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The AGS Booster high frequency rf system

Description: A high level rf system, including a power amplifier and cavity, has been designed and built for the AGS Booster. It covers a frequency range of 2.4 to 4.2 MHz and will be used to accelerate high intensity protons. Low intensity polarized protons and heavy ions, to the 1.5 GeV level. A total accelerating voltage of up to 90 kV will be provided by two cavities, each having two gaps. The internally cross coupled, pushpull cavities are driven by an adjacently located power amplifier. In order to accommodate beam intensities up to 0.75 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per bunch, a low plate resistance power tetrode is used. The tube anode is magnetically coupled to one of the cavity's two parallel cells. The amplifier is a grounded cathode configuration driven by a remotely located solid-state amplifier. It has been tested in the laboratory at full gap voltage with satisfactory results. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: April 23, 1991
Creator: Sanders, R.T.; Cameron, P.; Eng, W.; Goldman, M.A.; Jablonski, E.; Kasha, D. et al.

Argon Purification Reference and Recommendation

Description: This engineering note is a reference for future consideration on the purification of argon. The original concern was for the possibility of argon contamination from components in the cryostats over long-term storage. An argon purification system could also be useful for purifying the contents of the argon dewar. The general conclusion is that most of the systems researched are too expensive at this time, but the recommended choice would be Centorr Furnaces. There were three basic types of purification systems which were to be considered. The first was the molecular sieve. This method would have been the preferred one, because it was claimed that it could purify liquid argon, removing liquid oxygen from the argon. However, none of the commercial companies researched provided this type of purification for use with liquid argon. Most companies said that this type of purification was impossible, and tests at IB-4 confirmed this. The second system contained a copper oxide to remove gaseous oxygen from argon gas. The disadvantage of this system wass that the argon had to be heated to a gas, and then cooled back down to liquid. The third system was similar to the second, except that it used tungsten or another material like titanium. This system also needed to heat the argon to gas, however the advantage of this system was that it supposedly removed all contaminants, that is, everything except for inert gases. Of the three systems, the third is the type manufactured by Centorr Furnaces, which uses a titanium charge.
Date: May 23, 1991
Creator: Wu, J.

A beam profile monitor for small electron beams

Description: Measurement of beam properties at the foci of high energy linacs is difficult due to the small size of the waists in proposed and existing accelerators (1 nm {minus} 2 {mu}). This paper considers the use of bremsstrahlung radiation from thin foils to measure the size and phase space density these beams using nonimaging optics. The components of the system are described, and the ultimate resolution, evaluated theoretically for the case of the Final Focus Test Beam at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a few nm. 13 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab.
Date: January 23, 1991
Creator: Norem, J.

A computer modeling study of isotopically selective, laser photodissociation of OCS in cryogenic solutions

Description: Computer model calculations are presented for enrichments of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur isotopes by two-step, IR/UV, laser photodissociation of OCS in rare gas liquid solutions. The model calculations are based on previously measured fundamental physical properties, including spectroscopic parameters of the IR absorption bands of OCS in cryogenic solution, UV photodissociation cross sections for specific vibrational levels of OCS, and rates for vibrational relaxation of OCS by cryogenic solvents. Results are presented for both pulsed and continuous wave laser sources. Photodissociation through both the 2{nu}{sub 2} and {nu}{sub 1} intermediate vibrational levels of OCS is investigated. The laser characteristics required to obtain optimum enrichments are determined by modeling the dependence of enrichment on laser wavelength and intensity, as well as pulse width and timing for pulsed sources. Optimum carbon and oxygen isotope enrichment factors of 9--14 are found for two-step photodissociation through the OCS(2{nu}{sub 2}) vibrational level, using pulsed CO{sub 2} and KrF excimer laser sources. Optimum sulfur isotope enrichment factors of 5--6 are found for photodissociation through the OCS({nu}{sub 1}) level, using a pulsed 12 {mu}m laser and a KrF excimer laser. The enrichments found for continuous wave laser sources are smaller than those for pulsed sources. 19 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: December 23, 1991
Creator: Zittel, Paul F.

