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A 15 MeV proton dianostic for DIII-D

Description: A 15 MeV proton diagnostic that is patterned after the ASDEX proton probe is presently being fabricated for the DIII-D tokamak. A bellows assembly inserts a silicon detector into the vacuum for plasma operation and retracts it for baking. The detector preamplifier is situated in a reentrant tube (at atmosphere) beside the detector; electrically, the whole assembly is referenced to vessel potential. Orbit calculations in realistic magnetic field geometries predict a proton detection efficiency of O(10{sup {minus}7}). The diagnostic will be used for burnup studies at high {beta} and particle transport studies in the H-mode. 25 refs., 4 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Duong, Hau & Heidbrink, W.W. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA))

1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

Description: This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990

1989 neutron and gamma personnel dosimetry intercomparison study using RADCAL (Radiation Calibration Laboratory) sources

Description: The fourteenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (i.e., PDIS 14) was conducted during May 1-5, 1989. A total of 48 organizations (33 from the US and 15 from abroad) participated in PDIS 14. Participants submitted by mail a total of 1,302 neutron and gamma dosimeters for this mixed field study. The type of neutron dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: TLD-albedo (40%), direct interaction TLD (22%), track (20%), film (7%), combination (7%), and bubble detectors (4%). The type of gamma dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: TLD (84%) and film (16%). Radiation sources used in the six PDIS 14 exposures included {sup 252}Cf moderated by 15-cm D{sub 2}O, {sup 252}Cf moderated by 15-cm polyethylene (gamma-enhanced with {sup 137}Cs), and {sup 238}PuBe. Neutron dose equivalents ranged from 0.44--2.63 mSv and gamma doses ranged from 0. 01-1.85 mSv. One {sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O) exposure was performed at a 60{degree} angle of incidence (most performance tests are at perpendicular incidence). The average neutron dosimeter response for this exposure was 70% of that at normal incidence. The average gamma dosimeter response was 96% of that at normal incidence. A total of 70% of individual reported neutron dosimeter measurements were within {plus minus}50% of reference values. If the 0.01 mSv data are omitted, approximately 90% of the individual reported gamma measurements were within {plus minus}50% of reference values. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.; Patterson, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Murakami, H. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Health Physics) & Liu, J.C. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

ABWR (advanced boiling water reactor) Design Verification Program

Description: The ABWR Design Verification Program is aimed at restoring confidence in the US licensing process by demonstrating its workability by obtaining USNRC preapproval of GE's ABWR Standard Plant. The purpose of this work is to achieve full NRC approval of the ABWR through the award of an NRC Staff final design approval (FDA) and design certification. The approach is to (1) establish a licensing basis with the NRC Staff for the ABWR, (2) prepare and submit, for NRC Staff review, an SSAR to obtain an FDA, and (3) participate in a rulemaking process to obtain certification of the ABWR design. This program was initiated August 27, 1986. This report, the fourth annual progress report, summarizes progress on this program from October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. 9 refs., 5 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Fox, J.N.

Accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams

Description: Polarization hadron experiments at high energies continue to generate surprises. Many questions remain unanswered or unanswerable within the frame work of QCD. These include such basic questions as to why at high energies the polarization analyzing power in pp elastic scattering remains high, why hyperons are produced with high polarizations etc. It is, therefore, interesting to investigate the possibilities of accelerating and storing polarized beams in high energy colliders. On the technical side the recent understanding and confirmation of the actions of partial and multiple Siberian snakes made it possible to contemplate accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams to multi-TeV energies. In this paper, we will examine the equipment, the operation and the procedure required to obtain colliding beams of polarized protons at TeV energies.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Teng, L.C.

Accelerator magnet designs using superconducting magnetic shields

Description: Superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles for existing accelerators have a coil surrounded by an iron shield. The shield limits the fringe field of the magnet while having minimal effect on the field shape and providing a small enhancement of the field strength. Shields using superconducting materials can be thinner and lighter and will not experience the potential of a large de-centering force. Boundary conditions for these materials, material properties, mechanical force considerations, cryostat considerations and some possible geometrical configurations for superconducting shields will be described. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Brown, B.C.

