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Cutworms in the garden.

Description: A guide to identifying cutworm interference and controlling cutworms in the garden. Provides information on obtaining and handling arsenic poison.
Date: March 1927
Creator: White, W. H. (William Henry), 1892-1951.

CVD-diamond-based position sensitive photoconductive detector for high-flux x-rays and gamma rays.

Description: A position-sensitive photoconductive detector (PSPCD) using insulating-type CVD diamond as its substrate material has been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Several different configurations, including a quadrant pattern for a x-ray-transmitting beam position monitor (TBPM) and 1-D and 2-D arrays for PSPCD beam profilers, have been developed. Tests on different PSPCD devices with high-heat-flux undulator white x-ray beam, as well as with gamma-ray beams from {sup 60}Co sources have been done at the APS and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It was proven that the insulating-type CVD diamond can be used to make a hard x-ray and gamma-ray position-sensitive detector that acts as a solid-state ion chamber. These detectors are based on the photoconductivity principle. A total of eleven of these TBPMs have been installed on the APS front ends for commissioning use. The linear array PSPCD beam profiler has been routinely used for direct measurements of the undulator white beam profile. More tests with hard x-rays and gamma rays are planned for the CVD-diamond 2-D imaging PSPCD. Potential applications include a high-dose-rate beam profiler for fourth-generation synchrotrons radiation facilities, such as free-electron lasers.
Date: April 19, 1999
Creator: Shu, D.

CVD Diamond Detectors for Current Mode Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF

Description: We have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.4 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.0 mA/W at 1000 V/mm. These values are approximately 2 to 5x times higher than those reported for natural Type IIa diamond at similar E-field and thickness (1mm). These characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to target chamber center (TCC), and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and x-rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. The acquired neutron spectra could then be used to extract DD fuel areal density from the downscattered secondary to secondary ratio.
Date: July 1, 2001
Creator: Schmid, G. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Friensehner, A. V.; Hargrove, D. R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Izumi, N. et al.

CVD diamond substrate for microelectronics. Final report

Description: Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of diamond films has evolved dramatically in recent years, and commercial opportunities for diamond substrates in thermal management applications are promising. The objective of this technology transfer initiative (TTI) is for Applied Science and Technology, Inc. (ASTEX) and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM&T) to jointly develop and document the manufacturing processes and procedures required for the fabrication of multichip module circuits using CVD diamond substrates, with the major emphasis of the project concentrating on lapping/polishing prior to metallization. ASTEX would provide diamond films for the study, and FM&T would use its experience in lapping, polishing, and substrate metallization to perform secondary processing on the parts. The primary goal of the project was to establish manufacturing processes that lower the manufacturing cost sufficiently to enable broad commercialization of the technology.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Burden, J. & Gat, R.

CVI processing of minicomposites for evaluation of interface coating materials in composites

Description: Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites require fiber/matrix interfaces which allow load transfer from the matrix to the fibers when the composite materials are stressed. Crack deflection and fiber pullout are also necessary components of the mechanical behavior of composites. Screening interface materials and determining their optimum characteristics is a lengthy and expensive procedure if standard chemical vapor infiltration composite processing is used. A procedure for fabricating minicomposites was developed to address this problem. Minicomposites require very little material and much less labor than is necessary to produce a standard composite. Also, the mechanical property measurements made on minicomposites target the behavior of the interface coatings and their effect on the properties of the composite. Tensile testing of minicomposites was used to optimize the matrix infiltration process and will be utilized in the future to study the mechanical behavior of new materials systems, and specifically, new interface coating materials.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Kupp, E.R.; Lara-Curzio, E.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A. & Besmann, T.M.

Cvode component user guidelines.

Description: This report describes the wrapping of cvode, a serial library of BDF-based solvers for stiff ODE systems, into a CCA component. It also gives examples of how one loads In the Cvode Component into the CCA framework, (Sandia's dccafe) as well as how the interface to the component (called CvodePort) is used. The report concludes with some timing results whereby we empirically show that componentization results in a maximum 2% performance degradation on a single CPU. The component can be obtained from Jaideep Ray (jairav@ca.sandia.gov, 925-294-3638)
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Ray, Jaideep; Allan, Benjamin A. & Smith, Kylene J.

