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The Effects of Three Conditions of Reinforcement on the Performance of Three Learning Tasks by Hospitalized Chronic Schizophrenics
This study is concerned with determining the relationship among functional educational level of groups, three types of reinforcement, and length of the study and with their resulting effects on schizophrenic performance.
The Effects of Three Experimental Presentations on the Acquisition of Vocabulary by Graduate Students
The first purpose of this study was to ascertain the gains in vocabulary of three selected groups of graduate students presented material by different methods: audio, visual, and audio-visual. The second purpose of this study was to determine whether these gains were maintained after a lapse of time of four weeks.
Effects of Three Interventions with International College Students Referred for Adjustment and Language Difficulties: A Preliminary Study
This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of three interventions with international college students referred for adjustment and language difficulties. Fifty-four international students were assigned to treatment groups including expressive group counseling (n = 14), group speech therapy (n = 14), interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention (n = 13), and the no treatment control (n = 13). Three null hypotheses were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures analysis of variance to determine whether the four treatment groups behaved differently across time according to pre- and posttest results of the ASR Total and Internalizing Problems scales and the CCSR total scores. Two null hypotheses were rejected at the alpha .05 level of statistical significance with large treatment effects. Post hoc analyses were conducted when a statistically significant interaction effect was found. The no treatment control group was established as a baseline to examine how each intervention group performed over time when compared to the no treatment control group. Results of the post hoc analysis for Total Problems indicated that international students in all three treatment groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in total behavior problems at the alpha .025 level (Expressive counseling: p = .002, Speech: p = .01, and Interdisciplinary: p = .003) and large treatment effects (partial η2 = .33, .24, and .31, respectively), thus indicating all three may be considered effective mental health treatments to target international students' total behavior problems. Results of the post hoc analysis for Internalizing Problems indicated that the interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention was statistically significant (p = .02) in lowering internalizing problems and had a large treatment effect (partial η2 = .22). The expressive group counseling intervention also demonstrated a large treatment effect (partial η2 = .15) although not a statistically significant level (p = .04). The large treatment effects obtained for both interventions highlight the benefit ...
The Effects of Three Methods of Practice on Improving the Performance of a Modified Free-Throw by Sixth Grade Girls
This investigation is concerned with the problem of determining the effects of three kinds of practice (mental-physical, distributive, and physical) on improving the performance of the Modified Free-Throw. In addition, this study investigates whether or not any one of the practice methods used was superior to the others.
The Effects of Three Physical Education Activites on Selected Physical Fitness Components
This study was designed to investigate the relative effects of selected physical education activities upon four components of physical well-being of college men. This study was intended to determine if changes occur in endurance, flexibility, balance, and agility by groups participating in either apparatus gymnastics, wrestling or swimming.
Effects of Time Spent on Computer-Assisted Instruction on Attitudes of Sixth Grade Students Toward Computers
The purposes of this study were threefold: (1) to examine the effects of time spent on CAI on student attitudes, (2) to examine the effects of time spent on CAI among ability groups, and (3) to determine whether initial attitudes would be maintained throughout a school year, and if not, determine variables associated with an attitude shift.
The Effects of Timed Readings on Recall and Comprehension in a Child with Asperger's Syndrome.
The effects of timed readings on recall and comprehension in a child with Asperger's syndrome were examined by employing a multiple-baseline design across two books with reversals. Recall timings consisted of the student's free-say compilation of what she just read. Comprehension tests consisted of the participant's answers to predetermined questions after her recall period. No consequences or feedback was given during any of the conditions. Results indicate that, initially, as the time required to read decreased, the number of unrelated words during the recall period for the two books also decreased. Related words were not as affected. Scores on comprehension tests were high. There was, however, little correspondence between the participant's recall words and the main ideas answered correctly in the comprehension test.
The Effects of Trade Liberalization Policies on Human Development in Selected Least Developed Countries
This dissertation examines the effects of trade liberalization policies (represented by membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization on selected Least Developed Countries' (LDCs) human development (represented by the Human Development Index). In this dissertation, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Trade Organization (WTO) policies are theorized to have two distinct types of effects: their direct effect and their indirect effect. Two questions are focused on: first, what is the effect (total, direct and indirect) of WTO policies on human development for selected LDCs? Second, what is the effect (total, direct and indirect) of WTO policies on human development for selected developing/developed countries (i.e. non-LDCs) holding economic development constant? Using the dependency theory of development as a theoretical basis, this dissertation examines the assumptions of modernization-theory-based policies as expressed in trade liberalization policies (i.e. the implementation of comparative advantage and now market fundamentalism) with world-system analysis techniques. To examine these questions, four panel regression models are constructed to measure the total, direct and indirect effects of WTO policies during the near-term (1998-2003) and during a longer historical term (1975-2000). The data for the analyses are taken from seven different sources of international data. The analyses seemingly demonstrate that there are quantifiable negative effects of GATT/WTO membership (trade liberalization policies) on human development in selected LDCs. The current implementation of trade liberalization policies does not benefit the well-being of all concerned as promoted by the WTO.
