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Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed

Description: A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D. & Scudiere, M.B.

Advances in and uses of gamma-ray field instrumentation at Los Alamos

Description: We are developing a set of tools to be used by the Safeguards Assay Group to solve problems found in safeguards and the domestic nuclear industry. The tools are also applicable to problems dealing with the environment, defense, and other areas of national and international interest. We have used extensively the advances in hardware and software since our last multichannel analyzer (MCA) development activities over a decade ago. We are also using our experience with and feedback from users of our previous instruments. In analyzing the instrument needs of our constituents and the characteristics of our previous instruments, which we think have inhibited their broader use, we have concluded that uses for an MCA-type instrument are widely varied and fundamentally changing,and that any new instruments should include a versatile, widely used hardware interface, which is as independent as possible of hardware standards, and which is readily interfaced to the computers or controllers rapidly evolving in the commercial sector. In addition, software tools must be provided that allow Los Alamos, users, and third parties to quickly and conveniently develop software specific to the user or the measurement to control the basic instrument we develop. This paper deals mainly with a miniature and modular multi-channel analyzer (M{sup 3}CA) and its applications.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Halbig, J. K.; Klosterbuer, S. F.; Russo, P. A.; Sprinkle, J. K. Jr.; Smith, S. E. & Ianakiev, K.

Advances in passive neutron instruments for safeguards use

Description: Passive neutron and other nondestructive assay techniques have been used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify plutonium metal, powder, mixed oxide, pellets, rods, assemblies, scrap, and liquids. Normally, the coincidence counting rate is used to measure the {sup 240}Pu-effective mass and gamma-ray spectrometry or mass spectrometry is used to verify the plutonium isotopic ratios. During the past few years, the passive neutron detectors have been installed in plants and operated in the unattended/continuous mode. These radiation data with time continuity have made it possible to use the totals counting rate to monitor the movement of nuclear material. Monte Carlo computer codes have been used to optimize the detector designs for specific applications. The inventory sample counter (INVS-III) has been designed to have a higher efficiency (43%) and a larger uniform counting volume than the original INVS. Data analyses techniques have been developed, including the ``known alpha`` and ``known multiplication`` methods that depend on the sample. For scrap and other impure or poorly characterized samples, we have developed multiplicity counting, initially implemented in the plutonium scrap multiplicity counter. For large waste containers such as 200-L drums, we have developed the add-a-source technique to give accurate corrections for the waste-matrix materials. This paper summarizes recent developments in the design and application of passive neutron assay systems.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Menlove, H. O.; Krick, M. S.; Langner, D. G.; Miller, M. C. & Stewart, J. E.

Advances in the identification of electrochemical transfer function models using Prony analysis

Description: This paper further advances the usefulness and understanding of Prony analysis as a tool for identification of power system electromechanical oscillation models. These linear models are developed by analyzing power system ring-down data. The presented results allow more generality in the assumed model formulation. In addition, a comparison is made between Prony analysis and autoregressive moving-average (KARMA) modeling, which has also been proposed for analysis of system oscillations. Under the conditions investigated, the Prony algorithm performed more accurate identification.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Trudnowski, D. J.; Donnelly, M. K. & Hauer, J. F.

Advances in the identification of electrochemical transfer function models using Prony analysis

Description: This paper further advances the usefulness and understanding of Prony analysis as a tool for identification of power system electromechanical oscillation models. These linear models are developed by analyzing power system ring-down data. The presented results allow more generality in the assumed model formulation. In addition, a comparison is made between Prony analysis and autoregressive moving-average (KARMA) modeling, which has also been proposed for analysis of system oscillations. Under the conditions investigated, the Prony algorithm performed more accurate identification.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Trudnowski, D.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Donnelly, M.K. (Control Tech., Inc., Bozeman, MT (United States)) & Hauer, J.F. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States))

Advances in the operation of the DIII-D neutral beam computer systems

Description: The DIII-D neutral beam system routinely provides up to 20 MW of deuterium neutral beam heating in support of experiments on the DIII-D tokamak, and is a critical part of the DIII-D physics experimental program. The four computer systems previously used to control neutral beam operation and data acquisition were designed and implemented in the late 1970`s and used on DIII and DIII-D from 1981--1996. By comparison to modern standards, they had become expensive to maintain, slow and cumbersome, making it difficult to implement improvements. Most critical of all, they were not networked computers. During the 1997 experimental campaign, these systems were replaced with new Unix compliant hardware and, for the most part, commercially available software. This paper describes operational experience with the new neutral beam computer systems, and new advances made possible by using features not previously available. These include retention and access to historical data, an asynchronously fired ``rules`` base, and a relatively straightforward programming interface. Methods and principles for extending the availability of data beyond the scope of the operator consoles will be discussed.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Phillips, J.C.; Busath, J.L.; Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.; Kellman, D.H.; Chiu, H.K. et al.

