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D-0 End Calorimeter Warm Tube/TeV Dry Air Purge

Description: This Engineering Note studies the design of the Dry Air Purge that is going to flow through the Warm Tube of the End Calorimeter of the D-O Calorimeter. The Tev tubes through the E.C. can be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: The Tev tube, the warm (vacuum vessel) tube, 15 layers of superinsulation, the cold (argon vessel) tube, and the Inner Hadronic center support tube. The Dry Air Purge will involve flowing Dry Air through the annular region between the Warm Tube and the Tev Beam Pipe. This air flow is intended to prevent condensation from forming in this region which could turn to ice under cryogenic temperatures. Any ice formed in this gap, could cause serious problems when these tubes are moved. The Air will flow through a Nylon Tube Fitting -1/4-inch I.D. to 1/8-inch male pipe thread (Cole Palmer YB-06465-15) see Drawing MC-295221 (Appendix A). This fitting will be attached to the Nylon 2-inch Tube-Wiper and Seal Assembly which is clamped to the ends of the Warm Tube (Appendix A). This note includes drawings and calculations that explain the setup of the Dry Air Purge and give the required information on the pressure drops through the setup. The Equations and properties used in the calculations were obtained from the Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook by Robert D. Blevins and Fluid Dynamics Second Edition by Frank M. White.
Date: August 14, 1991
Creator: Leibfritz, J. R.

0-G experiments with advanced ceramic fabric wick structures

Description: Both Air Force and NASA future spacecraft thermal management needs span the temperature range from cryogenic to liquid metals. Many of these needs are changing and not well defined and will remain so until goals, technology, and missions converge. Nevertheless, it is certain that high-temperature (> 800 K) and medium-temperature (about 450 K) radiator systems will have to be developed that offer significant improvements over current designs. This paper discusses experiments performed in the lower temperature regime as part of a comprehensive advanced ceramic fabric (ACF) heat pipe development program. These experiments encompassed wicking tests with various ceramic fabric samples, and heat transfer tests with a 1-m long prototype ACF water heat pipe. A prototype ceramic fabric/titanium water heat pipe has been constructed and tested; it transported up to 60 W of power at about 390 K. Startup and operation both with and against gravity examined. Wick testing was begun to aid in the design and construction of an improved prototype heat pipe, with a 38-{mu}m stainless steel linear covered by a biaxially-braided Nextel (trademark of the 3M Co., St. Paul, Minnesota) sleeve that is approximately 300-{mu}m thick. Wick testing took place in 1-g; limited testing in 0-g was initiated, and results to date suggest that in 0-g, wick performance improves over that in 1-g.
Date: July 1991
Creator: Antoniak, Z.I.; Webb, B.J.; Bates, J.M.; Cooper, M.F. & Pauley, K.A.

1. Mono((8)annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

Description: A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Boussie, T. R.

1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

Description: A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Boussie, T. R.

2-D and 3-D computations of curved accelerator magnets

Description: In order to save computer memory, a long accelerator magnet may be computed by treating the long central region and the end regions separately. The dipole magnets for the injector synchrotron of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), employ magnet iron consisting of parallel laminations, stacked with a uniform radius of curvature of 33.379 m. Laplace's equation for the magnetic scalar potential has a different form for a straight magnet (x-y coordinates), a magnet with surfaces curved about a common center (r-{theta} coordinates), and a magnet with parallel laminations like the APS injector dipole. Yet pseudo 2-D computations for the three geometries give basically identical results, even for a much more strongly curved magnet. Hence 2-D (x-y) computations of the central region and 3-D computations of the end regions can be combined to determine the overall magnetic behavior of the magnets. 1 ref., 6 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Turner, L.R.