CW and Q-switched performance of a diode end-pumped Yb:YAG laser. Revision 1

Description: Using an end-pumped technology developed at LLNL we have demonstrated a Yb:YAG laser capable of delivering up to 434 W of CW power and 226 W of Q-switched power. In addition, we have frequency doubled the output to 515 nm using a dual crystal scheme to produce 76 W at 10 kHz in a 30 ns pulse length.
Date: February 19, 1997
Creator: Bibeau, C.; Beach, R.; Ebbers, C.; Emanuel, M. & Skidmore, J.

CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

Description: Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS) and many HEP programs (Muon Collider). These high-intensity GeV-range proton drivers are particularly challenging, encountering duty cycle and space-charge limits in the synchrotron and machine size concerns in the weaker-focusing cyclotrons; a 10-20 MW proton driver is not presently considered technically achievable with conventional re-circulating accelerators. One, as-yet, unexplored re-circulating accelerator, the Fixed-field Alternating Gradient, or FFAG, is an attractive alternative to the cyclotron. Its strong focusing optics are expected to mitigate space charge effects, and a recent innovation in design has coupled stable tunes with isochronous orbits, making the FFAG capable of fixed-frequency, CW acceleration, as in the classical cyclotron. This paper reports on these new advances in FFAG accelerator technology and references advanced modeling tools for fixed-field accelerators developed for and unique to the code COSY INFINITY.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K. & Snopok, P.

A CW normal-conductive RF gun for free electron laser and energy recovery linac applications

Description: Currently proposed energy recovery linac and high average power free electron laser projects require electron beam sources that can generate up to {approx} 1 nC bunch charges with less than 1 mmmrad normalized emittance at high repetition rates (greater than {approx} 1 MHz). Proposed sources are based around either high voltage DC or microwave RF guns, each with its particular set of technological limits and system complications. We propose an approach for a gun fully based on mature RF and mechanical technology that greatly diminishes many of such complications. The concepts for such a source as well as the present RF and mechanical design are described. Simulations that demonstrate the beam quality preservation and transport capability of an injector scheme based on such a gun are also presented.
Date: October 8, 2008
Creator: Baptiste, Kenneth; Corlett, John; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Lidia, Steven; Qiang, Ji; Sannibale, Fernando et al.

CW RFQ fabrication and engineering

Description: The design and fabrication of a four-vane RFQ to deliver a 100 mA CW proton beam at 6.7 MeV is described. This linac is an Oxygen-Free Electrolytic (OFE) copper structure 8 m in length and was fabricated using hydrogen furnace brazing as the joining technology.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Schrage, D.; Young, L. & Roybal, P.

CW Room Temperature Re-Buncher for the Project X Front End

Description: At Fermilab there is a plan to construct the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) facility - a prototype of the front end of the Project X, a multi-MW proton source based on superconducting linac. The construction and successful operations of this facility will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing the primary technical risk element within the Project. The room temperature front end of the linac contains an ion source, an RFQ accelerator and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) section comprising a high bandwidth bunch selective chopper. The MEBT length is about 10 m, so three re-bunching CW cavities are used to support the beam longitudinal dynamics. The paper reports a RF design of the re-bunchers along with preliminary beam dynamic and thermal analysis of the cavities.
Date: May 9, 2012
Creator: Romanov, Gennady; Awida, Mohamed H.; Chen, Meiyu; Gonin, Ivan V.; Kazakov, Sergey; Kostin, Roman et al.

CX-100 and TX-100 blade field tests.