Actinide isotopic analysis systems

Description: This manual provides instructions and procedures for using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's two-detector actinide isotope analysis system to measure plutonium samples with other possible actinides (including uranium, americium, and neptunium) by gamma-ray spectrometry. The computer program that controls the system and analyzes the gamma-ray spectral data is driven by a menu of one-, two-, or three-letter options chosen by the operator. Provided in this manual are descriptions of these options and their functions, plus detailed instructions (operator dialog) for choosing among the options. Also provided are general instructions for calibrating the actinide isotropic analysis system and for monitoring its performance. The inventory measurement of a sample's total plutonium and other actinides content is determined by two nondestructive measurements. One is a calorimetry measurement of the sample's heat or power output, and the other is a gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of its relative isotopic abundances. The isotopic measurements needed to interpret the observed calorimetric power measurement are the relative abundances of various plutonium and uranium isotopes and americium-241. The actinide analysis system carries out these measurements. 8 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Koenig, Zachary M.; Ruhter, Wayne D. & Gunnink, Ray

Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

Description: DOE Order 5820.2A requires that low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites active on or after September 1988 and all transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites be monitored periodically to assure that radioactive contamination does not escape from the waste sites and pose a threat to the public or to the environment. This plan describes such a monitoring program for the active LLW disposal sites in SWSA 6 and the TRU waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North. 14 refs., 8 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S. & Morrissey, C.M.

Advanced materials and electrochemical processes in high-temperature solid electrolytes

Description: Fuel cells for the direct conversion of fossil fuels to electric energy necessitates the use of high-temperature solid electrodes. This study has included: (1) determination of electrical transport, thermal and electrical properties to illucidate the effects of microstructure, phase equilibria, oxygen partial pressure, additives, synthesis and fabrication on these properties; (2) investigation of synthesis and fabrication of advanced oxide materials, such as La{sub 0.9}Sn{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}; and (3) application of new analytical techniques using complex impedance coupled with conventional electrochemical methods to study the electrochemical processes and behavior of materials for solid oxide fuel cells and other high-temperature electrolyte electrochemical process. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs. (BM)
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Youngblood, G.E. & Weber, W.J.

Advanced sensor development program for the pulp and paper industry

Description: This report describes experimental and theoretical studies toward development of a remote sensing technique for non-intrusive temperature measurement based on optical spectroscopic analysis of recovery boiler. The overall objectives were (a) construction of a fiber-optic system for measurement of spectroscopic emission intensities at several wavelengths and (b) development of a computer program relating these intensities to temperatures of the emitting species. The emitting species for temperature measurements in flames can be either naturally occurring free radicals (OH, CH, C{sub 2}) or atoms which, in turn, can be either naturally occurring or seeded into flames. Sodium atoms, the obvious emitters in recovery boilers, are not promising as thermometric species because of their high concentration. At high concentrations, strong self-absorption results cause optical depths to be much smaller than the sampling depths desired for recovery boilers. An experimental program was, therefore, undertaken with the objective of identification and spectroscopic detection and measurement of other naturally occurring thermometric species. The program consisted of several laboratory studies and four field trips to different recovery boilers. 19 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Allen, J.D.; Charagundla, S.R.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H.G. & Whetstone, J.R.

The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) experience

Description: On January 26, 1990 at 20:03:30, the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) was turned off with the shot counter reading 12,425,999. During the interval between 1985 and 1990 there were eight major experiments performed at ATA. Three of these experiments were for the Free Electron Laser program, and five were for the Charged Particle Beam (CPB) program. The five experiments were: Spring 1985 Propagation Experiment (April 1985), December 1985 20m Propagation Experiment (December 1985), Open Air Experiment (March--June 1987), Beam Transport Experiment (Spring 1988), and Multi Pulse Propagation Experiment (September 89--January 90). Several new technologies such as the rise time sharpener, the Beam Director, and the Fast Corrector Coil were also developed. Experiments for diagnostic development such as the transition radiation studies were also conducted. In this report the major experiments will be revisited; their highlights and shortcomings will be outlined. The current view on the understanding of lead pulse stability and CPB feasibility will be discussed.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Chambers, F.W.

An aerial radiological survey of the Hanford Site and surrounding area, Richland, Washington

Description: An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, during the period 5 July through 26 August 1988. The survey was expanded, and additional flights were conducted to the east of the site and along the banks of the Columbia River down to McNary Dam near Umatilla. The survey was flown at altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) by a helicopter containing 17 liters (eight 2 in. {times} 4 in. {times} 16 in.) of sodium iodide detectors. Gamma ray data were collected over the survey area by flying north-south lines spaced 122 meters (400 feet) apart. The processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were generally consistent with those expected from normal background emitters and man-made fission/activation products resulting from activities at the site. External exposure rates were generally 10 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) with some operating areas over 1000 {mu}R/h. The radiation levels over more than 95% of the site are due to normal background exposure rates. 3 refs., 25 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990

Air exchange rates in new energy-efficient manufactured housing

Description: During the 1989--1990 heating season, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, for the Bonneville Power Administration, measured the ventilation characteristics of 139 newly constructed energy-efficient manufactured homes and a control sample of 35 newer manufactured homes. A standard door fan pressurization technique was used to estimate shell leakiness, and a passive perfluorocarbon tracer technique was used to estimate overall air exchange rates. A measurement of the designated whole-house exhaust system flow rate was taken as well as an occupant and structure survey. The energy-efficient manufactured homes have very low air exchange rates, significantly lower than either existing manufactured homes or site-built homes. The standard deviation of the effective leakage area for this sample of homes is small (25% to 30% of the mean), indicating that the leakiness of manufactured housing stock can be confidently characterized by the mean value. There is some indication of increased ventilation due to the energy-efficient whole-house ventilation specification, but not directly related to the operation of the whole-house system. The mechanical systems as installed and operated do not provide the intended ventilation; consequently indoor air quality could possibly be adversely impacted and moisture/condensation in the living space is a potential problem. 6 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Hadley, D. & Bailey, S.