Advances in the reduction and compensation of film stress in high-reflectance multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography applications

Description: Due to the stringent surface figure requirements for the multilayer-coated optics in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography system, it is desirable to minimize deformation due to the multilayer film stress. However, the stress must be reduced or compensated without reducing EUV reflectivity, since the reflectivity has a strong impact on the throughput of a EUV lithography tool. In this work we identify and evaluate several leading techniques for stress reduction and compensation as applied to Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films. The measured film stress for Mo/Si films with EUV reflectances near 67.4% at 13.4 nm is approximately - 420 MPa (compressive), while it is approximately +330 MPa (tensile) for Mo/Be films with EUV reflectances near 69.4% at 11.4 nm. Varying the Mo-to-Si ratio can be used to reduce the stress to near zero levels, but at a large loss in EUV reflectance (> 20%). The technique of varying the base pressure (impurity level) yielded a 10% decrease in stress with a 2% decrease in reflectance for our multilayers. Post-deposition annealing was performed and it was observed that while the cost in reflectance is relatively high (3.5%) to bring the stress to near zero levels (i.e., reduce by 1 00%), the stress can be reduced by 75% with only a 1.3% drop in reflectivity at annealing temperatures near 200{degrees}C. A study of annealing during Mo/Si deposition was also performed; however, no practical advantage was observed by heating during deposition. A new non-thermal (athermal) buffer-layer technique was developed to compensate for the effects of stress. Using this technique with amorphous silicon and Mo/Be buffer-layers it was possible to obtain Mo/Be and Mo/Si multilayer films with a near zero net film stress and less than a 1% loss in reflectivity. For example a Mo/Be film with 68.7% reflectivity at 11.4 nm and ...
Date: February 20, 1998
Creator: Mirkarimi, P.B., LLNL

Advances in welding science - a perspective

Description: The ultimate goal of welding technology is to improve the joint integrity and increase productivity. Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based tailoring of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: David, S. A.; Vitek, J. M.; Babu, S. S. & DebRoy, T.

The Advent of Failure Analysis Software Technology

Description: The increasing complexity of integrated circuits demands that software tools, in addition to hardware tools, be used for successful diagnosis of failure. A series of customizable software tools have been developed that organize failure analysis information and provide expert level help to failure analysts to increase their productivity and success.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Henderson, C. L. & Barnard, R. D.

Adventures in maceral separation

Description: Progress has been made in recent years in the science of maceral separation. However, there are many areas that can be improved and new areas investigated. Power of density gradient centrifugation to physically resolve macerals and submaceral species coupled with other instrumental techniques is attractive for defining the limits of coal heterogeneity as well as investigating the ability of other separation methods.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Dyrkacz, G. R.

An aerial radiological survey of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and surrounding area, Waxahachie, Texas. Date of survey: July--August 1991

Description: An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) site from July 22 through August 20,1991. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 305 meters over a 1,036-square-kilometer (400-square-mile) area surrounding Waxahachie, Texas. The 70,000 terrestrial gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a United States Geological Survey (USGS) map of the area. The mean terrestrial exposure rate measured was 5.4 {mu}R/h at 1 meter above ground level. Comparison to ground-based measurements shows good agreement. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were detected.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Fritzsche, A. E.

Aerodynamic, structural, and trajectory analysis of ASTRID-1 vehicle

Description: The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, JHU/API, in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL, is conducting aerodynamic, trajectory, and structural analysis of the Advanced Single Stage Technology Rapid Insertion Demonstration (ASTRID) vehicle, being launched out of Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in February 1994. The launch is designated ASTRID-1 and is the first in a series of three that will be launched out of VAFB. Launch dates for the next two flights have not been identified, but they are scheduled for the 1994-1995 time frame. The primary goal of the ASTRID-1 flight is to test the LLNL light weight thrust on demand bi-propellant pumped divert propulsion system. The system is employed as the main thrusters for the ASTRID-1 vehicle and uses hydrazine as the mono-propellant. The major conclusions are: (1) The vehicle is very stable throughout flight (stability margin = 17 to 24 inches); (2) The aerodynamic frequency and the roll rate are such that pitch-roll interactions will be small; (3) The high stability margin combined with the high launcher elevation angle makes the vehicle flight path highly sensitive to perturbations during the initial phase of flight, i.e., during the first second of flight after leaving the rail; (4) The major impact dispersions for the test flight are due to winds. The wind impact dispersions are 90% dictated by the low altitude, 0 to 1000 ft., wind conditions; and (5) In order to minimize wind dispersions, head wind conditions are favored for the launch as November VAFB mean tail winds result in land impacts. The ballistic wind methodology can be employed to assess the impact points of winds at the launch site.
Date: February 10, 1994
Creator: Glover, L. S.; Iwaskiw, A. P.; Oursler, M. A.; Perini, L. L. & Schaefer, E. D.