A 2-D imaging heat-flux gauge

Description: This report describes a new leadless two-dimensional imaging optical heat-flux gauge. The gauge is made by depositing arrays of thermorgraphic-phosphor (TP) spots onto the faces of a polymethylpentene is insulator. In the first section of the report, we describe several gauge configurations and their prototype realizations. A satisfactory configuration is an array of right triangles on each face that overlay to form squares when the gauge is viewed normal to the surface. The next section of the report treats the thermal conductivity of TPs. We set up an experiment using a comparative longitudinal heat-flow apparatus to measure the previously unknown thermal conductivity of these materials. The thermal conductivity of one TP, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, is 0.0137 W/cm{center dot}K over the temperature range from about 300 to 360 K. The theories underlying the time response of TP gauges and the imaging characteristics are discussed in the next section. Then we discuss several laboratory experiments to (1) demonstrate that the TP heat-flux gauge can be used in imaging applications; (2) obtain a quantum yield that enumerates what typical optical output signal amplitudes can be obtained from TP heat-flux gauges; and (3) determine whether LANL-designed intensified video cameras have sufficient sensitivity to acquire images from the heat-flux gauges. We obtained positive results from all the measurements. Throughout the text, we note limitations, areas where improvements are needed, and where further research is necessary. 12 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Beshears, D.L.; Sartory, W.K.; Tobin, K.W.; Williams, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) et al.

A 2-GHz Rectangular Corrugated Horn

Description: We have designed, constructed and tested a large, rectangular horn antenna with a center frequency of 2.0 GHz, corrugated on the E-plane walls, made out of aluminum sheet. A new technique has been developed to solder thin aluminum strips onto the back plane to form the corrugations. The radiation beam pattern shows half-power beamwidths of 12{sup 0} and 14{sup 0} in the H and E planes respectively, and side lobe response below -40 dB at angles greater than 50{sup 0} from horn axis. The measured return loss is less than -20 dB (VSWR < 1.22) between 1.7 and 2.3 GHz; insertion loss is less than 0.15 dB.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Bersanelli, M.; Bensadoun, M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Limon, M.; Smoot, George F.; Tanaka, S. et al.

A 3-D adaptive mesh refinement algorithm for multimaterial gas dynamics

Description: Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) in conjunction with high order upwind finite difference methods has been used effectively on a variety of problems. In this paper we discuss an implementation of an AMR finite difference method that solves the equations of gas dynamics with two material species in three dimensions. An equation for the evolution of volume fractions augments the gas dynamics system. The material interface is preserved and tracked from the volume fractions using a piecewise linear reconstruction technique. 14 refs., 4 figs.
Date: August 12, 1991
Creator: Puckett, E. G. & Saltzman, J. S.

3-D turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Quarterly progress report No. 1, 5 April--5 July 1991

Description: The lack of a mathematical description of the interactions of fluid turbulence with other physics-chemical processes is a major obstacle in modeling many industrial program. Turbulent two-phase flow is a phenomenon that is of significant practical importance to coal combustion as well as other disciplines. The interactions of fluid turbulence with the particulate phase has yet to be accurately and efficiently modeled for these industrial applications. On 15 May 1991 work was initiated to cover four major tasks toward the development of a computational submodel for turbulent particle dispersion that would be applicable to coal combustion simulations. Those four tasks are: 1. A critical evaluation of the 2-D Lagrangian particle dispersion submodel, 2. Development of a 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 3. Evaluation of the 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 4.Exploration of extensions of the Lagrangian dispersion theory to other applications including chemistry-turbulence interactions.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Smith, P. J.

3-D turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Quarterly progress report No. 2, 15 July--15 October 1991

Description: The lack of a mathematical description of the interactions of fluid turbulence with other physics-chemical processes is a major obstacle in modeling many industrial program. Turbulent two-phase flow is a phenomenon that is of significant practical importance to coal combustion as well as other disciplines. The interactions of fluid turbulence with the particulate phase has yet to be accurately and efficiently modeled for these industrial applications. On 15 May 1991 work was initiated to cover four major tasks toward the development of a computational submodel for turbulent particle dispersion that would be applicable to coal combustion simulations. Those four tasks are: 1. A critical evaluation of the 2-D Lagrangian particle dispersion submodel, 2. Development of a 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 3. Evaluation of the 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 4. Exploration of extensions of the Lagrangian dispersion theory to other applications including chemistry-turbulence interactions.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Smith, P. J.

A 10,000 A 1000 VDC solid state dump switch

Description: The superconducting magnet test program at Fermilab requires a switch, called a dump switch, rated 10,000 A, 1000 Vdc, which must be able to continuously carry rated current. A dump resistor rated 2 MJoules, is connected in parallel with the switch contacts and dissipates the stored energy from a magnet when the switch opens. The required switch opening time is 250 {mu}sec maximum after detection of a fault or a trip command. A successful switch can be constructed from six parallel inverter type Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCR's) which each carry their share of the load current. These run SCR's are mounted at watercooled heatsinks and are commutated off from stored energy in capacitors. Each parallel SCR is connected in series with a 1 m{Omega} watercooled resistor to assure dc current sharing and turn on. A description of the control and construction of the switch is presented. 6 figs.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Visser, A.