Alpha Particle Destabilization of the Toroidicity-Induced Alfven Eigenmodes

Description: The high frequency, low mode number toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) are shown to be driven unstable by the circulating and/or trapped {alpha}-particles through the wave-particle resonances. Satisfying the resonance condition requires that the {alpha}-particle birth speed v{sub {alpha}} {ge} v{sub A}/2{vert bar}m-nq{vert bar}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed, m is the poloidal model number, and n is the toroidal mode number. To destabilize the TAE modes, the inverse Landau damping associated with the {alpha}-particle pressure gradient free energy must overcome the velocity space Landau damping due to both the {alpha}-particles and the core electrons and ions. The growth rate was studied analytically with a perturbative formula derived from the quadratic dispersion relation, and numerically with the aid of the NOVA-K code. Stability criteria in terms of the {alpha}-particle beta {beta}{sub {alpha}}, {alpha}-particle pressure gradient parameter ({omega}{sub {asterisk}}/{omega}{sub A}) ({omega}{sub {asterisk}} is the {alpha}-particle diamagnetic drift frequency), and (v{sub {alpha}}/v{sub A}) parameters will be presented for TFTR, CIT, and ITER tokamaks. The volume averaged {alpha}-particle beta threshold for TAE instability also depends sensitively on the core electron and ion temperature. Typically the volume averaged {alpha}-particle beta threshold is in the order of 10{sup {minus}4}. Typical growth rates of the n=1 TAE mode can be in the order of 10{sup {minus}2}{omega}{sub A}, where {omega}{sub A}=v{sub A}/qR. Other types of global Alfven waves are stable in D-T tokamaks due to toroidal coupling effects.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Cheng, C. Z.

Alternate modal combination methods in response spectrum analysis

Description: In piping analyses using the response spectrum method Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) with clustering between closely spaced modes is the combination procedure most commonly used to combine between the modal response components. This procedure is simple to apply and normally yields conservative estimates of the time history results. The purpose of this study is to investigate alternate methods to combine between the modal response components. These methods are mathematically based to properly account for the combination between rigid and flexible modal responses as well as closely spaced modes. The methods are those advanced by Gupta, Hadjian and Lindely-Yow to address rigid response modes and the Double Sum Combination (DSC) method and the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method to account for closely spaced modes. A direct comparison between these methods as well as the SRSS procedure is made by using them to predict the response of six piping systems. The results provided by each method are compared to the corresponding time history estimates of results as well as to each other. The degree of conservatism associated with each method is characterized. 19 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.; Wang, Y.K. & Gupta, A.K. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

Analysis and simulation of the SLD WIC (Warm Iron Calorimeter) PADS hybrid preamplifier circuitry

Description: The SLD PADS electronics consist of over 9000 channels of charge-sensitive preamplifiers followed by integrated sample/hold data storage, digitizing, and readout circuitry. This paper uses computer simulation techniques to analyze critical performance parameters of the preamplifier hybrid including its interactions with the detector system. Simulation results are presented and verified with measured performance. 6 refs., 9 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Fox, J.D. & Horelick, D.

Analysis of high-multiplicity gamma-ray events

Description: A significant improvement in the measured peak-to-background ratio of highly-correlated gamma-ray cascades can be achieved through the use of high-multiplicity gamma-ray coincident events. We studied this effect using data from the {sup 176}Yb({sup 22}Ne,6n){sup 192}Hg reaction at a beam energy of 122 MeV using HERA at the LBL 88-Inch cyclotron facility. An enriched set of all four- and higher-fold coincidences was culled from these data. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Brinkman, M.J.; Cizewski, J.A. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Manatt, D.R.; Becker, J.A.; Henry, E.A.; Roy, N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)) et al.

Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing. Final report, Task 13

Description: In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R&D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining.
Date: October 1, 1990

Analysis of solute transport in an intermediate-scale unsaturated flow experiment

Description: Radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone and its subsequent migration and decay calls for prediction with the aid of transport models. Usually, such models consist of a system of partial differential equations for the concentration C (function of space and time) that has to be solved with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. These equations are based on physical first principles, but contain a number of parameters that have to be determined experimentally. Hence, experiments are crucial for validating the equations and their solution and for determining parameter values. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated and performed a series of experiments at an intermediate scale, in caissons much larger than laboratory columns, of depth comparable with natural soil, but of limited horizontal extent. These experiments were conducted with both nonreactive and reactive solutes, and are described in a series of reports. Their main advantage is in expanding the scale on one hand, while permitting careful control and measurements on the other. 8 refs., 2 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Dagan, G.; Springer, E. & Nguyen, V.