Aerogel commercialization pilot project. Final program report

Description: Aerogels are extremely light weight, high surface area, very insulative materials that offer many potential improvements to commercial products. Aerogels have been the subject of extensive research at Department of Energy Laboratories and have been considered one of the technology most ready for commercialization. However, commercialization of the technology had been difficult for the National Laboratories since end users were not interested in the high temperature and high pressure chemical processes involved in manufacturing the raw material. Whereas, Aerojet as a supplier of rocket fuels, specialty chemicals and materials had the manufacturing facilities and experience to commercially produce aerogel-type products. Hence the TRP provided a link between the technology source (National Laboratories), the manufacturing (Aerojet) and the potential end users (other TRP partners). The program successfully produced approximately 500 ft{sup 2} of organic aerogel but failed to make significant quantities of silica aerogel. It is significant that this production represents both the largest volume and biggest pieces of organic aerogel ever produced. Aerogels, available from this program, when tested in several prototype commercial products were expected to improve the products performance, but higher than expected projected production costs for large scale manufacture of aerogels has limited continued commercial interest from these partners. Aerogels do, however, offer potential as a specialty material for some high value technology and defense products.
Date: February 13, 1996

AFC generator development

Description: By adapting the disk generator tested by Fowler, Hoeberling, and Marsh, the advanced flux compression (AFC) generator is able to produce a maximum dI/dt that is greater than 3 MA/{mu}s. This current rise characteristic results in an inductive voltage across a 0.5-nH load of {ge} 1.5 kV. This has been achieved with high gain, low loss, and a compact size. The AFC generator has been tested in four shots, and is performing beyond initial goals.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Freeman, B. L.; Fowler, C. M.; Sheppard, M. G. & Sowder, K. D.

Affirmative Action Plans, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994. Revision

Description: This document is the Affirmative Action Plan for January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (``LBL`` or ``the Laboratory.``) This is an official document that will be presented upon request to the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, US Department of Labor. The plan is prepared in accordance with the Executive Order 11246 and 41 CFR Section 60-1 et seq. covering equal employment opportunity and will be updated during the year, if appropriate. Analyses included in this volume as required by government regulations are based on statistical comparisons. All statistical comparisons involve the use of geographic areas and various sources of statistics. The geographic areas and sources of statistics used here are in compliance with the government regulations, as interpreted. The use of any geographic area or statistic does not indicate agreement that the geographic area is the most appropriate or that the statistic is the most relevant. The use of such geographic areas and statistics is intended to have no significance outside the context of this Affirmative Action Plan, although, of course, such statistics and geographic areas will be used in good faith with respect to this Affirmative Action Plan.
Date: February 16, 1994

After the Cold War: Living With Lower Defense Spending

Description: This report focuses on ways to handle the dislocation of workers and communities that is, to some degree, inevitable in the defense cutback. It opens a discussion of how defense technologies might be converted to commercial applications. The second and final report of the assessment will continue that discussion and will concentrate on opportunities to channel human and technological resources into building a stronger civilian economy.
Date: February 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

Agency Performance Plans: Examples of Practices That Can Improve Usefulness to Decisionmakers

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO: (1) identified and described practices that were applied in some federal agencies' 1999 performance plans that might, if consistently applied, improve the usefulness of all agencies' annual performance plans; and (2) provided examples from agencies' fiscal year 1999 performance plans that illustrate each practice."
Date: February 26, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

Description: This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Berg, R.; Stroinski, M. & Giachetti, R.

Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

Description: This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.
Date: February 1994
Creator: Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R. & O`Hearn, E.

Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - tanks and pools

Description: Continued operation of nuclear power plants for periods that extend beyond their original 40-year license period is a desirable option for many U.S. utilities. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of operating license renewals is necessary before continued operation becomes a reality. Effective aging management for plant components is important to reliability and safety, regardless of current plant age or extended life expectations. However, the NRC requires that aging evaluations be performed and the effectiveness of aging management programs be demonstrated for components considered within the scope of license renewal before granting approval for operation beyond 40 years. Both the NRC and the utility want assurance that plant components will be highly reliable during both the current license term and throughout the extended operating period. In addition, effective aging management must be demonstrated to support Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) activities.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Blocker, E.; Smith, S.; Philpot, L. & Conley, J.

Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

Description: This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L. & Udy, A.C.

Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed whether the net excise tax revenue distributed to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund (AATF) for the fiscal year (FY) ended September 30, 1998, is supported by the underlying records."
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.

Agreed-Upon Procedures: Black Lung Disability Trust Fund Excise Taxes

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed whether the net excise tax revenue distributed to the Black Lung Disability Trust Fund (BLDTF) for the fiscal year (FY) ended September 30, 1998, is supported by the underlying records."
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.