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1/m<sub>c</sub> Terms in lambda<sup>+</sup><sub>c</sub> Semileptonic Decays

Description: We use the heavy quark effective theory to investigate the form factors that describe the semileptonic decays lambda<sup>+</sup><sub>c</sub> -> lambda e<sup>+</sup> nu, to order 1/m<sub>c</sub>. We find that a total of four form factors are needed to this order, in contrast with two form factors to leading order, and six form factors in the most general case. We point out some relationships that arise among the general form factors.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Roberts, Winston

1-watt composite-slab Er:YAG laser. Revision 1

Description: A diode-side-pumped discrete-optic Er{sup 3+} :YAG laser employs pump-light coupling through a sapphire plate diffusion-bonded to the laser slab, removing heat directly at the pump face of the slab instead of requiring conduction through to its far side. This lowers the temperature in the gain region and gives reduced thermal lensing, which produces exceptional beam quality (M{sup 2} {approx} 1.3) at output powers {approx} 0.3 Watt. Powers above 1 Watt have been demonstrated with peak slope efficiencies {approx}20%. The novel architecture is also applicable to other side-pumped lasers.
Date: February 13, 1997
Creator: Page, R. H.; Bartels, R. A.; Beach, R. J.; Sutton, S. B.; Furu, L. H. & LaSala, J. E.

The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of cholera toxin B subunit pentamer: Choleragenoid

Description: Cholera toxin, a heterohexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin released by Vibrio cholera, induces a profuse secretory diarrhea in susceptible hosts. Choleragenoid, the B subunit pentamer of cholera toxin, directs the enzymatic A subunit to its target by binding to GM{sub 1} gangliosides exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. We have solved the crystal structure of choleragenoid at 2.3 {Angstrom} resolution by combining single isomorphous replacement with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structure of the B subunits, and their pentameric arrangement, closely resembles that reported for the intact holotoxin (choleragen), the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, and for a choleragenoid-GM{sub 1} pentasaccharide complex. In the absence of the A subunit the central cavity of the B pentamer is a highly solvated channel. The binding of the A subunit or the receptor pentasaccharide to choleragenoid has only a modest effect on the local stereochemistry and does not perceptibly alter the subunit interface.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Maulik, P.R.; Reed, R.A.; Shipley, G.; Westbrook, E.M. et al.

3-D Finite Element Analyses of the Egan Cavern Field

Description: Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed for the two gas-filled storage caverns at the Egan field, Jennings dome, Louisiana. The effects of cavern enlargement on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability were investigated. The finite element model simulated the leaching of caverns to 6 and 8 billion cubic feet (BCF) and examined their performance at various operating conditions. Operating pressures varied from 0.15 psi/ft to 0.9 psi/ft at the bottom of the lowest cemented casing. The analysis also examined the stability of the web or pillar of salt between the caverns under differential pressure loadings. The 50-year simulations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. A damage criterion based on onset of dilatancy was used to evaluate cavern instability. Dilation results from the development of microfractures in salt and, hence, potential increases in permeability onset occurs well before large scale failure. The analyses predicted stable caverns throughout the 50-year period for the range of pressures investigated. Some localized salt damage was predicted near the bottom walls of the caverns if the caverns are operated at minimum pressure for long periods of time. Volumetric cavern closures over time due to creep were moderate to excessive depending on the salt creep properties and operating pressures. However, subsidence above the cavern field was small and should pose no problem, to surface facilities.
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Klamerus, E.W. & Ehgartner, B.L.

A 3-d modular gripper design tool

Description: Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, R.G. & Brost, R.C.

3-D Seismic Imaging of Complex Geologies

Description: We present three codes for the Intel Paragon that address the problem of three-dimensional seismic imaging of complex geologies. The first code models acoustic wave propagation and can be used to generate data sets to calibrate and validate seismic imaging codes. This code reported the fastest timings for acoustic wave propagation codes at a recent SEG (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) meeting. The second code implements a Kirchhoff method for pre-stack depth migration. Development of this code is almost complete, and preliminary results are presented. The third code implements a wave equation approach to seismic migration and is a Paragon implementation of a code from the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Womble, David E.; Dosanjh, Sudip S.; VanDyke, John P.; Oldfield, Ron A. & Greenberg, David S.

