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Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

Description: On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses lessons learned'' from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made.
Date: June 1, 1992

Accident management information needs

Description: The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself.
Date: April 1, 1990
Creator: Hanson, D. J.; Ward, L. W.; Nelson, W. R. & Meyer, O. R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

Quality assurance and verification of the MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) code, Version 1. 5

Description: An independent quality assurance (QA) and verification of Version 1.5 of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) was performed. The QA and verification involved examination of the code and associated documentation for consistent and correct implementation of the models in an error-free FORTRAN computer code. The QA and verification was not intended to determine either the adequacy or appropriateness of the models that are used MACCS 1.5. The reviews uncovered errors which were fixed by the SNL MACCS code development staff prior to the release of MACCS 1.5. Some difficulties related to documentation improvement and code restructuring are also presented. The QA and verification process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations of the models implemented in the code is essentially error free and ready for widespread use. 15 refs., 11 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Dobbe, C. A.; Carlson, E. R.; Marshall, N. H.; Marwil, E. S. & Tolli, J. E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

FASTGRASS: A mechanistic model for the prediction of Xe, I, Cs, Te, Ba, and Sr release from nuclear fuel under normal and severe-accident conditions

Description: The primary physical/chemical models that form the basis of the FASTGRASS mechanistic computer model for calculating fission-product release from nuclear fuel are described. Calculated results are compared with test data and the major mechanisms affecting the transport of fission products during steady-state and accident conditions are identified.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Rest, J. & Zawadzki, S. A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

Description: This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projections, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Rollstin, J. A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D. I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)) & Jow, H. N. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

Kinetic theory of geomagnetic pulsations: I. Internal excitations by energetic particles

Description: Motivated by recent satellite observations, we have carried out a comprehensive theoretical analysis on the generation of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in a realistic magnetospheric plasma environment consisting of a core and an energetic components. Our theoretical formulation employs the gyrokinetic equations and, thus, retains nonuniform plasma equilibria, anisotropy, finite Larmor radii, magnetic trapping as well as wave-particle interactions. A set of coupled equations for transverse and compressional magnetic perturbations is derived and analyzed for its stabilities assuming interchange stable equilibrium distribution functions. Our findings are compressional and tranverse shear Alfven oscillations are generally coupled in realistic plasmas. In the decoupled limit, for the compressional wave branch, one recovers the drift-mirror instability due to the Landau resonances and {tau} {equivalent to} 1 + 4 {pi}({partial derivative}P{sub {perpendicular}}/B{partial derivative}B) < 0. Here, P{sub {perpendicular}} = P{sub {perpendicular}}({psi},B) is the perpendicular pressure and {psi} is the magnetic flux function. For the decoupled transverse shear Alfven branch, one obtains the drift Alfven ballooning instability due to the Landau resonances and free energy of the pressure gradient for {tau} > 0. For both branches, the most unstable modes have antisymmetric structures and propagate in the diamagnetic drift direction of the energetic ions. Finite coupling can be shown to further enhance the drift Alfven ballooning instabilities. Thus, we conclude that for {tau} {ge} 0, the coupled drift Alfven ballooning-mirror instability constitutes an important internal generating mechanism of geomagnetic pulsations. The various predicted features of this instability are also found to be consistent with satellite observations.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Chen, Liu (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences) & Hasegawa, Akira (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA))

In-situ calibration of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutron detectors

Description: We report results of the TFTR fission detector calibration performed in December 1988. A NBS-traceable, remotely controlled {sup 252}Cf neutron source was moved toroidally through the TFTR vacuum vessel. Detection efficiencies for two {sup 235}U detectors were measured for 930 locations of the neutron point source in toroidal scans at 16 different major radii and vertical heights. These scans effectively simulated the volume-distributed plasma neutron source, and the volume-integrated detection efficiency was found to be insensitive to plasma position. The Campbell mode is useful due to its large overlap with the count rate mode and large dynamic range. The resulting absolute plasma neutron source calibration has an uncertainty of {plus minus} 13%. 21 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1990
Creator: Hendel, H. W.; Palladino, R. W.; Barnes, C. W.; Diesso, M.; Felt, J. S.; Jassby, D. L. et al.

Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60

Description: The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed in the tables. Extensive references are given to publications on each instrument.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Hill, K. W.; Young, K. M. & Johnson, L. C.

An interim report on the materials and selection criteria analysis for the Compact Ignition Tokamak Toroidal Field Coil Turn-to-Turn Insulation System

Description: Design criteria for the Compact Ignition Tokamak, Toroidal-Field (TF) Coil, Turn-to-Turn Insulation System require an insulation sheet and bonding system that will survive cryogenic cycling in a radiation environment and maintain structural integrity during exposure to the significant compressive and shear loads associated with each operating cycle. For thermosetting resin systems, a complex interactive dependency exists between optimum peak value, in-service property performance capabilities of candidate generic materials; key handling and processing parameters required to achieve their optimum in-service property performance as an insulation system; and suitability of their handling and processing parameters as a function of design configuration and assembly methodology. This dependency is assessed in a weighted study matrix in which two principal programmatic approaches for the development of the TF Coil Subassembly Insulation System have been identified. From this matrix study, two viable approaches to the fabrication of the insulation sheet were identified: use of a press-formed sheet bonded in place with epoxy for mechanical bonding and tolerance take-up and formation of the insulation sheet by placement of dry cloth and subsequent vacuum pressure impregnation. Laboratory testing was conducted to screen a number of combinations of resins and hardeners on a generic basis. These combinations were chosen for their performance in similar applications. Specimens were tested to screen viscosity, thermal-shock tolerance, and cryogenic tolerance. Cryogenic shock and cryogenic temperature proved to be extremely lethal to many combinations of resin, hardener, and cure. Two combinations survived: a heavily flexibilized bisphenol A resin with a flexibilized amine hardener and a bisphenol A resin with cycloaliphatic amine hardener. 7 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Campbell, V. W.; Dooley, J. B.; Hubrig, J. G.; Janke, C. J.; McManamy, T. J. & Welch, D. E.

Development of fast-wave ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) current drive systems at ORNL

Description: A series of proof-of-principle fast-wave current drive (FWCD) experiments in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) will begin soon on the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics. These experiments will use a four-strap, 2-MW phased antenna array designed and built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The antenna array will operate at a frequency of 60 MHz and is expected to drive currents at 0.25 to 0.5 MA in moderate-density ({bar n}{sub e} {approximately} 1.3 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3}) plasmas with T{sub e0} {approximately} 4 keV and a toroidal field B = 1 T. We discuss development work undertaken at ORNL to predict the performance of the phased array and its feed circuit and to assist in the design of future FWCD systems. 6 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Goulding, R. H.; Baity, F. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Hoffman, D. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Mayberry, M. J. et al.

Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.
Date: March 1, 1990
Creator: Skipper, M. N.

Impurity transport in ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) and the effect of controlled impurity injection

Description: The operating window in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is limited by the occurrence of a sudden decrease in energy confinement. Although it is clear that the final loss of confinement is due to thermal instability at low temperature, the cause of the initial degradation that reduces the plasma temperature to this low range is not clear. A series of experiments using impurities injected either by a fast gas puffing system or by a laser ablation system has been carried out to study the role of impurities in initiating these collapses of energy confinement. For the experiments described here the injected impurities were aluminum and scandium.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Horton, L. D.; Isler, R. C.; Crume, E. C. Jr.; Jernigan, T. C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)) & Morita, S. (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan))