Description: In support of the DOE Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) program two of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas will be used to test two sets of experimental blades, the CX-100 and TX-100. The blade aerodynamic and structural characterization, meteorological inflow and wind turbine structural response will be monitored with an array of 75 instruments: 33 to characterize the blades, 15 to characterize the inflow, and 27 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For both tests, data will be sampled at a rate of 30 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Holman, Adam (USDA-Agriculture Research Service, Bushland, TX); Jones, Perry L. & Zayas, Jose R.

CY 1995 radiation dose reconciliation report and resulting CY 1996 dose estimate for the 324 nuclear facility

Description: In this report, the dose estimate for CY 1995 is reconciled by month wih actual doses received. Results of the reconciliation were used to revise estimates of worker dose for CY 1996. Resulting dose estimate for the facility is also included. Support for two major programs (B-Cell Cleanout and Surveillance and Maintenance) accounts for most of the exposure received by workers in the faility. Most of the expousre received by workers comes from work in the Radiochemical Engineering Complex airlock. In spite of schedule and work scope changes during CY 1995, dose estimates were close to actual exposures received. A number of ALARA measures were taken throughout the year; exposure reduction due to those was 20.6 Man-Rem, a 28% reduction from the CY 1995 estimate. Baseline estimates for various tasks in the facility were used to compile the CY 1996 dose estimate of 45.4 Man-Rem; facility goal for CY 1996 is to reduce worker dose by 20%, to 36.3 Man-Rem.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Landsman, S.D.; Thornhill, R.E. & Peterson, C.A.

CYANAMIDE: A POSSIBLE KEY COMPOUND IN CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

Description: The prebiotic synthesis of phosphorus-containing compounds--such as nucleotides and polynucleotides--would require both a geologically plausible source of the element and pathways for its incorporation into chemical systems on the primitive Earth. The mineral apatite, which is the only significant source of phosphate on Earth, has long been thought to be problematical in this respect due to its low solubility and reactivity. However, in the last decade or so, at least two pathways have been demonstrated which would circumvent these perceived problems. In addition, recent results would seem to suggest an additional, extraterrestrial source of reactive phosphorus. It appears that the 'phosphorus problem' is no longer the stumbling block which it was once thought to be.
Date: May 1, 1964
Creator: Steinman, Gary; Lemmon, Richard M. & Calvin, Melvin

Cyanide destruction/immobilization of residual sludge - mixed waste focus area. Innovative Technology Summary Report

Description: Innovative Technology Summary Reports are designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They are also designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. Each report describes a technology, system, or process that has been developed and tested with funding from DOE`s Office of Science and Technology (OST). A report presents the full range of problems that a technology, system, or process will address and its advantages to the DOE cleanup in terms of system performance, cost, and cleanup effectiveness. Most reports include comparisons to baseline technologies as well as other competing technologies. Information about commercial availability and technology readiness for implementation is also included. Innovative Technology Summary Reports are intended to provide summary information. References for more detailed information are provided in an appendix. Efforts have been made to provide key data describing the performance, cost, and regulatory acceptance of the technology. If this information was not available at the time of publication, the omission is noted.
Date: February 1, 1998

Cyanide Effects on Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Chlorella

Description: Green algae have been treated with radioactive KCN in an investigation of the effect of cyanide on photosynthesis. A multitude of products have been found to be formed in very short exposures (10 to 15 sec). One of these products has been identified with the product formed when the algae are given radioactive CO{sub 2} and nonradioactive KCN. The same product has been synthesized by a nonenzymatic cyanohydrin addition reaction on ribulose-1, 5-diphosphate. It has been shown to be a 2-carboxy-pentitol (probably mostly ribitol)-1, 5-diphosphate. Upon hydrolysis it gives an hydroxy acid (or mixture of isomers) closely related to hamamelonic acid. The significance of this and the other as yet unidentified products of cyanide interaction with a biological system is discussed with respect to the use of cyanide as an inhibitor.
Date: December 17, 1957
Creator: Rabin, Bernard R.; Shaw, D. F.; Pon, Ning G.; Anderson, J. M. & Calvin, M.

Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries

Description: The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.
Date: May 8, 1998
Creator: Nagasubramanian, Ganesan