The Effects of Traditional Report Cards Upon the Grading of students of South Park Elementary School, Beaumont, Texas
In this study, the writer has attempted to judge the effects of different types of report cards upon the accuracy of the teachers' grades of South Park Elementary School. The data used in this study, is located in Beaumont, Texas.
Effects of Training Accurate Component Strokes Using Response Constraint and Self-evaluation on Whole Letter Writing.
This study analyzed the effects of a training package containing response constraint, self-evaluation, reinforcement, and a fading procedure on written letter components and whole letter writing in four elementary school participants. The effect on accuracy of written components was evaluated using a multiple-baseline-across components and a continuous probe design of components, as well as pre-test, baseline, and post-test measures. The results of this study show that response constraint and self-evaluation quickly improved students' performance in writing components. Fading of the intervention was achieved quickly and performance maintained. Results also show that improvement in component writing improved whole letter and full name writing and letter reversals in the presence of a model were corrected.
The Effects of Training History on Retention and Reacquisition of Stimulus Control
The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of training history on retention and re-acquisition of stimulus control of previously learned behaviors. In Phase I, two pairs of behaviors were alternately trained. Circle and touch behaviors were trained concurrently until two consecutive errorless sessions were run. Spin and down behaviors were trained together in the same manner. Probe sessions, in which all four cues were presented, were conducted each time a pair of behaviors reached this criterion. Training of one pair did not occur until the other pair had reached criterion and probe sessions were run. Despite achieving the designated criterion during training, stimulus control changed during probes. During probe sessions, errors increased under the cues that were not currently being trained. In most cases, the type of errors emitted for each cue was the same as the behavior that was trained concurrently. The number of training sessions required to reach criterion accuracy was high during the first set of sessions and decreased over the course of the experiment. In Phase II, spin and circle behaviors were trained concurrently. The number of sessions required to reach stimulus control criteria remained low, and the number of errors emitted under the spin and circle cues during probe sessions decreased. However, the number of errors increased under the touch cue. In Phase III, a reinforce-all procedure was used instead of extinction to test stimulus control. The highest frequency of errors occurred under the touch cue, but the down error was almost exclusively emitted under every cue during the last several sessions.
The Effects of Training in Interaction Analysis on Teachers' Interpersonal Behavior
The specific purposes investigated were to ascertain the effect of training in interaction analysis upon the levels of 1. accurate empathy in teachers, 2. nonpossissive warmth in teachers, 3. genuineness in teachers, and 4. an analysis of the relationship between interaction analysis and the interpersonal behavior of the classroom teacher in view of its implications in teacher education.
The Effects of Transition From the Sixth to the Seventh Grade Upon Student Status, Attitude, and Achievement
The problem of this study is the effect of movement from the sixth grade to the seventh grade upon student social status, attitude toward school, and achievement.
Effects of Trichinella soluble antigens on macrophage subpopulations
The immunomodulatory effects of Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella pseudospiralis soluble antigen extracts were examined in an effort to characterize the differences in immune responses seen during these Trichinella infections.
Effects of Triclosan, Triclocarban, and Caffeine Exposure on the Development of Amphibian Larvae.
Triclosan and triclocarban are antimicrobials found in numerous consumer products, while caffeine is the most commonly consumed stimulant by humans. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of triclosan, triclocarban, and caffeine on the development and physiology of amphibian larvae. LC50 values of triclosan and triclocarban were determined after 96 hours for three North American larval species: Acris crepitans blanchardii, Bufo woodhousii woodhousii, Rana sphenocephala, and for a common amphibian developmental model: Xenopus laevis. Amphibian larvae were most sensitive to triclosan and triclocarban exposure during early development based upon 96-hour LC50 values. Heart rates for X. laevis and North American larvae exposed to triclosan were variable throughout development. However, significantly lower heart rates were observed in all larvae exposed to triclocarban. Metabolic rates of X. laevis and R. sphenocephala larvae exposed to triclosan were significantly affected in larvae exposed to ½ LC50 and the LC50 concentration. Metabolic rates of X. laevis larvae exposed to triclocarban were significantly affected by exposure to ½ LC50 concentrations in three of four stages investigated. No significant differences were observed in North American larvae exposed to triclocarban. Tissue uptake, lipid uptake, tissue bioconcentration factor (BCF) and lipid BCF of triclosan and triclocarban were investigated in three developmental stages of X. laevis, and in one developmental stage of B. woodhousii woodhousii, and R. sphenocephala. For most tissue and lipid uptake values, a significant increase was observed as exposure concentration increased. Tissue and lipid BCF values were dependent upon both stage and species. Chronic and acute effects of caffeine were determined in X. laevis larvae. Acute 96-hour LC50 values in four developmental stages were > 75,000 ug L-1 caffeine and heart rates were significantly different at the two earliest developmental stages. Larvae chronically exposed to caffeine reached metamorphosis at the same time as controls. Changes in ...
