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Solution Studies of the Structures and Stability of Mixed Lithium Alkoxide/Alkvllithium Aggregates

Description: New one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques were used to elucidate the solution structures of these complex mixtures. The system, lithium tert-butoxide/tert-butyllithium, was studied as a model system with O/Li ratios varying from 0/1 to 1/1. It was found that at low O/Li ratios, a single mixed tetrameric aggregate was formed. At higher O/Li ratios, mixed hexameric species were formed. Two other systems, lithium isopropoxide/iso-propyllithium and lithium n-propoxide/n-propyllithium were also studied at low O/Li ratios.
Date: December 1992
Creator: DeLong, George T. (George Thomas)

Solvent and Ionic Complexes of the Calix[6]arenes

Description: One of the more attractive attributes of calixarenes is their wide variety of possible conformations and hence cavity shapes. However, the flexibility that allows this long-range benefit gives rise to major synthetic challenges when working with the larger members of the family. O-alkylations have proven to be the most widely employed synthetic routes to "functionalization" of the calixarenes, and these have shown a dependence upon both solvent and the metal ions present. Surprisingly, there have been no structural data presented concerning the complexes between the simple unsubstituted calix[6]arenes and the metal ions of groups 1 and 2. The structures of four complexes, containing cesium, rubidium, and calcium are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. The solution behavior of the complexes for both representative groups is also discussed, in particular with regard to conformational stabilization of the calix[6]arenes and the role of solvent upon this stabilization. These complexes are also investigated as starting materials for the selective functionalization of the calix[6]arenes.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Wolfgong, William J.

Some Studies Pertaining to the Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Asparagine and Lysine in Lactobacillus Arabinosus: I. B-Aspartylhydroxamic Acid: Its Action as a Feedback Inhibitor and a Repressor of Asparagine Synthetase in Lactobacillus Arabinosus II. Purification and Properties of Diaminopimelate Decarboxylase from Lactobacillus Arabinosus

Description: That Lactobacillus arabinosus 17-5, ATCC 8014, can supply its own requirement for the amino acid, lysine, is demonstrated by the fact that the organism is capable of growth in media devoid of lysine. Since the final biosynthetic step in lysine formation in all bacteria studied to date involves the decarboxylation of meso-dlaminopimelic acid (DAP) to produce lysine, it was of interest to determine whether an enzyme catalyzing such a reaction (DAP decarboxylase) is present in L. arabinosus.
Date: August 1969
Creator: Chen, Yueh Tsun

Spectrofluorometric and Solubility Studies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Hydrogen Bonded Binary Solvent Mixtures

Description: The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in binary solvent systems and determine and/or develop predictive mathematical expressions for describing solutions in which hydrogen-bonding occurs.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Powell, Joyce R., 1968-

The Stereochemistry of Silenes and Alpha-Lithio Silanes

Description: When E- or Z-l-methyl-l-phenyl-2-neopentylsilene was generated by the retro-Diels-Alder vacuum-sealed tube thermolysis of its corresponding anthracene adduct, in the presence of various alkoxysilanes, only one diastereomeric adduct was formed in each case, showing that the reactions are stereospecific. An x-ray crystal structure of the methoxytriphenylsilane adduct of the E-silene confirmed its relative configuration as (R,S) or (S,R). This demonstrated that the addition of alkoxysilanes to silenes is stereospecific and syn. The relative configurations of similar alkoxysilane and alkoxystannane adducts to E- and Z-l-methyl-l-phenyl-2-neopentylsilene were assigned based on a combination of xray structures and *3C NMR data. A strong, nonbonded oxygen-metal interaction is apparent in all of those compounds studied. Treatment of the alkoxystannane adducts with alkyl lithium reagents results in tin-lithium exchange in some cases. The results indicate that the resulting <x-lithio alkoxysilanes are not configurationally stable in either THF or hydrocarbon solvents. The reaction of tert butyl lithium with a-trimethylsilylvinylmethylphenylchlorosilane in hydrocarbon solvents yields E- and Z-l-methyl-l-phenyl-2-neopentyl-2-trimethylsilylsilene. In the absence of any traps these silenes undergo a novel tert butyl lithium catalyzed rearrangement to 2-phenyl-3-trimethylsilyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-silahex-3-ene. These silenes were also trapped as their [4+2] cycloadducts with anthracene. The Z-isomer of the anthracene adduct was separated and its stereochemistry confirmed by an x-ray crystal structure. The anthracene adducts of both E- and Z-l-methyl-1-phenyl-2-neopentyl-2-trimethylsilylsilene undergo a facile, stereospecific decomposition at temperatures as low as 190°C to regenerate their respective silenes, the mildest stereospecific route to a silene yet reported. The E- and Z-silenes react stereospecifically with methanol under vacuum-sealed tube conditions. The stereochemistry of the addition is syn and a common mechanism is proposed for the addition of alcohols and the addition of alkoxysilanes to silenes.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Bates, Tim Frank

