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0-G experiments with advanced ceramic fabric wick structures

Description: Both Air Force and NASA future spacecraft thermal management needs span the temperature range from cryogenic to liquid metals. Many of these needs are changing and not well defined and will remain so until goals, technology, and missions converge. Nevertheless, it is certain that high-temperature (> 800 K) and medium-temperature (about 450 K) radiator systems will have to be developed that offer significant improvements over current designs. This paper discusses experiments performed in the lower temperature regime as part of a comprehensive advanced ceramic fabric (ACF) heat pipe development program. These experiments encompassed wicking tests with various ceramic fabric samples, and heat transfer tests with a 1-m long prototype ACF water heat pipe. A prototype ceramic fabric/titanium water heat pipe has been constructed and tested; it transported up to 60 W of power at about 390 K. Startup and operation both with and against gravity examined. Wick testing was begun to aid in the design and construction of an improved prototype heat pipe, with a 38-{mu}m stainless steel linear covered by a biaxially-braided Nextel (trademark of the 3M Co., St. Paul, Minnesota) sleeve that is approximately 300-{mu}m thick. Wick testing took place in 1-g; limited testing in 0-g was initiated, and results to date suggest that in 0-g, wick performance improves over that in 1-g.
Date: July 1991
Creator: Antoniak, Z.I.; Webb, B.J.; Bates, J.M.; Cooper, M.F. & Pauley, K.A.

2-1/2-D electromagnetic modeling of nodular defects in high-power multilayer optical coatings

Description: Advances in the design and production of high damage threshold optical coatings for use in mirrors and polarizers have been driven by the design requirements of high-power laser systems such as the proposed 1.8-MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the prototype 12- kJ Beamlet laser system. The present design of the NIF will include 192 polarizers and more than 1100 mirrors. Currently, the material system of choice for high-power multilayer optical coatings with high damage threshold applications near 1.06 {mu}m are e-beam deposited HfO{sub 2}/Si0{sub 2} coatings. However, the optical performance and laser damage thresholds of these coatings are limited by micron-scale defects and insufficient control over layer thickness. In this report, we will discuss the results of our 2-1/2-D finite-element time- domain (FDTD) EM modeling effort for rotationally-symmetric nodular defects in multilayer dielectric HR coatings. We have added a new diagnostic to the 2-1/2-D FDTD EM code, AMOS, that enables us to calculate the peak steady-state electric fields throughout a 2-D planar region containing a 2-D r-z cross-section of the axisymmetric nodular defect and surrounding multilayer dielectric stack. We have also generated a series of design curves to identify the range of loss tangents for Si0{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2} consistent with the experimentally determined power loss of the HR coatings. In addition, we have developed several methods to provide coupling between the EM results and the thermal-mechanical simulation effort.
Date: July 1996
Creator: Molau, N. E.; Brand, H. R.; Kozlowski, M. R. & Shang, C. C.

A 2-D imaging heat-flux gauge

Description: This report describes a new leadless two-dimensional imaging optical heat-flux gauge. The gauge is made by depositing arrays of thermorgraphic-phosphor (TP) spots onto the faces of a polymethylpentene is insulator. In the first section of the report, we describe several gauge configurations and their prototype realizations. A satisfactory configuration is an array of right triangles on each face that overlay to form squares when the gauge is viewed normal to the surface. The next section of the report treats the thermal conductivity of TPs. We set up an experiment using a comparative longitudinal heat-flow apparatus to measure the previously unknown thermal conductivity of these materials. The thermal conductivity of one TP, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, is 0.0137 W/cm{center dot}K over the temperature range from about 300 to 360 K. The theories underlying the time response of TP gauges and the imaging characteristics are discussed in the next section. Then we discuss several laboratory experiments to (1) demonstrate that the TP heat-flux gauge can be used in imaging applications; (2) obtain a quantum yield that enumerates what typical optical output signal amplitudes can be obtained from TP heat-flux gauges; and (3) determine whether LANL-designed intensified video cameras have sufficient sensitivity to acquire images from the heat-flux gauges. We obtained positive results from all the measurements. Throughout the text, we note limitations, areas where improvements are needed, and where further research is necessary. 12 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Beshears, D.L.; Sartory, W.K.; Tobin, K.W.; Williams, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) et al.