23 to 300{degrees}C demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets

Description: The influence of temperature on the knee point and squareness of the M-H demagnetization characteristic of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. Composite plots of the knee field and the demagnetizing field required to produce a given magnetic induction swing below remanence were obtained for several commercial Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}-type magnet samples in the temperature range of 23 to 300{degrees}C. The knee point was used to define the limits of operation safe against irreversible demagnetization, and the resulting plots are interpreted to show the temperature-induction swing limits of safe magnet operation. The observed second quadrant M-H characteristic squareness is shown, by two measures, to increase gradually with temperature and to peak in the interval 200 to 300{degrees}C.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Niedra, J. M. & Overton, E.

30-60 MHz FWCD system on DIII-D: Power division, phase control and tuning for a four-element antenna array

Description: The 2 MW Fast Wave Current Drive system on DIII-D is intended to provide a near-term demonstration of up to 0.3 MA of current driven by the fast wave. The system used to drive the four element phased antenna array which produces the required directional spectrum is presented. This system must be able to cope with strong coupling between antenna elements and the time-varying plasma load seen by the antennas. Computer modelling shows that this system should be able to maintain a directional spectrum at full power under most anticipated load conditions. 5 refs., 1 fig.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Pinsker, R. I.; Mayberry, M. J.; Petty, C. C.; Cary, W. P.; Pusl, J.; Remsen, D. et al.

30-60 MHz FWCD system on DIII-D: Power division, phase control and tuning for a four-element antenna array

Description: The 2 MW Fast Wave Current Drive system on DIII-D is intended to provide a near-term demonstration of up to 0.3 MA of current driven by the fast wave. The system used to drive the four element phased antenna array which produces the required directional spectrum is presented. This system must be able to cope with strong coupling between antenna elements and the time-varying plasma load seen by the antennas. Computer modelling shows that this system should be able to maintain a directional spectrum at full power under most anticipated load conditions. 5 refs., 1 fig.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Pinsker, R.I.; Mayberry, M.J.; Petty, C.C.; Cary, W.P.; Pusl, J.; Remsen, D. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)) et al.

40-{angstrom} FEL designs for the PEP storage ring

Description: We explore the use of the 2.2-km PEP storage ring at SLAC to drive a 40-{Angstrom} free-electron laser in the self-amplified spontaneous emission configuration. Various combinations for electron-beam and undulator parameters, as well as special undulator designs, are discussed. Saturation and high peak, in-band, coherent power (460 MW) are possible with a 67-m, hybrid permanent-magnet undulator in a ring bypass. A 100-m, cusp-field undulator can achieve high average, in-band, coherent power (0.25 W) in the main ring. The existing, 25.6-m, Paladin undulator at LLNL, with the addition of optical-klystron dispersive sections, is considered for both peak and average power. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Fisher, A. S.; Gallardo, J. C.; Nuhn, H. D.; Tatchyn, R.; Winick, H. & Pellegrini, C.

40- angstrom FEL designs for the PEP storage ring

Description: We explore the use of the 2.2-km PEP storage ring at SLAC to drive a 40-{Angstrom} free-electron laser in the self-amplified spontaneous emission configuration. Various combinations for electron-beam and undulator parameters, as well as special undulator designs, are discussed. Saturation and high peak, in-band, coherent power (460 MW) are possible with a 67-m, hybrid permanent-magnet undulator in a ring bypass. A 100-m, cusp-field undulator can achieve high average, in-band, coherent power (0.25 W) in the main ring. The existing, 25.6-m, Paladin undulator at LLNL, with the addition of optical-klystron dispersive sections, is considered for both peak and average power. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Nuhn, H.D.; Tatchyn, R.; Winick, H. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.) & Pellegrini, C. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

100 MW klystron development at SLAC

Description: A klystron designed to operate at 11.4 GHz and 440 kV is presently SLAC's strongest rf power source candidate for the Next Linear Collider. It is expected to provide 100 MW of rf power with a pulse width of 1 microsecond. Many of the conventional tube technologies are being pushed to their limits. High electron beam power densities, rf electric gradients in cavity gaps and stresses on the ceramic rf output windows are among the most severe problems to be dealt with. This paper describes progress in the development of this device including results from single and double gap output cavities and various styles of rf output windows. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Vlieks, A.E.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Lee, T.G. et al.