Research and development quality assurance planning

Description: Planning for quality assurance (QA) in research and development (R D) is like stealing eggs without waking up the chickens. The QA program should be as unobtrusive as possible. Researchers require a QA program that affords them an environment capable of supporting repeatable experiments with accurate data without unduly stifling their creative abilities. Careful advance planning ensures that the intensity of control provided by quality-related systems is commensurate with the importance and scope of the activities being performed. Good scientific practices applied to small bench-scale projects may require minimal additional controls. As projects increase in size and complexity the controls imposed through planning must, by necessity, be increased. Research and development QA planning, just like any other planning, involves all affected individuals. The application of control systems is determined by factors such as customer or sponsor requirements, the importance of an item or activity to the experiment's success, and the organizational complexity of the project. Many larger experiments are highly dependent on quality-related support activities such as calibration, engineering design, and inspection provided by organizations outside the R D group. Since, in most cases, the expense of support activities is taken directly from funds available for research, it is important for the researchers to be involved in the planning efforts to help determine and agree with the level of QA effort required. A single plan will often suffice for organizations engaged in large numbers of similar experiments. Complex experiments may require unique QA plans or additions to existing plans. Once implemented, the R D QA plans, like any others, require audits or surveillances and may require revisions if the scope of the experiment changes. 1 ref., 1 fig.
Date: May 14, 1990
Creator: Hoke, P. B.

Fuel performance annual report for 1988

Description: This annual report, the eleventh in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1988 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included. 414 refs., 13 figs., 32 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1990
Creator: Bailey, W. J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)) & Wu, S. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of Engineering and Systems Technology)

Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase II)

Description: As part of the Component Fragility Program which was initiated in FY 1985, three additional equipment classes have been evaluated. This report contains the fragility results and discussions on these equipment classes which are switchgear, I and C panels and relays. Both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been considered and a separate fragility estimate for each type is provided. Test data on cabinets from the nuclear instrumentation/neutron monitoring system, plant/process protection system, solid state protective system and engineered safeguards test system comprise the BNL data base for I and C panels (NSSS). Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of switchgear and I C panels, and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been evaluated for estimating the respective probabilistic fragility levels which are expressed in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient, a randomness coefficient and an HCLPF value. Due to a wide variation of relay design and the fragility level, a generic fragility level cannot be established for relays. 7 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Bandyopadhyay, K. K.; Hofmayer, C. H.; Kassir, M. K. & Pepper, S. E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

Description: This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Jow, H. N.; Sprung, J. L.; Ritchie, L. T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J. A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)) & Chanin, D. I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

Theoretical studies of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media

Description: A comprehensive theoretical study has been carried out on the flow behavior of both single and multiple phase non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. This work is divided into three parts: development of numerical and analytical solutions; theoretical studies of transient flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media; and applications of well test analysis and displacement efficiency evaluation to field problems. A fully implicit, integral finite difference model has been developed for simulation of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media. Several commonly-used rheological models of power-law and Bingham plastic non-Newtonian fluids have been incorporated in the simulator. A Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution for one-dimensional, immiscible displacement involving non-Newtonian fluids in porous media has been developed. An integral method is also presented for the study of transient flow of Bingham fluids in porous media. In addition, two well test analysis methods have been developed for analyzing pressure transient tests of power-law and Bingham fluids, respectively. Applications are included to demonstrate this new technology. The physical mechanisms involved in immiscible displacement with non-Newtonian fluids in porous media have been studied using the Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution. In another study, an idealized fracture model has been used to obtain some insights into the flow of a power-law fluid in a double-porosity medium. Transient flow of a general pseudoplastic fluid has been studied numerically. 125 refs., 91 figs., 12 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1990
Creator: Wu, Yu-Shu.

HREM defects in GaAs/Ga sub 1-x In sub x As strained layer superlattices

Description: GaAs/Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As strained layer superlattices with well-widths of 7nm, barrier widths of 14nm and periods of 10 to 30 have been examined by HREM both in plan view and cross section. Strain release occurs mostly by dislocation generation but twins are also observed, especially at the substrate interface. High resolution images of dislocations, twins and interfaces are analyzed to elucidate mechanisms of strain release. 5 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Unal, O.; Laurich, B. K. & Mitchell, T. E.

Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems

Description: Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Ling, K. M.

Advances in spheromak understanding and parameters

Description: A spheromak is a toroidally-shaped magnetized plasma configuration in which no material links the torus so that the topology of the spheromak boundary is spherical. The magnetic fields in the plasma are generated by the internal plasma currents. In the period of ten years since the properties of a nearly force-free spheromak configuration were described using single-fluid MHD theory, remarkable theoretical and experimental advances have been made. This paper highlights some of that work. Spheromak not only have been successfully produced in the laboratory using a variety of methods, but also translated, compressed and stably sustained for many resistive-decay times. Spheromak formation, equilibrium and stability to current-driven modes have been successfully modeled by single-fluid MHD coupled with the concepts of magnetic helicity and relaxation toward the minimum-energy force-free state. There is evidence, however, that the relaxation mechanism which drives parallel plasma currents is due to effects beyond the scope of single-fluid resistive MHD. The confinement properties of clean spheromaks have been measured, and shown to be excellent, provided the fraction of open magnetic flux at the edge is decreased sufficiently. It has been shown theoretically how plasma {l angle}{beta}{r angle}{sub vol} limits of {approx}10% can be obtained by properly shaping either the conducting wall geometry or the spheromak current profile. In addition to studies directly relating to fusion, the use of spheromaks for other goals is briefly described, including tokamak refueling, radiation production, magnetically-insulted inertially confined fusion, demonstration of helicity injection by mechanical means, and energy storage/transfer to accelerate fast metallic projectiles.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Fernandez, J. C.

A new measurement of CP violation parameter. var epsilon. prime /. var epsilon

Description: The E731 experiment at Fermilab has measured the CP violation parameter Re({var epsilon}{prime}/{var epsilon}) in K{sub L,S}{yields}{pi}{pi} decay. Four decay modes were collected simultaneously to reduce systematic errors. The result is Re({var epsilon}{prime}/{var epsilon})={minus}0.0005 {plus minus} 0.0014 (stat.) {plus minus} 0.0006 (syst.), and gives no evidence for direct CP violation. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Yamanaka, Taku.

Mass storage for microprocessor farms

Description: Experiments in high energy physics require high density and high speed mass storage. Mass storage is needed for data logging during the online data acquisition, data retrieval and storage during the event reconstruction and data manipulation during the physics analysis. This paper examines the storage and speed requirements at the first two stages of the experiments and suggests a possible starting point to deal with the problem. 3 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 12, 1990
Creator: Areti, H.

Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

Description: This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach being used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems used to plan and control HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP). Battelle's contract with CDC only extends through May 1994 when the key technical work will be completed. There-fore, this plan is focused only on the period during which Battelle is a participant.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Shipler, D. B.; McMakin, A. H. & Finch, S. M.

National Energy Strategy: A compilation of public comments; Interim Report

Description: This Report presents a compilation of what the American people themselves had to say about problems, prospects, and preferences in energy. The Report draws on the National Energy Strategy public hearing record and accompanying documents. In all, 379 witnesses appeared at the hearings to exchange views with the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Deputy Under Secretary of Energy, and Cabinet officers of other Federal agencies. Written submissions came from more than 1,000 individuals and organizations. Transcripts of the oral testimony and question-and-answer (Q-and-A) sessions, as well as prepared statements submitted for the record and all other written submissions, form the basis for this compilation. Citations of these sources in this document use a system of identifying symbols explained below and in the accompanying box. The Report is organized into four general subject areas concerning: (1) efficiency in energy use, (2) the various forms of energy supply, (3) energy and the environment, and (4) the underlying foundations of science, education, and technology transfer. Each of these, in turn, is subdivided into sections addressing specific topics --- such as (in the case of energy efficiency) energy use in the transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, respectively. 416 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1990