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Advanced radiation techniques for inspection of diesel engine combustion chamber materials components. Final report

Description: Heavy duty truck engines must meet stringent life cycle cost and regulatory requirements. Meeting these requirements has resulted in convergence on 4-stroke 6-in-line, turbocharged, and after-cooled engines with direct-injection combustion systems. These engines provide much higher efficiencies (42%, fuel consumption 200 g/kW-hr) than automotive engines (31%, fuel consumption 270 g/kW-hr), but at higher initial cost. Significant near-term diesel engine improvements are necessary and are spurred by continuing competitive, Middle - East oil problems and Congressional legislation. As a result of these trends and pressures, Caterpillar has been actively pursuing a low-fuel consumption engine research program with emphasis on product quality through process control and product inspection. The goal of this project is to combine the nondestructive evaluation and computational resources and expertise available at LLNL with the diesel engine and manufacturing expertise of the Caterpillar Corporation to develop in-process monitoring and inspection techniques for diesel engine combustion chamber components and materials. Early development of these techniques will assure the optimization of the manufacturing process by design/inspection interface. The transition from the development stage to the manufacturing stage requires a both a thorough understanding of the processes and a way of verifying conformance to process standards. NDE is one of the essential tools in accomplishing both elements and in this project will be integrated with Caterpillar`s technological and manufacturing expertise to accomplish the project goals.
Date: October 9, 1995

Alfven-wave particle interaction in finite-dimensional self-consistent field model

Description: A low-dimensional Hamiltonian model is derived for the acceleration of ions in finite amplitude Alfven waves in a finite pressure plasma sheet. The reduced low-dimensional wave-particle Hamiltonian is useful for describing the reaction of the accelerated ions on the wave amplitudes and phases through the self-consistent fields within the envelope approximation. As an example, the authors show for a single Alfven wave in the central plasma sheet of the Earth`s geotail, modeled by the linear pinch geometry called the Harris sheet, the time variation of the wave amplitude during the acceleration of fast protons.
Date: October 9, 1998
Creator: Padhye, N. & Horton, W.

Assessment results of the Indonesian TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

Description: This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination performed by technical personnel from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) at the Bandung and Yogyakarta research reactor facilities in Indonesia. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation to and storage at the INEEL. This paper delineates the Initial Preparations prior to the Indonesian foreign research reactor (FRR) fuel examination. The technical basis for the examination, the TRIGA SNF Acceptance Criteria, and the physical condition required for transportation, receipt and storage of the TRIGA SNF at the INEEL is explained. In addition to the initial preparations, preparation descriptions of the Work Plan For TRIGA Fuel Examination, the Underwater Examination Equipment used, and personnel Examination Team Training are included. Finally, the Fuel Examination and Results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. Lessons learned from all the activities completed to date is provided in an addendum. The initial preparations included: (1) coordination between the INEEL, FRR or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN), DOE-HQ, and the US State Department and Embassy; (2) incorporating Savannah River Site (SRS) FRR experience and lessons learned; (3) collecting both FRR facility and spent fuel data, and issuing a radionuclide report (Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels) needed for transportation and fuel acceptance at the INEEL; and (4) preexamination work at the research reactor for the fuel examination.
Date: October 9, 1997
Creator: Jefimoff, J.; Robb, A.K.; Wendt, K.M.; Syarip, I. & Alfa, T.

Assessment results of the South Korea TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

Description: This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination at the Seoul and the Taejon Research Reactor Facilities in South Korea. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation and storage at the INEEL. The results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. A description of the examination team training, the examination work plan and examination equipment is also included. This paper also explains the technical basis for the examination and physical condition criteria used to determine what, if any, additional packaging would be required for transportation and for the receipt and storage of the fuel at the INEEL. This paper delineates the preparation activities prior to the fuel examinations and includes (1) collecting spent fuel data; (2) preparatory work by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for fuel examination: (3) preparation of a radionuclide report, Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels needed to provide input data for transportation and fuel acceptance at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL); (4) gathering FRR Facility data; and (5) coordination between the INEEL and KAERI. Included, are the unanticipated conditions encountered in the unloading of fuel from the dry storage casks in Taejon in preparation for examination, a description of the damaged condition of the fuel removed from the casks, and the apparent cause of the damages. Lessons learned from all the activities are also addressed. A brief description of the preparatory work for the shipment of the spent fuel from Korea to INEEL is included.
Date: October 9, 1997
Creator: Cole, C.M.; Dirk, W.J.; Cottam, R.E. & Paik, S.T.

Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

Description: Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical ...
Date: October 9, 1998
Creator: Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L. & Holt, R.M.

Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals

Description: This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.
Date: October 9, 1992
Creator: Huttenlocher, D.F.

Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals. Final report

Description: This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.
Date: October 9, 1992
Creator: Huttenlocher, D. F.

Complete Method for E{sub bd} Correction by Series Resistance Characterization

Description: We have developed a semi-automated method for determining the series resistance profiles of dot capacitors and for obtaining corrected oxide fields at breakdown. This method is based upon a least-squares-fit of IV data obtained from a voltage-ramp test to the Fowler-Nordheim leakage model. The profiles provide insight into the general characteristics of series resistance. Certain features of the profiles can be associated with charge trapping and the onset of oxide breakdown.
Date: October 9, 1998
Creator: Monroe, David K. & Swanson, Scot E.

Consequence analysis of a NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank

Description: Toxicological consequences were calculated for a postulated maximum caustic soda (NaOH) solution spray leak during addition to a waste tank to adjust tank pH. Although onsite risk guidelines were exceeded for the unmitigated release, site boundary consequences were below the level of concern. Means of mitigating the release so as to greatly reduce the onsite consequences were recommended. Consequences for the mitigated release were estimated and both onsite and offsite consequences were found to negligible.
Date: October 9, 1996
Creator: Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford Co.

D0 Cryogenic System Superconducting Solenoid Platform I/O

Description: The Dzero detector is scheduled for a major upgrade between 1996 and 1999. This note describes the specifications and configuration of the physical Input/Output devices and instrumentation of the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid. The Solenoid and the VLPC cryostats both reside on the detector platform and are cooled by the Dzero Helium Refrigerator. The cryogenic process control s for these two components will be an extension of the TI565 programmable logic controller system used for other Dzero cryogenic controls. Two Input/Output Bases will be installed on the Dzero detector platform near the cryo corner. These I/O bases will handle all the sensor input and process control output devices from the Solenoid and VLPC cryostats. Having the I/O bases installed on the detector platform makes the connecting cabl ing to the platform much easier . All the instruments are wired directly to the I/O base. The bases have only one communications network cabl e that must be routed off the platform to the South side of the Dzero building.
Date: October 9, 1997
Creator: Markley, D.

Distributed Sensing and Cooperating Control for Swarms of Robotic vehicles

Description: DISTRIBUTED SENSING AND COOPERATING CONTROL FOR SWARMS OF ROBOTIC VEHICLES Key words: Distributed Sensing, Cooperative Control. ABSTRACT We discuss an approach to effectively control a large swarm of autonomous, robotic vehicles, as they per- form a search and tag operation. In particular, the robotic agents are to find the source of a chemical plume. The robotic agents work together through dis- tributed sensing and cooperative control. Distributed sensing is achieved through each agent sampling and sharing his information with others. Cooperative con- trol h accomplished by each agent u-sing its neighbors information to determine an update strategy. INTRODUCTION There is currently considerable interest in expanding the role of robotic vehicles in surveillance and inspec- tion; searching, following and t aggir-g and locating and identifying targets. In particular, researchers are beginning to focus on using small autonomous robotic vehicles for these tasks. This focus has been brought about largely because of the many recent advances in microelectronics and sensors, which include small, low power, CCD cameras; small microprocessors with ex- panded capabilities; autonomous navigation systems using GPS; and severrd types of small sensors. It seems likely that these technological advances will lead to in- expensive, easy to fabricate, autonomous vehicles out- fitted with an array of sensors. This, in turn, will allow researchers to consider teams, or even swarms, of these agents to perform a particular task. It is natural then to wonder how one might effectively control a team, or even a swarm, of robotic agents. In this paper, we discuss an approach to effectively control a large swarm of autonomous, robotic vehicles as they perform a search and tag operation. In par- ticular, the robotic agents are to find the source of a chemical plume. The robotic agents work together through distributed sensing and cooperative control. Distributed sensing is ...
Date: October 9, 1998
Creator: Dohrmann, C. R.; Goldsmith, S. Y.; Hurtado, J. E. & Robinett, R. D.