Analysis of source-receptor relationships for sulfur compounds using spatial and trend techniques

Description: The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) recently published its Integrated Assessment, which describes the causes and effects of acidic deposition and presents a comparative evaluation of the effects of future emissions control scenarios (NAPAP 1990). One component of this Integrated Assessment is an empirical investigation of the relationship between emissions and deposition of sulfur compounds, using available data on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions and wet sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup =}) deposition. The rationale for such an investigation is twofold: (1) the analyses provide observational evidence that links emissions and deposition, with cause and effect relationships inferred when atmospheric processes are considered, and (2) the analyses apply these relationships to policy questions on source attribution at specific receptors and the linearity between emissions changes and deposition changes. This paper summarizes the analysis of the empirical relationship between sources and wet deposition of sulfur compounds presented in Question 2 of the Integrated Assessment. A spatial analysis of the relationship between emissions and wet deposition is presented for 1985. The relationship between trends in emissions and wet deposition is presented for the period from 1979 to 1987. The results of these analyses are discussed in the context of the role such information plays in assessing emissions control options. 7 refs., 6 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Renne, D.S.; Barchet, W.R.; Olsen, A.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Shannon, J.D. & Sisterson, D.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

An analysis of the commercialization of eight conservation technologies

Description: The Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories has a long history of developing commercially successful technologies. This success is based on OIP's efforts to involve industry early in the technology development process and on the use of highly skilled technical staff. However, even the most technically successful products can fail to achieve widespread market acceptance. The objective of this work is to determine why some OIP-sponsored technologies are not being commercialized and to determine what OIP can do to promote commercial acceptance. OIP technologies evaluated in this study included: extraction of organics from water, fuel-cell membrane, fused salt catalyst, industrial humidity sensor, kiln dust/fly ash, machnozzle, membrane for solvent recovery, and spectral flame analyzer.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Smith, S.A.; Thurman, A.G. & Grover, S.E.

Annual training manual for security training: Protective force

Description: Westinghouse is committed to high quality training relevant to the need of the Protective Forces at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The training programs at WIPP are designed to qualify Security personnel to perform WIPP security missions in a professional and responsible manner. The program consists of basic as well as sustainment training, as further described in this plan. This plan documents the WIPP Security training program for security personnel for calendar year 1990. The programs detailed in this plan are designed to adequately train persons to ensure the uninterrupted continuity of Department of Energy (DOE)/Westinghouse operations. The Security Training Program consists of four basic elements. These elements are (1) basic level training; (2) on-the-job training; (3) refresher training; and (4) in-service training.
Date: October 1, 1990

The application of the turbulent burning speed concept to laboratory flames

Description: The purpose of this paper is to review and critique previous and current practices of applying the turbulent burning speed concept to different laboratory flames. Also evaluated and discussed are the suitability and limitations of the flame configurations, and conventional and novel experimental methods for determining S{sub T}. The survey shows that most of the currently available S{sub T} data obtained by flame geometry methods tend to be high and need to be corrected for the effects of flow divergence. This emphasizes the significant of the flowfield on flame propagation. 27 refs., 6 figs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Cheng, R.K.

ARCHY (Analysis and Reverse Engineering of Code Using Hierarchy and Yourdon): A tool for Fortran code maintenance and development

Description: Analysis and Reverse Engineering of Code Using Hierarchy and Yourdon (ARCHY) diagrams is a tool for development and maintenance of FORTRAN programs. When FORTRAN source code is read by ARCHY, it automatically creates a database that includes a data dictionary, which lists each variable, its dimensions, type, category (set, referenced, passed), module calling structure, and common block information. The database exists in an ASCII file that can be directly edited or maintained with the ARCHY database editor. The database is used by ARCHY to product structure charts and Yourdon data flow diagrams in PostScript format. ARCHY also transfers database information such as a variable definitions, module descriptions, and technical references to and from module headers. ARCHY contains several utilities for making programs more readable. It can automatically indent the body of loops and conditionals and resequence statement labels. Various language extensions are translated into FORTRAN-77 to increase code portability. ARCHY frames comment statements and groups FORMAT statements at the end of modules. It can alphabetize modules within a program, end-of-line labels can be added, and it can also change executable statements to upper or lower case. ARCHY runs under the VAX-VMS operating system and inputs from VAX-FORTRAN, IBM-FORTRAN, and CRAY FORTRAN sources files.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Aull, J.E.