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A-01 metals in stormwater runoff evaluation

Description: As a part of the A-01 investigation required by the NPDES permit, an investigation was performed to ascertain the concentrations of metals specifically copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in stormwater being discharged through the outfall. This information would indicate whether all water being discharged would have to be treated or if only a portion of the discharged stormwater would have to be treated. A study was designed to accomplish this. The first goal was to determine if the metal concentrations increased, decreased, or remained the same as flow increased during a rain event. The second goal was to determine if the concentrations in the storm water were due to dissolved. The third goal was to obtain background data to ascertain if effluent credits could be gained due to naturally occurring metals.Samples from this study were analyzed and indicate that the copper and lead values increase as the flow increases while the zinc values remain essentially the same regardless of the flow rate. Analyses of samples for total metals, dissolved metals, TSS, and metals in solids was complicated because in all cases metals contamination was found in the filters themselves. Some conclusions can be derived if this problem is taken into account when analyzing the data. Copper concentrations in the total and dissolved fractions as well as the TSS concentrations followed the hydrograph at this outfall but the copper in solids concentration appeared to peak in the first flush and decline to nondetectable rapidly over the course of the storm event. Lead was present in the total analysis but not present in the dissolved fraction or the solids fraction of the samples. The data for zinc was interesting in that the dissolved fractions were higher than the total fraction in three out of four samples. This is probably due ...
Date: November 6, 1997
Creator: Eldridge, L. L.

1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

Description: The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.
Date: August 6, 1999
Creator: Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W. & Miller, J.F.

2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of SATURN imploding Z-pinches

Description: Z-pinch implosions driven by the SATURN device at Sandia National Laboratory are modeled with a 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, showing strong growth of magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instability. Modeling of the linear and nonlinear development of MRT modes predicts growth of bubble-spike structures that increase the time span of stagnation and the resulting x-ray pulse width. Radiation is important in the pinch dynamics keeping the sheath relatively cool during the run-in and releasing most of the stagnation energy. The calculations give x-ray pulse widths and magnitudes in reasonable agreement with experiments, but predict a radiating region that is too dense and radially localized at stagnation. We also consider peaked initial density profiles with constant imploding sheath velocity that should reduce MRT instability and improve performance. 2D krypton simulations show an output x-ray power > 80 TW for the peaked profile.
Date: November 6, 1995
Creator: Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L. & Springer, P.T.

Ablation gas dynamics of low-Z materials illuminated by soft x-rays

Description: Though many of our results will have much greater generality, the main purpose of this paper is to provide a simple, accurate, physical theory of what happens when a Planckian spectrum of soft x-rays is incident on one side of the slab of initially cold, dense material, of small nuclear charge Z. Our approach will be to consider in some detail the idealized situation. A semi-infinite (x {le} 0) slab of initially cold (T < 300 K), dense ({rho} {approximately} 1 {minus} 10 g/cc), low-Z (Z < 5) material is suddenly subjected at time t = 0 and thereafter to radiation incoming from x = +{infinity} with a specific intensity in directions toward the slab that is Planckian, characterized by a black-body temperature, T{sub R} in the soft x-ray region.
Date: September 6, 1991
Creator: Hatchett, S.P.

Accelerated test methods for life prediction of hermetic motor insulation systems exposed to alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. Phase 3: Reproducibility and discrimination testing. Final report

Description: In 1992, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc. (ARTI) contracted Radian Corporation to ascertain whether an improved accelerated test method or procedure could be developed that would allow prediction of the life of motor insulation materials used in hermetic motors for air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment operated with alternative refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. This report presents the results of phase three concerning the reproducibility and discrimination testing.
Date: May 6, 1996
Creator: Ellis, P.F. II; Ferguson, A.F. & Fuentes, K.T.

Acceptance test report, 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System, Phase 1 testing

Description: This document summarizes the results of the Phase 1 acceptance test of the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System (FRS). This acceptance test consisted of a pressure-decay/leak test of the containment bag to verify that the seams along the length of the bag had been adequately sealed. The sealing integrity of the FRS must be verified to ensure that the release of waste and aerosols will be minimized during the removal of the test mixer pump from Tank 241-SY-101. The FRS is one of six major components of the Equipment Removal System, which has been designed to retrieve, transport, and store the mixer pump. This acceptance test was performed at Lancs Industries in Kirkland, Washington on January 17, 1995. The bag temperature-compensated pressure loss of 575 Pa was below the acceptance criteria of 625 Pa and the test results were therefore found to be acceptable. The bag manufacturer estimates that 80--90% of the pressure loss is attributed to leakage around the bag inflation valve where the pressure gage was connected. A leak detector was applied over the entire bag during the pre-tests and no leakage was found. Furthermore, the leak rate corresponding to this pressure loss is very small when compared to the acceptable leak rate of the completely assembled FRS. The sealing integrity of the assembled FRS is verified in Phase 3 testing.
Date: February 6, 1995
Creator: Ritter, G.A.

