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Appalachian clean coal technology consortium. Technical quarterly progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: Novel chemicals that can be used for increasing the efficiency of fine coal dewatering was developed at Virginia Tech. During the past quarter, Reagent A was tested on three different coal samples in laboratory vacuum filtration tests. These included flotation products from Middle Fork plant, Elkview Mining Company, and CONSOL, Inc. The tests conducted with the Middle Fork coal sample (100 mesh x 0) showed that cake moisture can be reduced by more than 10% beyond what can be achieved without using dewatering aid. This improvement was achieved at 1 lb/ton of Reagent A and 0.1 inch cake thickness. At 0.5 inches of cake thickness, the improvement was limited to 8% at the same reagent dosage. The results obtained with the Elkview coal (28 mesh x 0) showed similar advantages in using the novel dewatering aid. Depending on the reagent dosage, cake thickness, drying cycle time and temperature, it was possible to reduce the cake moisture to 12 to 14% rage. In addition to achieving lower cake moisture, the use of Reagent A substantially decreased the cake formation time, indicating that the reagent improves the kinetics of dewatering. The test results obtained with CONSOL coal were not as good as with the other coals tested in the present work, which may be attributed to possible oxidation and/or contamination.
Date: January 28, 1997
Creator: Yoon, R.H.; Basim, B.; Luttrell, G.H. & Phillips, D.I.

Apparatus and method for two-stage oxidation of wastes

Description: An apparatus and method for oxidizing wastes in a two-stage process. The apparatus includes an oxidation device, a gas-liquid contacting column and an electrocell. In the first stage of the process, wastes are heated in the presence of air to partially oxidize the wastes. The heated wastes produce an off-gas stream containing oxidizable materials. In the second stage, the off-gas stream is cooled and flowed through the contacting column, where the off-gas stream is contacted with an aqueous acid stream containing an oxidizing agent having at least two positive valence states. At least a portion of the oxidizable materials are transferred to the acid stream and destroyed by the oxidizing agent. During oxidation, the valence of the oxidizing agent is decreased from its higher state to its lower state. The acid stream is flowed to the electrocell, where an electric current is applied to the stream to restore the oxidizing agent to its higher valence state. The regenerated acid stream is recycled to the contacting column.
Date: September 28, 1993
Creator: Fleischman, S. D.

Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks

Description: This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues.
Date: September 28, 1994
Creator: Morris, K. L.; Mailhot, R. B. Jr.; McLaren, J. M. & Morris, K. L.

Application of microwave solidification technology to radioactive waste

Description: The EPA has declared vitrification to be the Best Available Demonstrated Technology (BDAT) for High Level Radioactive Waste (40 CFR 268.42). Vitrification has been chosen as the method of choice for treating a number of radioactive residues and wastes in the DOE complex. Vitrification offers advantages of waste volume reduction, the ability to handle changing waste forms, and a stable, nonleachable final waste form. Microwave heating is a superior method for vitrification of radioactive wastes. Advantages of microwave heating include: (1) direct waste heating, eliminates need for electrodes, refractories and other consumables; (2) ``in-can`` processing allows for treatment of the material in its final container, (3) a mechanically simple system where the microwaves are generated away from the treatment area and transmitted to the treatment applicator by a wave guide, thus minimizing worker exposure to radiation; (4) easier equipment maintenance; and (5) a high degree of public acceptance.
Date: September 28, 1995
Creator: Harris, M.; Sprenger, G.; Roushey, B.; Fenner, G. & Nieweg, R.

Application of mineralogical methods to assess the thermal stabilities of geothermal reservoirs

Description: Estimates of temperatures, past and present, in geothermal reservoirs can be made by using now standard mineralogical techniques, including fluid inclusion geothermometry, vitrinite reflectance, calc-silicate and clay occurrence, the extent of clay interlayering, and measuring clay crystallinity. Recent studies of clays in 60 drillcores from 6 wells at Wairakei, for example, show an inverse relationship between reservoir temperatures and crystallinities from 90&deg; to 225&deg;C (195 to 435°F) (K&uuml;bler Indices: 1.40 to 0.44 <FONT FACE="Symbol">D</FONT>&deg;2<FONT FACE="Symbol">q</FONT>). Fluid inclusion geothermometry results require careful interpretation but the method need not be calibrated with respect to the reservoir, as do other geothermometric methods.
Date: January 28, 1993
Creator: Browne, Patrick R.L.

Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

Description: The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs.
Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Hickman, Scott T.; L., Justice James & Taylor, Archie R.