Stereoselective Solid-State NaBH₄ Reduction of 1-Methylpentacyclo[5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹⁰,0⁵,⁹]undecane-8, 11-Dione, Synthesis and Chemistry of Strained Alkenes, and Chemical and Microbial Synthesis of Racemic and Optically Active (S)-4-Hydroxy-2-Cyclohexenone

Description: Part I. Reduction of the 1-methylpentacyclo [5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹⁰,0⁵,⁹]undecane-8, 11-dione (9) with solid NaBH₄ resulted in highly stereoselective reduction of both C=O groups in the substrate, thereby affording the corresponding endo-8, endo-11-diol (11a). The configuration of 11a was established unequivocally by converting 11a into the corresponding cyclic thiocarbonate ester, 12. Part II. Z-1,2-Di(1'-adamantyl)ethene (14) was synthesized with a high degree of stereoselectively in four steps (Scheme 9 in Chapter 2). E-1,2-di(1'-adamantyl)ethene (15) was synthesized by iodine promoted isomerization of 14. Both structures were established unequivocally via single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. E-1-(exo-8'-Pentacyclo[5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹⁰,0⁵,⁹]undecyl)-2-phenylethylene (16a) was synthesized, and its structure was established via analysis of its 1H, 13C, and 2D COSY NMR spectra. Part III. Reactions of electrophiles, i.e.,:CCl_2, PhSCl, and Br_2, to Z- and E-1,2-di(1'-adamantyl)ethenes (14 and 15, respectively) are described (Scheme 5, 8, 10, and 13 in Chapter 3). Structures of the corresponding products were established unequivocally via analysis of their respective one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra and/or single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. Part IV. An improved asymmetric synthesis of optically active (S)-4-hydroxy-2-cyclohexenone 1 (64%ee, determined via Mosher's method) has been developed (Scheme 5 in Chapter 4). The key step in this synthesis involves the baker's yeast reduction of 13. The absolute configuration of the major product, (S)-1, was established unequivocally via single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of a precursor. The optical purity of the major product 14a (80%de, 67%ee) was established via careful integration of relevant gated-decoupled 13C NMR spectra.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Xing, Dongxia

Structural Elucidation of tert-Butyllithium/Lithium Alkoxide and Lithium Hydride/Lithium Alkoxide Mixed Aggregates

Description: The effects of lithium alkoxides on the rates of reactions and on the structures of a series of tert-butyllithium/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were studied, where the alkoxides were iso-butoxide, tert-butoxide and menthoxide. It was found that their effects depend not only on their amount present, but also on their steric bulk. The tert-butyllithium/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were exposed to UV light or heat to form lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates. The aggregation states were assigned from either 13C-6Li coupling or a new technique based on the relative intensity of NMR peaks using different nuclei. The compounds formed depend upon the method of formation and the alkoxide. The unique properties of the lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates are their high solubility in hydrocarbon solutions, very reactive bases, showing 6Li-1H couplings, and having only one hydride ion per aggregate. Their formation, reactivity, solubility, and aggregation states were found to depend on the size of lithium alkoxides. X-ray crystal structures of lithium tert-butoxide and lithium menthoxide were also studied and found to be hexameric.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Nguyen, Hanh D.

