. D.; Adams, K. & Twitchell, K. E.

The active-bridge oscillator

Description: This paper describes the Active-Bridge Oscillator (ABO), a new concept in high-stability oscillator design. The ABO is ab ridge-type oscillator design that is easly to design and overcomes many of the operational and design difficulties associated with standard bridge oscillator designs. The ABO will oscillate with a very stable output amplitude over a wide range of operating conditions without the use of an automatic-level-control (ALC). A standard bridge oscillator design requires an ALC to maintain the desired amplitude of oscillation. for this and other reasons, bridge oscilaltors are not used in mainstream designs. Bridge oscillators are generally relegated to relatively low-volume, high-performance applications. The Colpitts and Pierce designs are the most popular oscillators but are typically less stable than a bridge-type oscillator.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Wessendorf, K.O.

Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

Description: This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.
Date: July 16, 1998
Creator: Myers, D.A.

Advanced cell technology for high performance Li-A1/FeS{sub 2} secondary batteries.

Description: In early 1993. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) initiated a major R and D effort to develop bipolar Li-Al/LiCl-LiBr-KBr/FeS{sub 2} batteries for electric vehicles, targeting the USABC Long-Term Goals. Significant advancements were achieved in the areas of (i) chemical purity, (ii) electrode and electrolyte additives, and (iii) peripheral seals. It was determined that key chemical constituents contained undesirable impurities. ANL developed new chemical processes for preparing Li{sub 2}S, FeS, and CoS{sub 2} that were >98.5% pure. We evaluated a large variety of electrode and electrolyte additives for reducing cell area specific impedance (ASI). Candidate positive electrode additives offered increased electronic conductivity, enhanced reaction kinetics, and/or improved porous electrode morphology. CoS{sub 2}, CuFeS{sub 2}, MgO, and graphite (fibers) were identified as the most beneficial impedance-reducing positive electrode additives. Although electronically conductive carbon and graphite additives produced measurable ASI reductions in the negative electrode, they degraded its structural integrity and were deemed impractical. Lil and LiF were identified as beneficial electrolyte additives, that enhance positive electrode kinetics. ANL refined its baseline metal/ceramic peripheral seal and increased its strength by a factor of three (achieving a safety factor >10). In parallel, ANL developed a high-strength advanced metal/ceramic seal that offers appreciable cost reductions.
Date: July 10, 1998
Creator: Henriksen, G. L.

ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Description: The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Holmes, M.J.

Advanced Light Source Compendium of User Abstracts andTechnical Reports 1997

Description: The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility located at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. Operation of the ALS is funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. This Compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress during 1997, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Cross, J.; Devereaux, M.K.; Dixon, D.J.; Greiner, A. & editors

The Advanced Photon Source main control room

Description: The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source built in the 1990s. Like the machine itself, the Main Control Room (MCR) employs design concepts based on today`s requirements. The discussion will center on ideas used in the design of the MCR, the comfort of personnel using the design, and safety concerns integrated into the control room layout.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Pasky, S.

Advanced Radiation Detector Development

Description: Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: University of Michigan