2-D tomography with bolometry in DIII-D

Description: We have installed a 48-channel platinum-foil bolometer system on DIII-D achieve better spatial and temporal resolution of the radiated power in diverted discharges. Two 24-channel arrays provide complete plasma coverage with optimized views of the divertor. We have measured the divertor radiation profile for a series of radiative divertor and power balance experiments. We observe a rapid change in the magnitude and distribution of divertor radiation with heavy gas puffing. Unfolding the radiation profile with only two views requires us to treat the core and divertor radiation separately. The core radiation is fitted to a function of magnetic flux and is then subtracted from the divertor viewing chords. The divertor profile is then fit to a 2-D spline as a function of magnetic flux and poloidal angle.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Leonard, A. W.; Meyer, W. H.; Geer, B.; Behne, D. M. & Hill, D. N.

3-D field computation: The near-triumph of commerical codes

Description: In recent years, more and more of those who design and analyze magnets and other devices are using commercial codes rather than developing their own. This paper considers the commercial codes and the features available with them. Other recent trends with 3-D field computation include parallel computation and visualization methods such as virtual reality systems.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Turner, L. R.

3-D Silicon Photonic Lattices- Cornerstone of an Emerging Photonics Revolution

Description: Three-dimensional photonic lattices are engineered materials which are the photonic analogues of semiconductors. These structures were first proposed and demonstrated in the mid-to-late 1980's. However, due to fabrication difficulties, lattices active in the infrared are only just emerging. Wide ranges of structures and fabrication approaches have been investigated. The most promising approach for many potential applications is a diamond-like structure fabricated using silicon microprocessing techniques. This approach has enabled the fabrication of 3-D silicon photonic lattices active in the infrared. The structures display band gaps centered from 12{micro} down to 1.55{micro}.
Date: July 8, 1999
Creator: Fleming, J.G. & Lin, Shawn-Yu

3-D TECATE/BREW: Thermal, stress, and birefringent ray-tracing codes for solid-state laser design

Description: This report describes the physics, code formulations, and numerics that are used in the TECATE (totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermo-elasticity) and BREW (birefringent ray-tracing of electromagnetic waves) codes for laser design. These codes resolve thermal, stress, and birefringent optical effects in 3-D stationary solid-state systems. This suite of three constituent codes is a package referred to as LASRPAK.
Date: July 20, 1994
Creator: Gelinas, R. J.; Doss, S. K. & Nelson, R. G.

3 MW, 110 GHz ECH system for the DIII-D tokamak

Description: To support the Advanced Tokamak (AT) operating regimes in the DIII-D tokamak, methods need to be developed to control the current and pressure profiles across the plasma discharge. In particular, AT plasmas require substantial off-axis current in contrast to normal tokamak discharges where the current peaks on-axis. An effort is under way to use Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) as a method of sustaining the off-axis current in AT plasmas. The first step in this campaign is the installation of three megawatts of electron cyclotron heating power. This involves the installation of three rf systems operating at 110 GHz, the second harmonic resonance frequency on DIII-D, with each system generating nominally 1 MW. The three systems will use one GYCOM (Russian) gyrotron and two CPI (formerly Varian) gyrotrons, all with windowless evacuated corrugated low loss transmission lines. The first two of three 1 MW ECH systems is operating routinely at DIII-D with injected power at 110 GHz of approximately 1.5 MW with good power accountability. Transport experiments using modulated ECH have been performed confirming the power deposition location. On-axis and off-axis current drive experiments have been successfully performed with on-axis ECCD currents of 170 kA being observed.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Callis, R. W.; Lohr, J.; Ponce, D.; Harris, T. E.; O`Neill, R. C.; Remsen, D.B. et al.

3(omega) damage threshold evaluation of final optics components using Beamlet mule and off-line testing

Description: A statistics-based model is being developed to predict the laser-damage-limited lifetime of UV optical components on the NIF laser. In order to provide data for the model, laser damage experiments were performed on the Beamlet laser system at LLNL. An early prototype NIF focus lens was exposed to twenty 35 1 nm pulses at an average fluence of 5 J/cm{sup 2}, 3ns. Using a high resolution optic inspection system a total of 353 damage sites was detected within the 1160 cm{sup 2} beam aperture. Through inspections of the lens before, after and, in some cases, during the campaign, pulse to pulse damage growth rates were measured for damage initiating both on the surface and at bulk inclusions. Growth rates as high as 79 {micro}m/pulse (surface diameter) were observed for damage initiating at pre-existing scratches in the surface. For most damage sites on the optic, both surface and bulk, the damage growth rate was approximately l0{micro}m/pulse. The lens was also used in Beamlet for a subsequent 1053 {micro}m/526 {micro}m campaign. The 352 {micro}m-initiated damage continued to grow during that campaign although at generally lower growth rate.
Date: July 27, 1998
Creator: Kozlowski, M. F.; Maricle, S.; Mouser, R.; Schwartz, S.; Wegner, P. & Weiland, T.

