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Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Chloroform to Four Species of Freshwater Fish

Description: Acute toxicity of chloroform to four species of freshwater fish was studied in flow-through 96-hr toxicity tests. Chloroform is toxic to fish in the tens of parts per million, a concentration well above that which would be expected to be produced under normal power plant chlorination conditions. Investigations of acute toxicity of chloroform and the bioaccumulation of chlorinated compounds in tissues of fish revealed differences in tolerance levels and tissue accumulations. Mean 96-hr LC{sub 50}s for chloroform were 18 ppm for rainbow trout and bluegill, 51 ppm for largemouth bass and 75 ppm for channel catfish. Mortalities of bluegill and largemouth bass occurred during the first 4 hr of exposure while rainbow trout and channel catfish showed initial tolerance and mortalities occurred during the latter half of the 96-hr exposure. Rainbow trout had the highest level of chloroform tissue accumulation, 7 {micro}g/g tissue, catfish the second highest, 4 {micro}g/g tissue, followed by bluegill and largemouth bass which each accumulated about 3 {micro}g/g tissue. Accumulation of chloroform was less than one order of magnitude above water concentrations for all species.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: ,

Chronic Effects of Chlorination By-Products on Rainbow Trout, Salmo gairdneri

Description: Rainbow trout were exposed to by-products of low-level water chlorination for several months in two separate experiments. In each test 2400 juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were reared under chlorination conditions designed to simulate those of a power plant. Objectives were to determine effects of long term exposure to provide samples for tissue analysis of chlorination byroducts. No significant difference in fish condition factors was found between the test groups and controls, neither was there an apparent effect on mortality. Background levels of chloroform were found in all fish, but there was no evidence of an increased amount of chloroform or other chlorination by-products resulting from chronic low level exposure to chlorination by-products.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: ,

Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

Description: The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: ,

A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting

Description: A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: ,

Monitoring the Random Errors of Nuclear Material Measurements

Description: Monitoring and controlling random errors is an important function of a measurement control program. This report describes the principal sources of random error in the common nuclear material measurement processes and the most important elements of a program for monitoring, evaluating and controlling the random error standard deviations of these processes.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: ,

A Visual Aesthetic Prediction Method for Use in Benefit-Cost Analysis

Description: This report discusses the development of a method to predict landscape visual aesthetic changes caused by the siting of nuclear power plants. The methodology uses public perceptions as a measure of visual aesthetics. Individuals scored landscape photographs on a 0 to 50 visual aesthetic scale. The visual aesthetic scores were explained statistically by landscape characteristics, percent of the scene in clear, still water, and characteristics of the individuals scoring the photographs. Three visual aesthetic relationships were empirically estimated. The first is the relationship among group mean visual aesthetic scores and landscape characteristics. The second is the relationship among individual visual aesthetic scores, landscape characteristics, and the characteristics of the individuals who ranked the landscapes. These relationships were estimated using data from two regions in the U.S. and a diverse set of landscape photographs. The third relationship is among group mean visual aesthetic scores for landscapes with a visible nuclear power plant, landscape characteristics, and mean individual characteristics of the groups who scored the landscapes. This relationship was estimated using data from six regions in the U.S. and landscapes showing nuclear plants with a closed cycle cooling system. The statistical results are highly significant. Prediction validity test results indicate that the estimated relationships can predict visual aesthetic scores for groups of individuals outside the samples used to estimate the visual aesthetic relationships. This prediction method is not intended to determine social welfare impact. The social welfare impact of visible change is a measure of how consumers value changes in visual aesthetics relative to all other goods and services. The prediction methodology only provides an estimate of the impact of visible change on the perceived aesthetics associated with that landscape relative to other landscapes. It does not provide a measure relative to all other goods and services consumed.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: ,

Some Comments on the La Primavera Geothermal Field, Mexico

Description: The La Primavera geothermal field is located about 20 km west of the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, in the western part of the Mexican Neovolcanic Axis. Initial results of five deep exploration wells (down to 2000 m depth) were very promising; measured downhole temperatures exceed 300{degrees}C. During production, however, downhole temperatures dropped, and the chemistry of the fluids changed. The analysis of geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and well completion data indicate that colder fluids flow down the wellbore from shallower aqifers cooling the upper zones of the gothermal reservoir. This problem is attributed to inadequate well completions. Doubts have arisen about continuing the exploration of the field because of the somewhat disappointing drilling results. However, a more thorough analysis of all available data indicates that a good geothermal prospect might exist below 3000 m, and that it could be successfully developed with appropriately located and completed wells.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: A., Bernardo Dominguez & Lippmann, Marcelo J.