A computer modeling study of isotopically selective, laser photodissociation of OCS in cryogenic solutions

Description: Computer model calculations are presented for enrichments of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur isotopes by two-step, IR/UV, laser photodissociation of OCS in rare gas liquid solutions. The model calculations are based on previously measured fundamental physical properties, including spectroscopic parameters of the IR absorption bands of OCS in cryogenic solution, UV photodissociation cross sections for specific vibrational levels of OCS, and rates for vibrational relaxation of OCS by cryogenic solvents. Results are presented for both pulsed and continuous wave laser sources. Photodissociation through both the 2{nu}{sub 2} and {nu}{sub 1} intermediate vibrational levels of OCS is investigated. The laser characteristics required to obtain optimum enrichments are determined by modeling the dependence of enrichment on laser wavelength and intensity, as well as pulse width and timing for pulsed sources. Optimum carbon and oxygen isotope enrichment factors of 9--14 are found for two-step photodissociation through the OCS(2{nu}{sub 2}) vibrational level, using pulsed CO{sub 2} and KrF excimer laser sources. Optimum sulfur isotope enrichment factors of 5--6 are found for photodissociation through the OCS({nu}{sub 1}) level, using a pulsed 12 {mu}m laser and a KrF excimer laser. The enrichments found for continuous wave laser sources are smaller than those for pulsed sources. 19 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: December 23, 1991
Creator: Zittel, P.F.

Conversion electrons in the SDC

Description: We summarize a preliminary analysis of the rates for conversion electrons in the SDC detector, relative to other interesting sources of prompt electrons. We have used Papageno V3.30, and other available NLO calculations to estimate inclusive rates in the central region ({eta} less than 2.0), and we have cross checked these using CDF data at 1.8 TeV. We have considered three sources of isolated'' electrons, namely inclusive W/Z production; top quark (Mt=140); and QCD prompt photon production, followed by conversion in 10% XO. This value approximates the inner silicon detector at SDC. Additional conversions will occur in the outer tracking chamber, but the trigger and track reconstruction efficiency will be lower. We have also considered nonisolated'' leptons coming from inclusive bottom production, photon conversions resulting from {pi}{sup 0},{eta} production in jets, and high pt hadrons faking electrons.
Date: August 23, 1991
Creator: Wicklund, A.B.

Cryostat Filling Limitations for Proposed Ar Dewar Pressure Increase

Description: In order to significantly decrease the amount of time required to fill the cryostats, it is desired to raise the setpoint of the 'operating' relief valve on the argon storage dewar to 20 psig from its existing 16 psig setting. This additional pressure increases the flow to the cryostats and will overwhelm the relief capacity if the temperature of the modules within these vessels is warm enough. Using some conservative assumptions and simple calculations within this note, the maximum average temperature that the modules within each cryostat can be at prior to filling from the storage dewar with liquid argon is at least 290 K.
Date: July 23, 1991
Creator: Dixon, K. & Wu, J.

Development and application of photosensitive device systems to studies of biological and organic materials

Description: This report describes the progress of the second year of a 3-year DOE grant DE-FG-02-87ER60522 for the fiscal period 1/1/91 to 12/31/91 as of July 1991. The overall goals of the grant are to develop novel instrumentation and techniques for the performance of biological and materials research and to apply the new developments to basic biological and materials research problems. Since the last progress report, dated July 1990, there has been significant progress on most of the originally proposed instrumentation and applications research. The overall research goals proposed for the next year have not changed from those originally listed. A prototype large area CCD x-ray detector was assembled and evaluated at the CHESS synchrotron facility. Fiber optic CCD coupling methods have been developed and are being applied to in-house detector needs. Novel detector control and calibration software was developed and refined. Novel high pressure x-ray diffraction and dilatometric apparatus were designed and built, and are being applied to the study of membrane-lipid phase behavior. A time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of lipid phase transitions was used to demonstrate that conventual calorimetry does not accurately determine the phase transition parameters. The elastic properties of amphiphilic layers were studied both theoretically and experimentally. A re-entrant hexagonal-lamellar-hexagonal lipid phase transition was discovered and studied. Each of these accomplishments are detailed.
Date: July 23, 1991
Creator: Gruner, S.M. & Reynolds, G.T.

Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

Description: Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.
Date: December 23, 1991
Creator: Newhall, J.; England, G. & Seeker, W.R.

Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

Description: Hybrid technologies for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation had developed a hybrid NO{sub x} control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy's goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO{sub x}. CombiNO{sub x} is the integration of three separate NO control technologies: (1) Gas Reburning, (2) CO-Promoted Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, and (3) Methanol Injection/NO{sub 2} Scrubbing.
Date: December 23, 1991
Creator: Newhall, J.; England, G. & Seeker, W.R.

Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September 26--December 31, 1990

Description: Hybrid technologies for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation had developed a hybrid NO{sub x} control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy`s goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO{sub x}. CombiNO{sub x} is the integration of three separate NO control technologies: (1) Gas Reburning, (2) CO-Promoted Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, and (3) Methanol Injection/NO{sub 2} Scrubbing.
Date: December 23, 1991
Creator: Newhall, J.; England, G. & Seeker, W. R.

Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1--March 31, 1991

Description: Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.
Date: December 23, 1991
Creator: Newhall, J.; England, G. & Seeker, W. R.

Development of instrumentation for magnetic nondestructive evaluation

Description: The use of failure-prone components in critical applications has been traditionally governed by removing such components from service prior to the expiration of their predicted life expectancy. Such early retirement of materials does not guarantee that a particular sample will not fail in actual usage. The increasing cost of such life expectancy based operation and increased demand for improved reliability in industrial settings has necessitated an alternate form of quality control. Modern applications employ nondestructive evaluation (NDE), also known as nondestructive testing (NDT), as a means of monitoring the levels and growth of defects in a material throughout its operational life. This thesis describes the modifications made to existing instrumentation used for magnetic measurements at the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. Development of a new portable instrument is also given. An overview of the structure and operation of this instrumentation is presented. This thesis discusses the application of the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen measurement techniques, described in Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 respectively, to a number of ferromagnetic specimens. Specifically, measurements were made on a number of railroad steel specimens for fatigue characterization, and on specimens of Damascus steel and Terfenol-D for materials evaluation. 60 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: September 23, 1991
Creator: Hariharan, S.

Electrochemical cell

Description: This invention is comprised of an electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 900 in either direction while maintaining the working-and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.
Date: April 23, 1991
Creator: Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R. M.; You, Hoydoo & Melendres, C. A.

Fiber-tile optical studies at Argonne

Description: In support of a fiber-tile calorimeter for SDC, we have done studies on a number of topics. The most basic problems were light output and uniformity of response. Using a small electron beam, we have studied fiber placement, tile preparation, wrapping and masking, fiber splicing, fiber routing, phototube response, and some degradation factors. We found two configurations which produced more light output than the others and reasonably uniform response. We have chosen one of these to go into production for the EM test module on the basis of fiber routing for ease of assembly of the calorimeter. We have also applied some of the tools we developed to CDF end plug tile uniformity, shower max testing and development for a couple of detectors, and development of better techniques for radiation damage studies. 18 figs.
Date: July 23, 1991
Creator: Underwood, D.G.; Morgan, D.J. & Proudfoot, J.

Improved monolithic tandem solar cell

Description: A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surf ace of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.
Date: April 23, 1991
Creator: Wanlass, M. W.

Inventory of power plants in the United States 1990. [Contains glossary]

Description: The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. The Summary Statistics chapter contains aggregate capacity statistics at the national and various regional levels for operable electric generating units and planned electric generating unit additions. Aggregate capacity data at the national level are presented by energy source and by prime mover. Aggregate capacity data at the various regional levels are presented by prime energy source. Planned capacity additions in new units are summarized by year, 1991 through 2000. Additionally, this chapter contains a summary of electric generating unit retirements, by energy source and year, from 1991 through 2000. The chapter on Operable Electric Generating Units contains data about each operable electric generating unit and each electric generating unit that was retired from service during the year. Additionally, it contains a summary by energy source of electric generating unit capacity additions and retirements during 1990. Finally, the chapter on Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions contains data about each electric generating unit scheduled by electric utilities to start operation between 1991 and 2000. 11 figs., 22 tabs.
Date: October 23, 1991