A 3-dimensional ray-trace model for predicting the performance of flashlamp-pumped laser amplifiers

Description: We have developed a fully three-dimensional model for the performance of flashlamp pumped laser amplifiers. The model uses a reverse ray-trace technique to calculate the pumping of the laser glass by the flashlamp radiation. We have discovered several different methods by which we can speed up the calculation of the gain profile in a amplifier. The model predicts the energy-storage performance of the Beamlet amplifiers to better than 5%. This model will be used in the optimization of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) amplifier design.
Date: February 13, 1997
Creator: Jancaitis, K.S.; Haney, S.W.; Munro, D.H.; Le Touze, G. & Cabourdin, O.

(6)Li, (7)Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Lithium Coordination in Binary Phosphate Glasses

Description: {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the local coordination environment of lithium in a series of xLi{sub 2}O {center_dot} (1-x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses, where 0.05 {le} x {le} 0.55. Both the {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li show chemical shift variations with changes in the Li{sub 2}O concentration, but the observed {sup 6}Li NMR chemical shifts closely approximate the true isotropic chemical shift and can provide a measure of the lithium bonding environment. The {sup 6}Li NMR results indicate that in this series of lithium phosphate glasses the Li atoms have an average coordination between four and five. The results for the metaphosphate glass agree with the coordination number and range of chemical shifts observed for crystalline LiPO{sub 3}. An increase in the {sup 6}Li NMR chemical shift with increasing Li{sub 2}O content was observed for the entire concentration range investigated, correlating with increased cross-linking of the phosphate tetrahedral network by O-Li-O bridges. The {sup 6}Li chemical shifts were also observed to vary monotonically through the anomalous glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) minimum. This continuous chemical shift variation shows that abrupt changes in the Li coordination environment do not occur as the Li{sub 2}O concentration is increased, and such abrupt changes can not be used to explain the T{sub g} minimum.
Date: February 8, 1999
Creator: Alam, T.M.; Boyle, T.J.; Brow, R.K. & Conzone, S.

The 17 keV neutrino and neutrino tagging

Description: P-788 at FNAL proposed to search for neutrino oscillations in a tagged neutrino line. A K{sub L} beam and the decay modes K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{mu}{nu}{sub {mu}} and K {sub L} {yields} {pi}e{nu}{sub e} provides the neutrino flux. An upstream tagging spectrometer then identifies the hadron and lepton and reconstructs the K{sub L} decay; the lepton identification will specifies the neutrino as {nu}{sub e} or {nu}{sub {mu}} and distinguishes {nu} from {bar {nu}} at the decay vertex. A neutrino detector modeled after an existing deep-inelastic scattering spectrometer (rates have been worked out for the CCFR apparatus) can be used to associate the K{sub L} with a neutrino interaction, measure the neutrino energy, and analyze outgoing muons. Monte Carlo studies show that 30K {nu}{sub e} and 20K {nu}{sub {mu}} could be obtained in two fixed target runs at the Tevatron.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Bernstein, R.H.

The 17 keV neutrino and neutrino tagging

Description: P-788 at FNAL proposed to search for neutrino oscillations in a tagged neutrino line. A K{sub L} beam and the decay modes K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{mu}{nu}{sub {mu}} and K {sub L} {yields} {pi}e{nu}{sub e} provides the neutrino flux. An upstream tagging spectrometer then identifies the hadron and lepton and reconstructs the K{sub L} decay; the lepton identification will specifies the neutrino as {nu}{sub e} or {nu}{sub {mu}} and distinguishes {nu} from {bar {nu}} at the decay vertex. A neutrino detector modeled after an existing deep-inelastic scattering spectrometer (rates have been worked out for the CCFR apparatus) can be used to associate the K{sub L} with a neutrino interaction, measure the neutrino energy, and analyze outgoing muons. Monte Carlo studies show that 30K {nu}{sub e} and 20K {nu}{sub {mu}} could be obtained in two fixed target runs at the Tevatron.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Bernstein, R. H.