Acceptance test report, 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System, Phase 2 testing

Description: This document summarizes the results of the Phase 2 acceptance test of the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System (FRS). The FRS is one of six major components of the Equipment Removal System, which has been designed to retrieve, transport, and store the test mixer pump currently installed in Tank 241-SY-101. The purpose of this acceptance test is to verify the strength of the containment bag and bag bottom cinching mechanism. It is postulated that 68 gallons of waste could be trapped inside the pump internals. The bag must be capable of supporting this waste if it shakes loose and drains to the bottom of the bag after the bag bottom has been cinched closed. This acceptance test was performed at the Maintenance and Storage Facility (MASF) Facility in the 400 area on January 23, 1995. The bag assembly supported the weight of 920 kg (2,020 lbs) of water with no leakage or damage to the bag. This value meets the acceptance criteria of 910 kg of water and therefore the results were found to be acceptable. The maximum volume of liquid expected to be held up in the pump internals is 258 L (68 gallons), which corresponds to 410 kg. This test weight gives just over a safety factor of 2. The bag also supported a small shock load while it was filled with water when the crane hoisted the bag assembly up and down. Based on the strength rating of the bag components, the bag assembly should support 2--3 times the test weight of 910 kg.
Date: February 6, 1995
Creator: Ritter, G.A.

Acceptance test report, 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System, Phase 3 testing

Description: This document summarizes the results of the phase 3 acceptance test of the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System (FRS). The purpose of this acceptance test is to verify the sealing integrity of the FRS to ensure that the release of waste and aerosols will be minimized during the removal of the test mixer pump from Tank 241-SY-101. The FRS is one of six major components of the Equipment Removal System, which has been designed to retrieve, transport, and store the mixer pump. This acceptance test was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 area from January 10, 1995 to January 17, 1995. The Phase 3 test consisted of two parts. Part one was a water leak test of the seal between the blast shield and mock load distribution frame (LDF) to ensure that significant contamination of the pump pit and waste interaction with the aluminum impact-limiting material under the LDF are prevented during the pump removal operation. The second part of this acceptance test was an air leak test of the assembled flexible receiver system. The purpose of this test was to verify that the release of hazardous aerosols will be minimized if the tank dome pressure becomes slightly positive during the decontamination of the mixer pump.
Date: February 6, 1995
Creator: Ritter, G.A.

Acceptance test report for 241-AW process air system

Description: The acceptance test procedure (ATP) for the compressed air system at building 241-AW-273 was completed on March 11, 1993. The system was upgraded to provide a reliable source of compressed air to the tank farm. The upgrade included the demolition of the existing air compressor and associated piping, as well as the installation of a new air compressor with a closed loop cooling system. A compressed air cross-tie was added to allow the process air compressor to function as a back-up to the existing instrument air compressor. The purpose of the ATP was to achieve three primary objectives: verify system upgrade in accordance with the design media; provide functional test of system components and controls; and prepare the system for the Operational Test. The ATP was successfully completed with thirteen exceptions, which were resolved prior to completing the acceptance test. The repaired exceptions had no impact to safety or the environment and are briefly summarized. Testing ensured that the system was installed per design, that its components function as required and that it is ready for operational testing and subsequent turnover to operations.
Date: October 6, 1994
Creator: Kostelnik, A. J.

Acceptance test report for the Westinghouse 100 ton hydraulic trailer

Description: The SY-101 Equipment Removal System 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer was designed and built by KAMP Systems, Inc. Performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure at KAMP`s facility in Ontario, California (termed Phase 1 in this report) was interrupted by discrepancies noted with the main hydraulic cylinder. The main cylinder was removed and sent to REMCO for repair while the trailer was sent to Lampson`s facility in Pasco, Washington. The Acceptance Test Procedure was modified and performance resumed at Lampson (termed Phase 2 in this report) after receipt of the repaired cylinder. At the successful conclusion of Phase 2 testing the trailer was accepted as meeting all the performance criteria specified.
Date: March 6, 1995
Creator: Barrett, R.A.