Studies of Nitrogen-containing Compounds Having Pyrethroid-like Bioactivity

Description: During recent years most of the successful developments in pyrethroids have been primarily concerned with structural or compositional variations. As a part of our continuing interest in pyrethroid insecticides, nitrogen-containing compounds having pyrethroid-like structures were synthesized. Seven prolinate compounds, N-(substituted)-phenyl-prolinates and N-carbobenzoxy-prolinates were coupled with known pyrethroid alcohols. These structural variations which "locked in" a specific conformation between the nitrogen and chiral a-carbon in the acid moiety of fluvalinate were studied to determine the influence of certain conformations on insecticidal toxicity. The toxicity data for the prolinate compounds showed intermediate mortality against nonresistant cockroaches. It was concluded that the conformation imposed by the proline ring portion of the esters was probably close to the favored conformation for interaction of fluvalinate-like pyrethroids with the insect receptor site. A second series of nitrogen-containing compounds, twenty-five carbamate esters resulting from the condensation of N-isopropyl-(substituted)-anilines and N-alkyl-(substituted)-benzylamines with appropriate pyrethroid alcohols were studied for insecticidal activity. These studies were conducted on pyrethroid-susceptible houseflies. Some of the carbamate esters exhibited high toxicity when synergized by piperonyl butoxide. For example, the toxicity ( LD 50 ) of O-a-cyano-3-phenoxyfaenzyl-N-a,a-dimethyl-4-bromo-benzyl carbamate was 0.012 ug/g, which is significantly greater than that reported for the potent pyrethroid, fenvalerate. Correlations of insecticidal activity with respect to structure and conformational factors of the carbamate esters have been made. The N-isopropyl substituent decreases insecticidal activity in the N-benzyl-derived compounds, while the N-isopropyl substituent enhances activity in the N-phenyl-derived compounds. Certain substituents on the phenyl ring of both analogs greatly affect insecticidal potency of the carbamate esters. Also, some alkyl substituents (especially, a,cx-dimethyl and a-cyclopropyl groups) on the benzylic carbon of the benzylamine series enhance toxicity. The a,a-dimethyl branching of the N-benzyl carbamate approximates the steric shape given by the gemdimethyl group for conventional cyclopropane ring-containing pyrethroids. The N-benzyl compounds are significantly synergized by ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Lee, Jimmy Jing-Ming, 1955-

Studies of Solvent Displacement from Solvated Metal Carbonyl Complexes of Chromium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten

Description: Flash photolysis techniques were applied to studies of solvent displacement by Lewis bases (L) from solvated metal carbonyl complexes of Cr, Mo, and W. On the basis of extensive studies of the reaction rate laws, activation parameters , and linear-free-energy-relationships, it was concluded that the mechanisms of solvent displacement reactions depend on the electronic and steric properties of the solvents and L, as well as the identities of the metal atoms. The strengths of solvent-metal bonding interactions, varying from ca. 7 to 16 kcal/mol, and the bonding "modes" of solvents to metals are sensitive to the structures of the solvent molecules and the identities of the metal centers. The results indicate dissociative desolvation pathways for many arene solvents in (solvent)Cr(CO)_5 (solvent = benzene, fluorobenzene, toluene, etc.) complexes, and are consistent with competitive interchange and dissociative pathways for (n-heptane)M(CO)_5. Different types of (arene)-Cr(CO)_5 interactions were suggested for chlorobenzene (CB) vs. fluorobenzene and other non-halogenated arenes, i.e. via σ-halogen-Cr bond formation in the CB solvate vs. π-arene-Cr bond formation through "isolated" double bonds in solvates of the other arenes. The data also indicate the increasing importance of interchange pathways for solvent displacement from the solvates of Mo and W vs. that of Cr.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Zhang, Shulin

A Study of the Processing Properties of Hard-Particle Reinforced Composite Solders