Conceptual Design of a Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron for the KFA-Juelich Spallation Neutron Source

Description: An accelerator group was established at ANL by the request of KFA-Juelich to carry out a conceptual design study and cost estimate for a rapid-cycling synchrotron as a possible first stage program on spallation neutron sources at KFA-Juelich. This set of notes is the individual notes which form the basis of the final report under this proposal prepared in January 1983. This document contains 37 papers/notes for Advanced Accelerator Development - Neutron Source Series Notes...numbered AAD-N-1 through AAD-N-37. Each note or paper is written by various authors.
Date: January 1983
Creator: ANL-KFA Study Group


Description: We study nonintegrable Hamiltonian dynamics: H(I,{theta}}) = H{sub 0}(I)+kH{sub 1}(I,{theta}) for large k; that is, far from integrability. An integral representation is given for the conditional probability P(I,{theta},t|I{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0},t{sub 0}) that the system is at I,{theta} at t, given it was at I{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0} at t{sub 0}. By discretizing time into steps of size {epsilon}, we show how to evatuate physical observables for large k, fixed {epsilon}. An explicit calculation of a diffusion coefficient in a two degree of freedom problem is reported. Passage to {epsilon} = 0, the original Hamiltonian flow, discussed.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Abarbanel, Henry D.I. & Crawford, John David


Description: We present a method for studying nonintegrable Hamiltonian systems H(I,{theta})=H{sub 0}(I)+kH{sub 1}(I,{theta}) (I,{theta} are action-angle variables) in the reg1me of large k. Our central tool is the conditional probability P(I,{theta},t|I{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0},t{sub 0}) that the system is at I,{theta} at time t given that it resided at I{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0} at t{sub 0}. An integral representation is given for this conditional probability. By discretizing the Hamiltonian equations of motion in small time steps, {epsilon}, we arrive at a phase volume preserving mapping which replaces the actual flow. When the motion on the energy surface E=H(I,{theta}) is bounded we are able to evaluate physical quantities of interest for large k and fixed {epsilon}. We also discuss the representation of P(I,{theta},t|I{sub 0},{theta}{sub 0},t{sub 0}) when an external random forcing is added in order to smooth the singular functions associated with the deterministic flow. Explicit calculations of a "diffusion" coefficient are given for a non-integrable system with two degrees of freedom. The limit {epsilon}{approaches}0 , which returns us to the actual flow, is subtle and is discussed.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Abarbanel, Henry D.I. & Crawford, John David

Crustal Rock Fracture Mechanics for Design and Control of Artificial Subsurface Cracks in Geothermal Energy Extraction Engineering ({Gamma}-Project)

Description: Recently a significant role of artificial and/or natural cracks in the geothermal reservoir has been demonstrated in the literatures (Abe, H., et al., 1983, Nielson, D.L. and Hullen, J.B., 1983), where the cracks behave as fluid paths and/or heat exchanging surfaces. Until now, however, there are several problems such as a design procedure of hydraulic fracturing, and a quantitative estimate of fluid and heat transfer for reservoir design. In order to develop a design methodology of geothermal reservoir cracks, a special distinguished research project, named as ''{Lambda}-Project'', started at Tohoku University (5 years project, 1983-1988). In this project a basic fracture mechanics model of geothermal reservoir cracks is being demonstrated and its validation is being discussed both theoretically and experimentally. This paper descibes an outline of ''{Lambda}-Project''.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Abe, Hiroyuki & Takahashi, Hideaki

Behaviors of Crack-Like Reservoirs by Means of Fracturing at Nigorikawa and Kakkonda Geothermal Fields

Description: A basic concept of the geothermal reservoir as a set of cracks is first presented. Extensions of subsurface cracks during well stimulation treatments at Nigorikawa(Mori) and closure operations of production well-head valves at Kakkonda are analysed and their behaviors are demonstrated based on results of long-distance AE Measurements.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Abe, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakatsuka, Katsuto; Niitsuma, Hiroaki & Takanohashi, Morihiko

Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council fifth annual report. Final draft

Description: Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth, and can be tapped as a clean, safe, economical alternative source of energy. Much of the geothermal energy resource is recoverable with current or near-current technology and could make a significant contribution both to increasing domestic energy supplies and to reducing the US dependence on imported oil. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural process applications. This report describes the progress for fiscal year 1980 (FY80) of the Federal Geothermal Program. It also summarizes the goals, strategy, and plans which form the basis for the FY81 and FY82 program activities and reflects the recent change in national policy affecting Federal research, development and demonstration programs. The Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC) believes that substantial progress can and will be made in the development of geothermal energy. The IGCC goals are: (1) reduce the institutional barriers so that geothermal projects can be on-line in one-half the current time; (2) make moderate temperature resources an economically competitive source of electricity; (3) remove the backlog of noncompetitive lease applications; (4) competitive lease all KGRA lands; and (5) cut the cost of hydrothermal technology by 25%.
Date: July 7, 1981
Creator: Abel, Fred H.

Optical simulation for imaging reconnaissance and intelligence sensors OSIRIS: High fidelity sensor simulation test bed; Modified user`s manual

Description: The OSIRIS program is an imaging optical simulation program which has been developed to predict the output of space-borne sensor systems. The simulation is radiometrically precise and includes highly realistic laser, atmosphere, and earth background models, as well as detailed models of optical components. This system was developed by Rockwell Power Services for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is based upon the LARC (Los Alamos Radiometry Code, also by Rockwell), and uses a similar command structure and 3d coordinate system as LARC. At present OSIRIS runs on the Cray I computer under the CTSS operating s stem, and is stored in the OSIRIS root directory on LANL CTSS mass storage.
Date: January 4, 1988
Creator: Abernathy, M.F. & Puccetti, M.G.