110 GHz ECH on DIII-D: System overview and initial operation

Description: A new high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system has been introduced on D3-D. This system is designed to operate at 110 GHz with a total output power of 2 MW. The system consists of four Varian VGT-8011 gyrotrons, (output power of 500 kW), and their associated support equipment. All components have been designed for up to a 10 second pulse duration. The 110 GHz system is intended to further progress in rf current drive experiments on D3-D when used in conjunction with the existing 60 GHz ECH (1.6 MW), and the 30--60 MHz ICH (2 MW) systems. H-mode physics, plasma stabilization experiments and transport studies are also to be conducted at 110 GHz. The present system design philosophy was based on experience gained from the existing 60 GHz ECH system. The consequences of these design decisions will be addressed as will the actual performance of various 110 GHz components.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Cary, W. P.; Allen, J. C.; Callis, R. W.; Doane, J. L.; Harris, T. E.; Moeller, C. P. et al.

110 GHz ECH on DIII-D: System overview and initial operation

Description: A new high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system has been introduced on D3-D. This system is designed to operate at 110 GHz with a total output power of 2 MW. The system consists of four Varian VGT-8011 gyrotrons, (output power of 500 kW), and their associated support equipment. All components have been designed for up to a 10 second pulse duration. The 110 GHz system is intended to further progress in rf current drive experiments on D3-D when used in conjunction with the existing 60 GHz ECH (1.6 MW), and the 30--60 MHz ICH (2 MW) systems. H-mode physics, plasma stabilization experiments and transport studies are also to be conducted at 110 GHz. The present system design philosophy was based on experience gained from the existing 60 GHz ECH system. The consequences of these design decisions will be addressed as will the actual performance of various 110 GHz components.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Cary, W.P.; Allen, J.C.; Callis, R.W.; Doane, J.L.; Harris, T.E.; Moeller, C.P. et al.

180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

Description: ABB CE's Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.
Date: January 1, 1991

180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report second quarter, 1991

Description: ABB CE`s Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.
Date: December 31, 1991

200-BP-5 operable unit Technical Baseline report

Description: This report supports development of a remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The report summarizes baseline information for waste sites and unplanned release sites located in the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The sites were investigated by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The investigation consisted of review and evaluation of current and historical Hanford Site reports, drawings, and photographs, and was supplemented with recent inspections of the Hanford Site and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Jacques, I. D. & Kent, S. K.

200-UP-2 Operable Unit technical baseline report

Description: This report is prepared in support of the development of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit by EBASCO Environmental, Incorporated. It provides a technical baseline of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Technical Baseline Report is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, Hanford Site drawings and photographs and is supplemented with Hanford Site inspections and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted. Each waste site in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit consists of liquid-waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, U Plant operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The U Plant'' refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separations facility constructed during World War 2. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant, which was constructed at the same time and, like the 221-U Process Canyon Building, was later converted for other missions. Waste sites in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit are associated with the U Plant Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission that occurred between 1952 and 1958 and the UO{sub 3} Plant's ongoing uranium oxide mission and include one or more cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, waste vaults, and the lines and encasements that connect them. 11 refs., 1 tab.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Deford, D.H.

350 MW(t) MHTGR preassembly and modularization

Description: The Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) provides a safe and economical nuclear power option for the world's electrical generation needs by the turn of the century. The proposed MHTGR plant is composed of four 350 MW(t) prismatic core reactor modules, coupled to a 2(2 {times} 1) turbine generator producing a net plant electrical output of 538 MW(e). Each of the four reactor module is located in a below-ground level concrete silo, and consists of a reactor vessel and a steam generator vessel interconnected by a cross duct vessel. The modules, along with the service buildings, are contained within a Nuclear Island (NI). The turbine generators and power generation facilities are in the non-nuclear Energy Conversion Area (ECA). The MHTGR design reduces cost and improves schedule by maximizing shop fabrication, minimizing field fit up of the Reactor Internals components and modularizing the NI ECA facilities. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Venkatesh, M.C. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA)); Jones, G. (Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates, San Diego, CA (USA)); Dilling, D.A. (Bechtel International Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)) & Parker, W.J. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (USA))