Emission estimates for air pollution transport models.

Description: The results of studies of energy consumption and emission inventories in Asia are discussed. These data primarily reflect emissions from fuel combustion (both biofuels and fossil fuels) and were collected to determine emissions of acid-deposition precursors (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) appropriate to RAINS-Asia regions. Current work is focusing on black carbon (soot), volatile organic compounds, and ammonia.
Date: October 9, 1998
Creator: Streets, D. G.

(Energy and electricity supply and demand)

Description: At the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), representing eleven international agencies which are sponsoring the 1991 Helsinki Symposium on Electricity and the Environment, I traveled to Brussels to participate in the second meeting of one of four advisory groups established to prepare for the Symposium. At the meeting, I was involved in a review of a draft issue paper being prepared for the Symposium and of the Symposium program.
Date: October 9, 1990
Creator: Wilbanks, T.J.

Engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} recovery, transport, and utilization.

Description: The need to establish benchmarks for available power-generating cycles having reduced atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2} served as the basis for this study. Innovative process technologies need this benchmark so they can be appreciated in their proper perspective. An oxygen-blown KRW coal-gasification plant producing hydrogen, electricity, and supercritical-CO{sub 2}, was studied in a full-energy cycle analysis extending from the coal mine to the final destination of the gaseous product streams. A location in the mid-western US 100 mi from Old Ben No.26 mine was chosen. Three parallel gasifier trains, each capable of providing 42% of the plant's 413.5 MW nominal capacity use 3,845 tons/day of Illinois No.6 coal from this mine. The plant produces a net 52 MW of power and 131 MMscf/day of 99.999% purity hydrogen which is sent 62 mi by pipeline at 34 bars. The plant also produces 112 MMscf/day of supercritical-CO{sub 2} at 143 bars, which is sequestered in enhanced oil recovery operations 310 mi away.
Date: October 9, 1998
Creator: Doctor, R. D.

EQ6, a computer program for reaction path modeling of aqueous geochemical systems: Theoretical manual, user`s guide, and related documentation (Version 7.0); Part 4

Description: EQ6 is a FORTRAN computer program in the EQ3/6 software package (Wolery, 1979). It calculates reaction paths (chemical evolution) in reacting water-rock and water-rock-waste systems. Speciation in aqueous solution is an integral part of these calculations. EQ6 computes models of titration processes (including fluid mixing), irreversible reaction in closed systems, irreversible reaction in some simple kinds of open systems, and heating or cooling processes, as well as solve ``single-point`` thermodynamic equilibrium problems. A reaction path calculation normally involves a sequence of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Chemical evolution is driven by a set of irreversible reactions (i.e., reactions out of equilibrium) and/or changes in temperature and/or pressure. These irreversible reactions usually represent the dissolution or precipitation of minerals or other solids. The code computes the appearance and disappearance of phases in solubility equilibrium with the water. It finds the identities of these phases automatically. The user may specify which potential phases are allowed to form and which are not. There is an option to fix the fugacities of specified gas species, simulating contact with a large external reservoir. Rate laws for irreversible reactions may be either relative rates or actual rates. If any actual rates are used, the calculation has a time frame. Several forms for actual rate laws are programmed into the code. EQ6 is presently able to model both mineral dissolution and growth kinetics.
Date: October 9, 1992
Creator: Wolery, T.J. & Daveler, S.A.