Description: The microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of various composite solder formulations were investigated. Special interest was given in observing the processing properties, microstructural characteristics, fatigue behavior, tensile strength, and the effect of environmental ageing on the composite solder formulations. The solderability parameters wetting and speed of soldering, reflow temperature, and the thermal stability of the resulting composite solder were also examined.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Calderon, Jose Guadalupe

Substituent Effects: A Computational Study on Stabilities of Cumulenes and Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds

Description: The effect of substituents on the stabilities of cumulenes-ketenes, allenes, diazomethanes and isocyanates and related systems-alkynes, nitriles and nitrile oxides is studied using the density functional theory (B3LYP, SVWN and BP86) and ab initio (HF, MP2) calculations at the 6-31G* basis set level. Using isodesmic reactions, correlation between stabilization energies of cumulenes and substituent group electronegativities (c BE) is established and the results from DFT and MP2 methods are compared with the earlier HF calculations. Calculations revealed that the density functional methods can be used to study the effect of substituents on the stabilities of cumulenes. It is observed that the cumulenes are stabilized by electropositive substituent groups from s -electron donation and p -electron withdrawal and are destabilized by electronegative substituent groups from n-p donation. The calculated geometries of the cumulenes are compared with the available experimental data.High level ab initio and density functional theory calculations have been used to study the energetics of low-barrier hydrogen bond (LBHB) systems. Using substituted formic acid-formate anion complexes as model LBHB systems, hydrogen bond strength is correlated to the pKa mismatch between the hydrogen bond donor and the hydrogen bond acceptor. LBHB model systems are characterized by the 1H-NMR chemical shift calculations. A linear correlation between the calculated hydrogen bond strength and the predicted 1H-NMR chemical shift was established. It is concluded that the pKa matching within the enzyme active site of the two species involved in the LBHB is important to maximizing catalytic stabilization.
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Kumar, Ganesh Angusamy

Substitution Chemistry of the Cobalt Complexes [Co₂(CO)₆(PhC≡CR) (R=Ph, H) and PhCCo₃(CO)₉] with the Diphosphine Ligands [Bis(diphenylphosphino)maleic Anhydride (BMA) and (Z)-Ph₂PCH=CHPPh₂]. Reversible Chelate-to-Bridge Diphosphine Ligand Exchange, Phosphorus-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Phosphorus-Carbon Bond Formation

Description: The tricobalt cluster PhCCo3(CO)9 (1) reacts with the bidentate phosphine ligand 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)maleic anhydride (bma) in the presence of added Me3NO to give the diphosphine-substituted cluster PhCCo3(CO)7(bma) (2). Cluster 2 is unstable in solution, readily losing CO to afford Co3(CO)6[(μ2-η2/η1-C(Ph)C=C(PPh2)C(O)OC(O)](μ2-PPh2) (3) as the sole observed product. VT-31P NMR measurements on cluster 2 indicate that the bma ligand functions as both a chelating and a bridging ligand. At -97 °C, 31P NMR analysis of 2 reveals a Keq of 5.7 in favor of the bridging isomer. The bridged bma cluster 2 is the only observed species above -50°C. The solid-state structure of 2 does not correspond to the major bridging isomer observed in solution but rather the minor chelating isomer. The conversion of 2 to 3 followed first-order kinetics, with the reaction rates being independent of the nature of the reaction solvent and strongly suppressed by added CO, supporting a dissociative loss of CO as the rate-determining step. The activation parameters for CO loss were determined to be ΔH≠ = 29.9 ± 2.2 kcal/mol and ΔS≠ = 21.6 ± 6 eu.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Yang, Kaiyuan

Sulfur-induced Corrosion at Metal and Oxide Surfaces and Interfaces

Description: Sulfur adsorbed on metallic and oxide surfaces, whether originating from gaseous environments or segregating as an impurity to metallic interfaces, is linked to the deterioration of alloy performance. This research dealt with investigations on the interactions between sulfur and iron or iron alloy metallic and oxide surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Sulfur was either intentionally dosed from a H2S source on an atomically clean metal surface, or segregated out as an impurity from the bulk to the metal surface by annealing at elevated temperatures.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Cabibil, Hyacinth (Hyacinth Liesl)