Accurately measuring MPI broadcasts in a computational grid

Description: An MPI library's implementation of broadcast communication can significantly affect the performance of applications built with that library. In order to choose between similar implementations or to evaluate available libraries, accurate measurements of broadcast performance are required. As we demonstrate, existing methods for measuring broadcast performance are either inaccurate or inadequate. Fortunately, we have designed an accurate method for measuring broadcast performance, even in a challenging grid environment. Measuring broadcast performance is not easy. Simply sending one broadcast after another allows them to proceed through the network concurrently, thus resulting in inaccurate per broadcast timings. Existing methods either fail to eliminate this pipelining effect or eliminate it by introducing overheads that are as difficult to measure as the performance of the broadcast itself. This problem becomes even more challenging in grid environments. Latencies a long different links can vary significantly. Thus, an algorithm's performance is difficult to predict from it's communication pattern. Even when accurate pre-diction is possible, the pattern is often unknown. Our method introduces a measurable overhead to eliminate the pipelining effect, regardless of variations in link latencies. choose between different available implementations. Also, accurate and complete measurements could guide use of a given implementation to improve application performance. These choices will become even more important as grid-enabled MPI libraries [6, 7] become more common since bad choices are likely to cost significantly more in grid environments. In short, the distributed processing community needs accurate, succinct and complete measurements of collective communications performance. Since successive collective communications can often proceed concurrently, accurately measuring them is difficult. Some benchmarks use knowledge of the communication algorithm to predict the timing of events and, thus, eliminate concurrency between the collective communications that they measure. However, accurate event timing predictions are often impossible since network delays and local processing overheads are stochastic. ...
Date: May 6, 1999
Creator: T, Karonis N & de Supinski, B R

Acid solution absorption of extruded polyethylene foam

Description: Water and acid absorption tests of samples of a proposed replacement to current polyethylene foam used as fill material on the FB-Line cation columns have been completed. Water and nitric acid solution absorption of up to 4 volume percent was observed over approximately a 4 month period of time. Because of the nuclear safety implications, liquid absorption of a replacement fill material must be low. EthafoaM[trademark] 220 extruded polyethylene, a product available from Dow Chemical Company appears to be a good candidate material for replacement of the existing fill material. Establishment of 5 volume percent solution absorption specification appears to be both reasonable and achievable for a replacement foam, provided it is acceptable to nuclear safety personnel.
Date: January 6, 1993
Creator: Kyser, E.A.

Acid Solution Absorption of Extruded Polyethylene Foam (U)

Description: Water and acid absorption tests of samples of a proposed replacement to current polyethylene foam used as fill material on the FB-Line cation columns have been completed. Water and nitric acid solution absorption of up to 4 volume percent was observed over approximately a 4 month period of time. Because of the nuclear safety implications, liquid absorption of a replacement fill material must be low. EthafoaM{trademark} 220 extruded polyethylene, a product available from Dow Chemical Company appears to be a good candidate material for replacement of the existing fill material. Establishment of 5 volume percent solution absorption specification appears to be both reasonable and achievable for a replacement foam, provided it is acceptable to nuclear safety personnel.
Date: January 6, 1993
Creator: Kyser, E. A.

Acquisition of reliable vacuum hardware for large accelerator systems

Description: Credible and effective communications prove to be the major challenge in the acquisition of reliable vacuum hardware. Technical competence is necessary but not sufficient. The authors must effectively communicate with management, sponsoring agencies, project organizations, service groups, staff and with vendors. Most of Deming`s 14 quality assurance tenants relate to creating an enlightened environment of good communications. All projects progress along six distinct, closely coupled, dynamic phases. All six phases are in a state of perpetual change. These phases and their elements are discussed, with emphasis given to the acquisition phase and its related vocabulary. Large projects require great clarity and rigor as poor communications can be costly. For rigor to be cost effective, it can`t be pedantic. Clarity thrives best in a low-risk, team environment.
Date: September 6, 1995
Creator: Welch, K.M.

Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

Description: The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy� s (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that employs the principles of computed tomography and gamma-ray spectral analysis to identify and quantify all of the detectable radioisotopes. Once this and other applicable technologies are developed, waste ...
Date: November 6, 1998
Creator: Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E & Roberson, G P

Activities of ZGS people in the 1980`s and 1990`s

Description: The ZGS people went off in every direction: to universities, to other laboratories, to universities and laboratories in other countries, and to other occupations in the private sector or federal agencies. Some people even cycled around through one or more of the above and eventually would up back to Argonne. As a good pupil of the David Manson school of weasel words. I recognize the need to insert a {open_quotes}to the best of my knowledge{close_quotes} disclaimer statement here. It became clear to me that I couldn`t vouch for the accuracy of all of the information shown below when, to my surprise and delight, I found on the official registration list for this conference the names of people I really, really, never expected to see again!
Date: May 6, 1994
Creator: Day, J.

Advanced array techniques for unattended ground sensor applications

Description: Sensor arrays offer opportunities to beam form, and time-frequency analyses offer additional insights to the wavefield data. Data collected while monitoring three different sources with unattended ground sensors in a 16-element, small-aperture (approximately 5 meters) geophone array are used as examples of model-based seismic signal processing on actual geophone array data. The three sources monitored were: (Source 01). A frequency-modulated chirp of an electromechanical shaker mounted on the floor of an underground bunker. Three 60-second time-windows corresponding to (a) 50 Hz to 55 Hz sweep, (b) 60 Hz to 70 Hz sweep, and (c) 80 Hz to 90 Hz sweep. (Source 02). A single transient impact of a hammer striking the floor of the bunker. Twenty seconds of data (with the transient event approximately mid-point in the time window.(Source 11)). The transient event of a diesel generator turning on, including a few seconds before the turn-on time and a few seconds after the generator reaches steady-state conditions. The high-frequency seismic array was positioned at the surface of the ground at a distance of 150 meters (North) of the underground bunker. Four Y-shaped subarrays (each with 2-meter apertures) in a Y-shaped pattern (with a 6-meter aperture) using a total of 16 3-component, high-frequency geophones were deployed. These 48 channels of seismic data were recorded at 6000 and 12000 samples per second on 16-bit data loggers. Representative examples of the data and analyses illustrate the results of this experiment.
Date: May 6, 1997
Creator: Followill, F.E.; Wolford, J.K. & Candy, J.V.

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Technical progress report, July--September 1991

Description: Five slagging combustor tests (CR1-2 through CR1-6) were conducted. Since integrating the slagging cyclone separator into the combustor system, noticeable quantities of char have been collected in the cyclone slag bucket and detected in the exhaust gases. The primary purpose of the CR1-X series of tests was to quantify the amount of char produced by the subscale slagging combustor system. The secondary purpose of this test series was to quantify the slag separation efficiency of the curved body impact separator and to acquire more information on the operation of the slagging cyclone separator. Test CR1-1 was conducted with a fully configured system, i.e., the curved body impact separator, slag tap bath, and slagging cyclone were installed. The CR1-1 data constitutes a baseline for the char production problem. For test CR1-2, the curved body impact separator and slag tap were removed and the centerbody impact separator was installed. This was done to recheck the relative influence of the curved body impact separator and slag tap bath on char production; also, to acquire additional data on the slag collection efficiency of the centerbody impact separator and slagging cyclone. The latter was used for deducing accurately the collection efficiency of the curved body impact separator. Qualitatively, the results of test CR1-2 suggested that the curved body impact separator and slag tap bath components do not influence char production significantly. The efficiency of the centerbody impact separator was determined to be about 90%, which is consistent with previous measurements.
Date: November 6, 1991

Advanced, Environmentally Friendly Hydroelectric Turbines for the Restoration of Fish and Water Quality

Description: Hydroelectric power contributes about 10 percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States, and nearly 20 percent of the world�s electrical energy. The contribution of hydroelectric generation has declined in recent years, often as a consequence of environmental concerns centering around (1) restriction of upstream and downstream fish passage by the dam, and (2) alteration of water quality and river flows by the impoundment. The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System (AHTS) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy is developing turbine technology which would help to maximize global hydropower resources while minimizing adverse environmental effects. Major technical goals for the Program are (1) the reduction of mortality among turbine-passed fish to 2 percent or less, compared to current levels ranging up to 30 percent or greater; and (2) development of aerating turbines that would ensure that water discharged from reservoirs has a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 6 mg/L. These advanced, �environmentally friendly� turbines would be suitable both for new hydropower installations and for retrofitting at existing dams. Several new turbine designs that have been he AHTS program are described.
Date: September 6, 1999
Creator: Brookshier, P.A.; Cada, G.F.; Flynn, J.V.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sale, M.J. & Sommers, G.L.