Effects of Turbidity on Gilling Rates and Oxygen Consumption on Green Sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus
Laboratory studies conducted at 5, 15, 25, and 35 C measured changes in gilling rates and oxygen consumption of green sunfish in response to exposure to bentonite clay suspensions. The tests indicate that gilling rates are not affected by bentonite clay suspensions below 2125 FTU at 5 C, 1012 FTU at 15 C, and 898 FTU at 25 C. At turbidity levels exceeding 1012 FTU at 15 C and 898 at 25 C, gilling rates increased 50-70%. Tests were inconclusive at 35 C. Oxygen consumption rates were found to be unaffected by turbid suspensions below 3500 FTU at all four temperatures. Evidence suggests that increased gilling rates under highly turbid conditions are a means of compensating for reduced respiratory efficiency and a strategy for maintaining a constant oxygen uptake. Evidence indicates that the cost of increased gilling rates is probably met by a reduction in activity.
The Effects of Two Approaches to Reading Instruction upon the Oral Language Development of First Grade Pupils
The problem of this study was to compare the relative gains made in the development of oral language skills in two groups of first grade pupils when two different approaches to beginning reading instruction were used. The two approaches were: (a) the language experience approach, Approach A, and (b) the traditional basal reader approach, Approach B. The six aspects of oral language development considered were: extent of verbalization, spoken vocabulary, expressions of tentativeness, use of structural patterns, colorful and vivid expressions, and use of mazes.
The Effects of Two Different Types of Background Music on Bowling Scores and Attitudes
No Description Available.
The Effects of Two Extrinsic Incentives on the Classroom Success of Disadvantaged Middle-School Students
This study tests the effectiveness of a program designed to use extrinsic incentives in improving the motivation of disadvantaged students to achieve academic success. This study seeks to determine whether the specific extrinsic rewards provided in the program actually improve the success of students on classroom tests. A secondary purpose of the study is to assess the extent to which that success, if achieved, becomes itself a reinforcement sufficient to maintain continued success in the classroom. Ignoring age and grade, students from the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades were grouped by their skill level in mathematics and assigned to an individual teacher. The study was conducted during four consecutive two-week periods. Base-line data were obtained during the first two-week period of both experimental and control students under regular classroom conditions. Extrinsic incentives were applied to the experimental group during each of the following two-week periods and identical measures were taken during the same period of both the experimental and control groups. The analysis-of-covariance statistical treatment was used to compare changes on test success. The .05 level of confidence was held as the standard for statistical significance. Two extrinsic incentives, a free movie and a monetary reward, were employed to bring about improved performance on mathematical tests. Separate and combined effects of the incentives were examined for the total group and for subgroups based on sex, ethnicity, and initial mathematics ability.
The Effects of Two Methods of Training on Arm Strength
A study was made to investigate the relative effectiveness of two methods of training on the development of arm strength. The purposes of the study included the following: 1. To determine functional arm strength of male students enrolled in physical education classes selected for the study. 2. To conduct specific exercise programs in each of the selected classes. 3. To determine the relative effectiveness of the selected programs in developing arm strength.
The Effects of Two Types of Consequence Delivery on Task Acquisition.
The effects of two consequence delivery methods on task acquisition were evaluated within a multi-element design. A typical 3 year-old child and a 4 year-old child with autism participated in this study. The task for both children was to select a picture after the experimenter said its name. The consequence in one condition consisted of the experimenter handing the edible item to the children. The consequence in the other condition consisted of the children retrieving the edible item directly from the apparatus, located in a crevice underneath each picture. Results show slightly quicker acquisition in the condition where children retrieved the edible consequence. However, it is possible that other variables had greater influence on the task acquisition.