10 CFR 830.120 Criterion 10, Independent Assessment: We`re here to help you!

Description: Each organization performing activities in the DOE Weapons Complex is required to have an pendent assessment function. This is consistent from DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance to 10 CFR 830-120, sometimes referred to as the Price-Anderson rule. DOE Order 5700.6C, Criterion 10 Independent Assessment requires, `` Planned and periodic independent assessments shall be conducted to measure item quality and process effectiveness and to promote improvement. The organization performing independent assessments shall have sufficient authority and freedom from the line organization to carry out its responsibilities. Persons conducting independent assessments shall be technically qualified and knowledgeable in the areas assessed.`` 10 CFR 830.120, (c) Quality assurance criteria -- (3) Assessment -- (ii) Independent Assessment requires,``Independent assessments shall be planned and conducted to measure item and service quality, to measure the adequacy of work performance, and to promote improvement. The group performing independent assessments shall have sufficient authority and freedom from the line to carry out its responsibilities. Persons conducting independent assessments shall be technically qualified and knowledgeable in the areas assessed.``
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Farrell, R.E.

A 30-T pulsed magnet suitable for neutron scattering experiments

Description: We describe a conceptual design for a 30-T vertical-field split-pair magnet suitable for neutron scattering studies. While the magnet is primarily intended for diffraction and spectroscopic studies using a pulsed neutron source, it might also have application for relaxational studies,at steady-state sources. The magnet will have a 5-cm bore for sample environment equipment, a 1-cm gap for the neutrons to illuminate the sample and through which to observe the scattering. It will run with a repetition frequency of 2 Hz, and a pulse length of 3 ms. We discuss scientific and engineering considerations that led to this specification and describe the designs of both magnet and power supply.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Robinson, R.A.; Boenig, H.J.; Eyssa, Y.M. & Schneider-Muntau, H.J.

94-1 research and development project lead laboratory support. Status report, October 1--December 31, 1996

Description: This status report is published for Los Alamos National Laboratory 94-1 Research and Development (R and D) projects. The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) funds these projects in order to support the storage or disposal of legacy plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials that resulted from weapons production throughout the DOE complex. This report summarizes status and technical progress for Materials Identification and Surveillance; Stabilization Process Development; Surveillance and Monitoring; Core Technology; Separations; Materials Science; Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Plutonium(IV) and Plutonium(VI) Phosphates; Plutonium Phosphate Solution Chemistry; and Molten Salt/Nonaqueous Electrochemistry.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Rink, N.A.

101-SY waste sample speed of sound/rheology testing for sonic probe program

Description: One problem faced in the clean-up operation at Hanford is that a number of radioactive waste storage tanks are experiencing a periodic buildup and release of potentially explosive gases. The best known example is Tank 241-SY-101 (commonly referred to as 101-SY) in which hydrogen gas periodically built up within the waste to the point that increased buoyancy caused a roll-over event, in which the gas was suddenly released in potentially explosive concentrations (if an ignition source were present). The sonic probe concept is to generate acoustic vibrations in the 101-SY tank waste at nominally 100 Hz, with sufficient amplitude to cause the controlled release of hydrogen bubbles trapped in the waste. The sonic probe may provide a potentially cost-effective alternative to large mixer pumps now used for hydrogen mitigation purposes. Two important parameters needed to determine sonic probe effectiveness and design are the speed of sound and yield stress of the tank waste. Tests to determine these parameters in a 240 ml sample of 101-SY waste (obtained near the tank bottom) were performed, and the results are reported.
Date: July 25, 1994
Creator: Cannon, N. S.

118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

Description: The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request {number_sign}M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal.
Date: July 1, 1994

150-MW S-band klystron program at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

Description: Two S-Band klystrons operating at 150 MW have been designed, fabricated and tested at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) during the past two years for use in an experimental accelerator at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany. Both klystrons operate at the design power, 60 Hz repetition rate, 3 {micro}s pulsewidth, with an efficiency {gt} 40%, and agreement between the experimental results and simulations is excellent. The 535 kV, 700 A electron gun was tested by constructing a solenoidal focused beam stick which identified a source of oscillation, subsequently engineered out of the klystron guns. Design of the beam stick and the two klystrons is discussed, along with observation and suppression of spurious oscillations. Differences in design and the resulting performance of the Klystrons is emphasized.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Sprehn, D.; Caryotakis, G. & Phillips, R.M.