Surface and Interfacial Studies of Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper

Description: The nucleation and successful growth of copper (Cu) thin films on diffusion barrier/adhesion promoter substrates during metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are strongly dependent on the initial Cu precursor-substrate chemistry and surface conditions such as organic contamination and oxidation. This research focuses on the interactions of bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II), [Cu(hfac)2], with polycrystalline tantalum (Ta) and polycrystalline as well as epitaxial titanium nitride (TiN) substrates during Cu MOCVD, under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions and low substrate temperatures (T < 500 K). The results obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) measurements indicate substantial differences in the chemical reaction pathways of metallic Cu formation from Cu(hfac)2 on TiN versus Ta surfaces.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Nuesca, Guillermo M.

Syntheses of Antimetabolites

Description: In these studies several different types of antimetabolites were synthesized, and their biological effects were examined in various assay systems. More extensive investigations were done in microbial systems in which many of the compounds proved to be inhibitory to growth, and attempts were made to determine the mode of biochemical action by adding supplements of the appropriate natural metabolite.
Date: January 1970
Creator: Clifton, George Gil

Syntheses of Highly Strained Energetic Molecules and Development of New Synthetic Methodology

Description: The objective of this study was to synthesize new energetic, strained, saturated polycyclic compounds. For this purpose, new methodology has been developed, as follows: (i) Ketenes have been generated in situ via treatment of aldo-, keto- or alkenoic acid with either toluenesulfonyl chloride or 2-chloro-1-methylpyridfniurn iodide (Mulkaiyama's reagent). The reactive intermediates thereby generated have been found to undergo intramolecular [2+2] cycloaddition reactions in these systems.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Wu, An-hsiang

The Synthesis and Chemistry of Polyciclic Cage Compounds

Description: Chapter I describes the synthesis of a trishomocubyl helical tubuland diol and some aspects of its inclusion chemistry. Thus, all three isomers of 4,7-dimethylpentacyclo[6.3.0.0^2,6.0^3,10.0^5,9]undecane-4,7-diol have been prepared and their X-ray structures have been determined. The syn,syn-isomer crystallizes in a double-stranded hydrogen-bonded lattice, while anti,syn-isomer forms a hydrogen-bonded layer lattice. In contrast, the anti,anti-isomer is a new member of the helical tubuland diol host family; its crystal lattice consists of parallel canals with a trefoil-shaped cross-section of area 25.4 Å^2. Chapter II describes the synthesis of new molecular clefts. These molecular clefts have been synthesized via base-promoted reactions of 3,6-diaryl-l,2,4,5-tetrazines with tetracyclo[6.3.0.0^4,11.0^5,9]undecane-3,6-dione and with tricyclo[6.3.0.0^2,6]undecane-3,11-dione, respectively. Compounds of this type are of interest as a potential new class of host molecules for use in host-guest complexation studies. Chapter III reports the synthesis of stereospecifically deuterated spiro(oxetane-3,8'-pentacyclo[5.4.0.0^2,6.0^3,10.0^5,9]undecanes) and their acid-promoted ring opening and concomitant rearrangements. The deuterium-containing reaction products have been characterized via analysis of their NMR and mass spectra. The results strongly suggest that intramolecular 1,5-hydride shifts provide an important pathway through which the acid promoted rearrangements occur. Chapter IV reports the oxidation of heptacyclo-[6.6.0.0^2,6.0^3,13.0^4,11.0^5,9.0^10,14] tetradecane (HCTD) via application of Barton's "GoAgg" systems. The products have been characterized by NMR and mass spectral analysis. Under GoAgg^v conditions, oxidation of HCTD proceeds to afford heptacyclo [6.6.0.0^2,6.0^3,13.0^4,11.0^5,9.0^10,14]tetradecan-7-one in 1% yield.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Wang, Yanjun