Japan's Response to the Persian Gulf Crisis: Implications for U.S. -Japan Relations

Description: This report provides information and analysis for use by Members of Congress as they deliberate on the Japanese response to the Gulf crisis and, perhaps more important, what it may mean for future U.S.-Japanese relations. The first chapter briefly reviews Japanese government actions in response to the crisis, from August 1990 to February 1991. A second section examines in detail the various factors and constraints that affected Japanese policy. The final section offers conclusions and examines implications of the episode for future U.S.-Japanese relations. Published sources for the report are cited in footnotes.
Date: May 23, 1991
Creator: Niksch, Larry A. & Sutter, Robert G.

The LLNL configurable seismic monitoring system

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed and tested a portable, high-quality seismic recording system for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The configurable seismic monitoring system (CSMS) was designed to satisfy the designated seismic station (DSS) requirements for instrumentation to be deployed in a vault as set forth in the protocol of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT). As a proof-of-concept test under treaty monitoring conditions, two configurations of this system were built, and each was deployed at a different seismic station to record the Nevada Test Site (NTS) event Bexar. Both configurations successfully recorded this event, demonstrating the flexibility and the operation of the basis design. 3 refs., 8 figs.
Date: September 23, 1991
Creator: Nakanishi, K.K.; Zucca, J.J.; Bowman, B.C.; Ewert, D.W.; Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.P. et al.

Modulus dispersion and attenuation in tuff and granite

Description: The effects of loading frequency, strain amplitude, and saturation on elastic moduli and attenuation have been measured in samples of the Topopah Spring Member welded tuff. Four different laboratory techniques have been used to determine Young`s modulus and extensional wave attenuation at frequencies ranging from 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup 6} Hz. The results are compared with data acquired for Sierra White granite under the same conditions. The modulus and attenuation in room dry samples remain relatively constant over frequency. Frequency dependent attenuation and modulus dispersion are observed in the saturated samples and are attributed to fluid flow and sample size. The properties of tuff were independent of strain amplitude in room dry and saturated conditions.
Date: December 23, 1991
Creator: Haupt, R.W.; Martin, R.J. III; Tang, X.; Dupree, W.J. & Price, R.H.

A numerical method for reducing the random noise in a two-dimensional waveform

Description: This invention is comprised of a method for reducing random noise in a two-dimensional waveform having an irregular curvature includes the steps of selecting a plurality of points initially positioned at preselected locations on the waveform. For each point selected, the straight line is found which connects it to the midpoint between its neighboring points. A new location for the point is calculated to lie on the straight line a fraction of the distance between the initial location of the point and the midpoint. This process is repeated for each point positioned on the waveform. After a single iteration of the method is completed, the entire process is repeated a predetermined number of times to identify final calculated locations for the plurality of points selected. The final calculated locations of the points are then connected to form a relatively random noise-free waveform having a substantially smooth curvature.
Date: January 23, 1991
Creator: Levy, A. J.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment

Description: This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 22, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root causes of the findings identified during the assessment. The action plan has benefited from a complete review by various offices at DOE Headquarters as well as review by the Tiger Team that conducted the assessment to ensure that the described actions are responsive to the observed problems.
Date: August 23, 1991

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Corrective Action Plan in response to Tiger Team assessment

Description: This report presents a complete response to the Tiger Team assessment that was conducted to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) from October 2, 1990, through November 30, 1990. The action plans have undergone both a discipline review and a cross-cutting review with respect to root cause. In addition, the action plans have been integrated with initiatives being pursued across Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in response to Tiger Team findings at other DOE facilities operated by Energy Systems. The root cause section is complete and describes how ORNL intends to address the root cause of the findings identified during the assessment. This report is concerned with reactors safety and health findings, responses, and planned actions. Specific areas include: organization and administration; quality verification; operations; maintenance; training and certification; auxiliary systems; emergency preparedness; technical support; nuclear criticality safety; security/safety interface; experimental activities; site/facility safety review; radiological protection; personnel protection; fire protection; management findings, responses, and planned actions; self-assessment findings, responses, and planned actions; and summary of planned actions, schedules, and costs.
Date: August 23, 1991