200 Area population weighted X/Q for the public within 10 miles of the site boundary

Description: An overall population weighted atmospheric dispersion coefficient (X/Q) has been calculated for the public within 10 miles of the Hanford Site boundary. The Columbia river was assumed as the Hanford site boundary to the north and the east. The GXQ code was used for the calculation. The value calculated is 1.88 x 10-8 s/m 3.
Date: July 9, 1996
Creator: Van Keuren, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

209-E Building -- Response to ventilation failure evaluation

Description: This document provides an evaluation and recommendations for radiological workplace air monitoring and response to ventilation failure for the Critical Mass Laboratory, 209-E Building. The Critical Mass Laboratory, part of the 209-E Building, was designed to provide a heavily shielded room where plutonium and uranium liquid solutions could be brought into various critical configurations under readily controlled and monitored conditions. The facility is contained within a one-story L-shaped concrete block and reinforced concrete building. One wing houses offices, a control room, shops, and a common area while the other wing includes an equipment room, the change room, work areas, and the two-story Critical Assembly Room (CAR). Three of the rooms contain radiologically contaminated equipment and materials.
Date: July 27, 1998
Creator: Foust, D.J.

222-S Laboratory Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 1

Description: This Quality Assurance Plan provides,quality assurance (QA) guidance, regulatory QA requirements (e.g., 10 CFR 830.120), and quality control (QC) specifications for analytical service. This document follows the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) issued Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP). In addition, this document meets the objectives of the Quality Assurance Program provided in the WHC-CM-4-2, Section 2.1. Quality assurance elements required in the Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAMS-004) and Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAMS-005) from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are covered throughout this document. A quality assurance index is provided in the Appendix A. This document also provides and/or identifies the procedural information that governs laboratory operations. The personnel of the 222-S Laboratory and the Standards Laboratory including managers, analysts, QA/QC staff, auditors, and support staff shall use this document as guidance and instructions for their operational and quality assurance activities. Other organizations that conduct activities described in this document for the 222-S Laboratory shall follow this QA/QC document.
Date: July 31, 1995
Creator: Meznarich, H.K.

241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

Description: This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.
Date: July 29, 1999
Creator: BANNING, D.L.

303-K Storage Facility report on FY98 closure activities

Description: This report summarizes and evaluates the decontamination activities, sampling activities, and sample analysis performed in support of the closure of the 303-K Storage Facility. The evaluation is based on the validated data included in the data validation package (98-EAP-346) for the 303-K Storage Facility. The results of this evaluation will be used for assessing contamination for the purpose of closing the 303-K Storage Facility as described in the 303-K Storage Facility Closure Plan, DOE/RL-90-04. The closure strategy for the 303-K Storage Facility is to decontaminate the interior of the north half of the 303-K Building to remove known or suspected dangerous waste contamination, to sample the interior concrete and exterior soils for the constituents of concern, and then to perform data analysis, with an evaluation to determine if the closure activities and data meet the closure criteria. The closure criteria for the 303-K Storage Facility is that the concentrations of constituents of concern are not present above the cleanup levels. Based on the evaluation of the decontamination activities, sampling activities, and sample data, determination has been made that the soils at the 303-K Storage Facility meet the cleanup performance standards (WMH 1997) and can be clean closed. The evaluation determined that the 303-K Building cannot be clean closed without additional closure activities. An additional evaluation will be needed to determine the specific activities required to clean close the 303-K Storage Facility. The radiological contamination at the 303-K Storage Facility is not addressed by the closure strategy.
Date: July 17, 1998
Creator: Adler, J. G.

303-K Storage facility sampling and analysis plan

Description: This document describes the cleanup, sampling, and analysis activities associated with the closure of the 303-K Storage Facility under the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610, ``Dangerous Waste Regulations.`` this document is a supplement to the 303-K Storage Facility Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1995a) (Closure Plan). The objective of these activities is to support clean closure of the 303 K Storage Facility. This document defines the information and activities needed to meet this objective, including: constituents of concern, cleanup performance standards, cleanup activities, sampling locations and methods, field screening locations and methods, field quality control requirements, laboratory analytical methods, and data validation methodology. This document supersedes the Closure Plan if the two conflict
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Adler, J.G.

324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

Description: This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.
Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Ham, J.E.