An approach for geochemical assessment of Chipilapa geothermal field

Description: It presents a systematic methodology to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of Chipilapa- Ahuachapan geothermal field through the highly diluted natural manifestations (springs and domestic wells) in its surroundings. The manifestations are classified in three main groups according to their mechanism of formation: high salinity water (HSW), medium salinity water (MSW), and Sulfated Water (SW). The reservoir temperature at Chipilapa geothermal field is around 220°C which is estimated with application of various chemical geothermometers. The isotopic studies indicate that the heating of local meteoric water with the separated steam of deep reservoir fluids is a dominating process in the formation of springs and domestic wells fluids. The process of formation of primary and secondary vapor explains the isotopic composition of fumaroles.
Date: January 28, 1993
Creator: Nieva, D.; Verma, M.P.; Portugal, E. & Torres, V.

Appropriations for FY1999: An Overview

Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual appropriations bills, and other related appropriation measures. It does not include a detailed explanation or description of the budget or appropriations processes.
Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Anderson, J. Michael

Aqueous oxidation of trichloroethene (TCE): a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis

Description: An empirical kinetic rate law was determined for the aqueous oxidation of trichloroethene (TCE). By measuring both the rate of disappearance of TCE and the rate of appearance of carbon dioxide and chloride ion, mass balances were monitored to confirm that `mineralization` was the ultimate reaction. Dilute buffer solutions were used to fix pH and stoichiometrically sufficient amounts of dissolved oxygen were used to make the reactions zero-order in oxygen. Using standard chemical kinetic methods, two orders of magnitude were spanned in initial TCE concentration and used in the resulting double-log plot vs. initial rate (regressed using both linear and polynomial fits) to determine the rate constant and `true` reaction order (i.e., with respect to;concentration, not time). By determining rate constants over the temperature interval 343-373K, an Arrhenius activation energy was determined for the reaction. A study was made of the potential effect of buffer ligand concentration and type (phosphate, borate, acetate, carbonate, sulfate), ionic strength, specific electrolytes, and pH on the rate of TCE. The aqueous oxidation reaction rate was found to be pH dependent over the pH range pH 2 to pH 1O and strongly inhibited by high dissolved bromide concentration. The equilibrium aqueous solubilities of TCE was determined by making reversed measurements from 294-390K. Together with the kinetic rate law, the thermodynamic data are required to develop in situ thermal remedial techniques for TCE and to model the reactive transport behavior of TCE in the subsurface.
Date: February 28, 1998
Creator: Knauss, K. G., LLNL

Aquifer test plan for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit

Description: This test plan directs hydrologic testing activities planned at three existing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) wells in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site. Three additional wells will be installed near these existing wells and used as additional testing arid observation points during the field activities. Figure 1 shows the locations of the three test sites. A primary objective of the testing program is to provide more detailed hydraulic characterization information for the unconfined aquifer and targeted test sites than provided by the initial reconnaissance-level slug testing of Vukelich. A second objective is to evaluate the applicability of slug interference and dipole flow tests for detailed hydraulic characterization in an unconfined aquifer. This aquifer testing program will also be useful for substantiating hydraulic conductivities reported from previous slug tests and evaluating the effects of filter pack volume/configuration on slug test data. Vukelich recommended additional testing to address the latter two issues.
Date: March 28, 1994
Creator: Swanson, L. C. & Hartman, M. J.

ARAC dispersion modeling of the August 1998 Tracy, California tire fire

Description: At about 4:30 pm PDT on Friday, August 7, 1998 a fire ignited the large tire disposal pit of Royster Tire Co. on Macarthur Drive about 5 km (3 miles) south of downtown Tracy, California. While providing on-scene mutual aid late Friday night, the LLNL Fire Department called and requested that the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) make a plume forecast for Saturday. The response team in the field was interested in the forecasted location as well as an estimate of potential health effects on the following day. Not having any previous experience with tire fire source terms, ARAC assessors used a constant unit source rate (1 g/s) of particulate and produced plots showing only the location of the ground-level normalized time-integrated air concentrations from the smoke plume. Very early Saturday morning the assessors faxed plots of ground-level smoke air concentrations forecasted for Saturday from 6 am through 6 pm PDT to the Tracy Fire Emergency Operations Center. (As a part of standard procedure, before delivering the plots, the assessors notified ARAC's DOE sponsor.) Fortunately due to the intense heat from the fire, the dense black smoke immediately lofted into the air preventing high ground-level concentrations close to the tire dump. Later on Saturday morning ARAC forecasted a second set of plume integrated air concentrations for Sunday. By Monday the intensity of the fire lessened, and ARAC's support was no longer requested. Following ARAC's response, we made a third calculation on a large scale of the continuous smoke dispersion for 3 days after the fire. A newspaper photograph showed the plume initially rising toward the northeast and the upper part of the smoke cloud turning counterclockwise toward the north. Winds from ARAC's mesoscale prognostic model reproduced this plume structure, while data from the Friday afternoon sounding from Oakland did not. ...
Date: August 28, 1998
Creator: Aluzzi, F J; Baskett, R L; Bowen, B M; Foster, C S; Pace, J C; Pobanz, B et al.

Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1997.