Experimental characterization of high-brightness electron photoinjector

Description: Operational experience of the emittance compensated photoinjector at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) is presented in this paper. The photoinjector has demonstrated the stability and reliability required for UV and X-ray FEL applications. The RF gun has been routinely running at more than 100 MV/m peak acceleration field; the laser system of the photoinjector has achieved 2% peak to peak energy stability, 0.5% point stability and better than 2 ps timing jitter. The highest measured quantum efficiency of the Cu cathode is 0.05%. The electron beam bunch length was measured to be 10 ps using a linac RF phase scan. The normalized rms emittance for a 0.5 nC charge was measured, to be from 1 to 2 mm-mrad, which agrees with PARMELA simulations.
Date: October 9, 1995
Creator: Wang, X.J.; Babzien, M.; Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Pogorelsky, R.M.I.; Qui, X. et al.

Extraction studies. Final report, May 6, 1996--September 30, 1997

Description: During the first week of this effort, an Alpkem RFA-300 4-channel automated chemical analyzer was transferred to the basement of building 42 at TA-46 for the purpose of performing extraction studies. Initially, this instrumentation was applied to soil samples known to contain DNA. Using the SFA (Segmented Flow Analysis) technique, several fluidic systems were evaluated to perform on-line filtration of several varieties of soil obtained from Cheryl Kuske and Kaysie Banton (TA-43, Bldg. 1). Progress reports were issued monthly beginning May 15, 1996. Early in 1997 there was a shift from the conventional 2-phase system (aqueous + air) to a 3-phase system (oil + aqueous + air) to drastically reduce sample size and reagent consumption. Computer animation was recorded on videotape for presentations. The time remaining on the subcontract was devoted to setting up existing equipment to incorporate the 3rd phase (a special fluorocarbon oil obtained from DuPont).
Date: October 9, 1997

Further studies of 60 Hz exposure effects on human function

Description: Public concern has been expressed about possible health risks arising from exposure to the electric and magnetic fields generated power distribution systems. This project is addressing this concern through a laboratory research program designed to evaluate the effects of brief exposure to known field conditions on multiple measures of human function. In previous research, we found that exposure had statistically significant effects on physiological measures of cardiac and brain activity, and on performance measures of reaction time and performance accuracy. Effects were seen more clearly under intermittent exposure conditions, and at certain levels of electric and magnetic field strength. In this continuation effort, we are performing a series of exploratory studies, to be followed by a confirmatory experiment, to determine if the above physiological effects differ as a function of exposure to the electric and magnetic fields separately and combined, time of day, and rate of intermittent exposure. Further studies will explore the mechanisms underlying these effects. The information developed in this project will be of value in risk assessment activities, and in basic research aimed at identifying specific factors involved in the interaction of power line fields with the human system. In this reporting period our goals were to: (a) continue performance of the probe studies; (b) participate in a site visit at MRI; (c) request 1991 research continuation funding; and (d) submit an abstract of project findings for presentation at the 1990 DOE Contractors Review Meeting.
Date: October 9, 1990
Creator: Graham, C. & Cohen, H.D.

Higgs effects in the polarization of top quarks

Description: Top quarks produced in high-energy collisions should exhibit a parity-conserving spin polarization normal to the production plane which can be measured by the asymmetry in their leptonic decays. A portion of this effect, which can be calculated in perturbation theory, is attributable to the quark`s QCD interactions. In addition, there is a component of the polarization due to the Yukawa coupling (g{sub Y} {congruent} m{sub T}/(250 GeV)) of the top quark with the Higgs sector. We can demonstrate the interplay of QCD and Yukawa forces in the polarization for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} 4 T{bar T}. Assuming M{sub H} > 2M{sub T} and that the Higgs particle is not discovered before the top quark, measurement of top quark polarization in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} or hadron-hadron collisions can be used to specify an approximate mass for the Higgs and guide direct searches.
Date: October 9, 1990
Creator: Sivers, D.