60-day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for TX-244 grab samples

Description: Three grab samples (244-TX-96-1, 244-TX-96-2, and 244-TX-96-3) were taken from Riser 8 of Tank 241-TX-244 on October 18, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 18, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support ofthe Waste Compatibility Program. Notifications were made in accordance with TSAP for pH and OH- analyses. Upon further review, the pH notification was deemed unnecessary, as the notification limit did not apply to this tank.
Date: February 5, 1997
Creator: Nuzum, J. L.

105-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit sludge volume calculation

Description: The volume of sludge contained in the 100-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit (SFBWP) was calculated from depth measurements of the sludge, pit dimension measurements and analysis of video tape recordings taken by an underwater camera. The term sludge as used in this report is any combination of sand, sediment, or corrosion products visible in the SFBWP area. This work was performed to determine baseline volume for use in determination of quantities of uranium and plutonium deposited in the pit from sandfilter backwashes. The SFBWP has three areas where sludge is deposited: (1) the main pit floor, (2) the transfer channel floor, and (3) the surfaces and structures in the SFBWP. The depths of sludge and the uniformity of deposition varies significantly between these three areas. As a result, each of the areas was evaluated separately. The total volume of sludge determined was 3.75 M{sup 3} (132.2 ft{sup 3}).
Date: February 10, 1995
Creator: Dodd, E.N. Jr.

125 TON MPC WASTE PACKAGE SHIELDING ANALYSIS/2-D DORT (SCPB: N/A)

Description: This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to determine the dose rates from the MPC waste packages to be used by the EBS and other repository systems to incorporate ALARA practices in the overall repository design in compliance with the goals of the Waste Package Implementation Plan for conceptual design. These design calculations are performed in sufficient detail to provide a comprehensive comparison base with other design alternatives. The objectives of this evaluation are (1) to show the dose rate as a function of distance from the waste package surface and (2) to provide the shielding thicknesses required for the waste package transporter to meet a 10 mrem/hr target dose rate at 2 meters from the transporter surface.
Date: February 26, 1996
Creator: Skulina, D. J.

180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report

Description: This report provides the key findings of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration project at Gulf Power`s Lansing Smith Unit No. 2 and the implications for other tangentially-fired boilers. L. Smith Unit No. 2 is a 180 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning Eastern Bituminous coal, which was retrofitted with Asea Brown Boveri/Combustion Engineering Services` (ABB/CE) LNCFS I, II, and III technologies. An extensive test program was carried-out with US Department of Energy, Southern Company and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funding. The LNCFS I, II, and III achieved 37 percent, 37 percent, and 45 percent average long-term NO{sub x} emission reduction at full load, respectively (see following table). Similar NO{sub x} reduction was achieved within the control range (100--200 MW). However, below the control point (100 MW), NO{sub x} emissions with the LNCFS technologies increased significantly, reaching pre-retrofit levels at 70 MW. Short-term testing proved that low load NO{sub x} emissions could be reduced further by using lower excess O{sub 2} and burner tilt, but with adversed impacts on unit performance, such as lower steam outlet temperatures and, potentially, higher CO emissions and LOI.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Tavoulareas, E. S.; Hardman, R.; Eskinazi, D. & Smith, L.

200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test specification

Description: This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.
Date: February 2, 1995
Creator: Crane, A. F.

200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility operational test specification. Revision 2

Description: This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met. The technical requirements for operational testing of the 200 Area TEDF are defined by the test requirements presented in Appendix A. These test requirements demonstrate the following: pump station No.1 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; pump station No. 2 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; water is transported through the collection and transfer lines to the disposal ponds with no detectable leakage; the disposal ponds accept flow from the transfer lines with all support equipment operating as designed; and the control systems operate and status the 200 Area TEDF including monitoring of appropriate generator discharge parameters.
Date: February 9, 1995
Creator: Crane, A.F.