Description: This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) for 1997. To evaluate the effects of ANL-E operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL-E site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL-E effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, fallout, ANL-E, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the CAP-88 version of the EPA-AIRDOSE/RADRISK computer code, was used in preparing this report. The status of ANL-E environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations that govern waste handling and disposal is discussed, along with the progress of environmental corrective actions and restoration projects.
Date: August 28, 1998
Creator: Golchert, N.W. & Kolzow, R.G.

Artificially structured magnetic materials

Description: This document reports the progress made during the first six months of the current three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Magnetic Materials.'' However, because some of the results of our previous three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Superconductors'' continue to emerge, both topics are addressed in this Progress Report. This report describes progress with DOE funding during the current calendar year; description of the research to be conducted during the remaining six months of the current grant year; a description of the status of the graduate students working on this research; lists of the invited talks, seminars and colloquia, of other recognition of our research, and of the publications crediting DOE sponsorship; and a summary of current and pending federal support. Since the research proposed to be conducted during the next 2 1/2 years is described in detail in our DOE proposal, it is only briefly reviewed here.
Date: September 28, 1990
Creator: Falco, C.M.

Assessing potential future environmental legal events

Description: This report addresses the topic of environmental citizenship in the United States. The term refers to responsibilities each of us have with respect to helping our communities and nation make sound environmental decisions. This research centers on the citizens and what we ought to be doing, as opposed to what the government ought to be doing for us, to improve environmental citizenship. This report examines four central questions: What are the requirements (i.e., responsibilities) of citizenship vis-a-vis environmental decision- making processes; what constraints limit people`s ability to meet these requirements; what does our form of governance do to help or hinder in meeting these requirements; and what recommendations can be put forth to improve public participation in environmental decision making?
Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Tonn, B. & Petrich, C.

An assessment of the potential for a steam bump in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-106

Description: This document is a preliminary assessment of the potential for a ``steam bump`` in Tank 241-C-106. The assessment is based on currently available data from significant transients which occurred in Tank C-106. Recommendations are made for additional data needs to clarify the current behavior of this tank. General criteria are provided for making decisions on removing or returning to work restrictions on Tank Farm operations. Also provided are additional actions which should be taken on C-106 to manage tank heat removal.
Date: September 28, 1994
Creator: Bander, T. J. & Crea, B.

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1999

Description: Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP--US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H). In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) on the Hanford Site. Two of the facilities evaluated, 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, and 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory met state and federal criteria for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. One other building, the 3720 Environmental Sciences Laboratory, was recognized as being in transition with the potential for meeting the continuous sampling criteria.
Date: September 28, 1999
Creator: Edwards, DL; Shields, KD; Sula, MJ & Ballinger, MY

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1999

Description: Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H). In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) on the Hanford Site. Two of the facilities evaluated, 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, and 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory met state and federal criteria for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. One other building, the 3720 Environmental Sciences Laboratory, was recognized as being in transition with the potential for meeting the continuous sampling criteria.
Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Shields, Keith D. & Edwards, Daniel L.

Assist in the recovery of bypassed oil from reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico. Final quarterly status report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

Description: Maps collected at the MMS office in New Orleans were planimetered and measured. Measurements of estimated salt diameter and updip areas are also being derived. Production data was read from the tapes obtained in New Orleans and reformatted for use in TORIS. Conceptual work began on the development of the models required to assess unrecovered oil, continued primary recovery of existing mapped oil, updip attic oil recovery, and miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2} injection recovery. Efforts began to supplement existing TORIS data with drilling, workover and facility costs related to past enhanced oil recovery, efforts in the offshore Gulf of Mexico area. Data on CO{sub 2} sources was collected and byproduct CO{sub 2} costs were estimated for use in the economic model. LSU continued the analysis of data obtained from Taylor Energy on the South Marsh Island (SMI) Block 73 Field and the blindcoded Field 2, both in the Gulf of Mexico. The apparatus for experiments for the study of attic oil recovery techniques is being tested. Tests of the 2D adaptive finite element model continue, simulating oil/water flow through porous media. Although coning traces are being produced similar to those in the Lance Hebert thesis, oscillations are still a problem. The Master modification has been completed and currently undergoing testing.
Date: February 28, 1994
Creator: Schenewerk, P. A.

Assistance to the states with risk based data management. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

Description: The Tasks of this project are to: (1) complete implementation of a Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) in the States of Alaska, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska; and (2) conduct Area of Review (AOR) Workshops in the states of California, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas. The RBDMS was designed to be a comprehensive database with the ability to expand into multiple areas, including oil and gas production. The database includes comprehensive well information for both producing and injection wells. It includes automated features for performing functions redated to AOR analyses, environmental risk analyses, well evaluation, permit evaluation, compliance monitoring, operator bonding assessments, operational monitoring and tracking, and more. This quarterly report describes the status of the development of the RBDMS project in both stated tasks and proposes further steps in its implementation.
Date: July 28, 1995
Creator: Paque, M.J.