200-UP-2 Operable Unit technical baseline report

Description: This report is prepared in support of the development of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit by EBASCO Environmental, Incorporated. It provides a technical baseline of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Technical Baseline Report is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, Hanford Site drawings and photographs and is supplemented with Hanford Site inspections and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted. Each waste site in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit consists of liquid-waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, U Plant operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The U Plant'' refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separations facility constructed during World War 2. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant, which was constructed at the same time and, like the 221-U Process Canyon Building, was later converted for other missions. Waste sites in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit are associated with the U Plant Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission that occurred between 1952 and 1958 and the UO{sub 3} Plant's ongoing uranium oxide mission and include one or more cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, waste vaults, and the lines and encasements that connect them. 11 refs., 1 tab.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Deford, D.H.

216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch characterization studies

Description: The chemical, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has generated large volumes of radioactive liquid effluents. The majority of these effluents have been used strictly for cooling or other supportive functions and have been discharged to ditches and ponds. The 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch are two such disposal facilities. These facilities are components of an integrated system of ditches, ponds, and overflow facilities collectively referred to as the U-Pond disposal system. The U-Pond system has been used since 1943 and has received a large variety of radioisotopes from several sources. This study covered tho major aspects of the environment, including wind resuspension, biological uptake and transport, geologic distribution in surface and subsurface sediments, and ground-water impacts. The long-term use of U-Pond and the Z-19 Ditch has resulted in the localized accumulation of transuranic and fission product inventories as a result of sorption and filtration of particulates onto the uppermost sediments.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Last, G. V.; Duncan, D. W.; Graham, M. J.; Hall, M. D.; Hall, V. W.; Landeen, D. S. et al.

225-B ion exchange piping design documentation

Description: This document describes the interface between the planned permanent ion exchange piping system and the planned portable ion exchange system. This is part of the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). In order to decouple this WESF from B-Plant and to improve recovery from a capsule leak, contaminated pool cell water will be recirculated through a portable ion exchange resin system.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Prather, M. C.

242-A campaign 95-1 post run document

Description: The 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1 was started on June 6, 1995 and finished July 27, 1995. An overall Waste Volume Reduction (WVR) of 8.18 million liters (2.16 mGAL OR 87.6% WVRF) was achieved from 9.35 million liters (2.47 Mgal) of processable waste contained in 108-AP, 107-AP, 106-AW and 102-AW. Slurry generated from Campaign 95-1 consisted of 1.05 million liters (278,000 gal) of dilute double-shell slurry feed (DDSSF) with a SpG of approximately 1.34. Total process condensate discharged to LERF was 10.3 million liters (2.72 Mgal), achieving a condensate/WVR efficiency ratio of 1.26. Total throughout for Campaign 95-1 was 18.1 million liters (4.79 Mgal). B Pond discharges from steam condensate and cooling water were 15.8 and 583 million liters (4.17 and 154 Mgal) respectively. Based on 145 hours of unplanned downtime, the 242-A Evaporator maintained an operating efficiency of 86% during the 49 day campaign.
Date: February 12, 1996
Creator: Guthrie, M.D.

250 MW single train CFB cogeneration facility. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

Description: This Technical Progress Report (Draft) is submitted pursuant to the Terms and Conditions of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC27403 between the Department of Energy (Morgantown Energy Technology Center) and York County Energy Partners, L.P. a wholly owned project company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. covering the period from January 1994 to the present for the York County Energy Partners CFB Cogeneration Project. The Technical Progress Report summarizes the work performed during the most recent year of the Cooperative Agreement including technical and scientific results.
Date: February 1, 1995

296-B-5 Stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

Description: The B Plant Administration Manual requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-5 at B Plant. The sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-5 is functional and performing satisfactorily. This document is an annual assessment report of the systems associated with the 296-B-5 stack.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Ridge, T. M.