The Effects of Two Types of Group Counseling Procedures with Junior College Students
The problem with which this investigation was concerned was to measure personal adjustment, emotional adjustment, home adjustment, and self-concept changes that took place in junior college students as a result of one-counselor group counseling and male-and-female co-counselor group counseling. The rationale for male-and-female co-counselor group counseling relied on the formation of a simulated family in which individuals could socialize their feelings.
The Effects of Two Types of Teaching Reading Upon Reading Progress, Social Maturity Progress, and Arithmetic Reasoning and Computation
The problem of this thesis is to evaluate the progress in general reading efficiency of a group of children taught by the socialized group plan, as compared to a group of children taught by the traditional reading plan and to determine whether the socialized group plan aids in the development of certain other general attributes, such as arithmetic reasoning, arithmetic computation, and social maturity growth.
Effects of UE Speed on MIMO Channel Capacity in LTE
With the introduction of 4G LTE, multiple new technologies were introduced. MIMO is one of the important technologies introduced with fourth generation. The main MIMO modes used in LTE are open loop and closed loop spatial multiplexing modes. This thesis develops an algorithm to calculate the threshold values of UE speed and SNR that is required to implement a switching algorithm which can switch between different MIMO modes for a UE based on the speed and channel conditions (CSI). Specifically, this thesis provides the values of UE speed and SNR at which we can get better results by switching between open loop and closed loop MIMO modes and then be scheduled in sub-channels accordingly. Thus, the results can be used effectively to get better channel capacity with less ISI. The main objectives of this thesis are: to determine the type of MIMO mode suitable for a UE with certain speed, to determine the effects of SNR on selection of MIMO modes, and to design and implement a scheduling algorithm to enhance channel capacity.
The Effects of Unilateral Exercise Upon the Reaction-Movement Time of the Exercised Arm and the Contralateral Arm
The purposes of the study were to determine (1) the effect which exercise of the nondominant arm would have upon the reaction-movement time of the dominant and nondominant arms, (2) the degree to which fatigue transfers from one arm to the other arm, and (3) the influence of lateral dominance upon the reaction-movement time of both the dominant, and nondominant arms.
The Effects of Using Children's Literature with Adolescents in the English As a Foreign Language Classroom.
This study provides quantitative and qualitative data about the effects of using children's literature with adolescents in a language classroom and the role of children's literature in students' second/foreign language development, including listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. The study presents qualitative data about the role of children's literature in developing more positive attitudes toward reading in the second/foreign language and toward reading in general. With literature being a model of a culture, presenting linguistic benefits for language learners, teaching communication, and being a motivator in language learning, this study presents empirical data that show that inclusion of children's literature in adolescents' second/foreign language classroom promotes appreciation and enjoyment of literature, enhances the development of language skills, stimulates more advanced learning, and promotes students' personal growth.
The Effects of Using Information Technology to Support Evaluation of Feedback and Implementation of Adjustments in an Organization's Strategic Planning Process
Organizations that must respond quickly to environmental pressures look for tools to assist in that response. Information technology may be one tool to facilitate the response. In this study the possible effects of using information technology, specifically a decision support system, in the feedback segment of one organization's strategic management loop were examined. The organization was one region of the Board of Probation and Parole in a central state. Personnel included administrators, parole officers and clerical workers. The information technology was an off-the-shelf software product called PlanRight. This study is significant for two reasons: a new application for information technology was examined and the adequacy of a generic computerized tool designed to be suitable for various operations was explored. This study was a case study. Two months of data were taken prior to the implementation of the decision support system, and four months of data were taken after the system was implemented. Questionnaire data taken before system implementation provided descriptive characteristics of the organization. Follow-up surveys and interviews at the conclusion of the study were used to evaluate employee perceptions. The study was done in three phases. During phase one questionnaires were distributed and returned. During phase two, goals, plans and evaluation criteria were formulated and plans were implemented. Feedback was obtained and evaluated through the use of the decision support system enabling reaction to the feedback data. In phase three perceptions of administrators and parole officers were elicited using follow-up surveys and semi-structured interviews. Three propositions guided the evaluation of the study's outcomes. These propositions dealt with performance toward goal achievement, satisfaction with feedback processes and quality of plans formulated for the project. Performance was moderately successful. Satisfaction with processes was high. Speed of obtaining feedback was considered high by administrators and paroled officers. Quality of processes and outcomes ...
The Effects of Using Integrated Testing and Skills Software in Reading Instruction for At-risk Students
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of using computer-managed, integrated testing and skills software with individualized homework packets on the reading achievement and attitudes of at-risk students in a low achieving urban school. An additional purpose was to determine teacher attitudes toward using technology to deliver, measure, and manage instruction.
Effects of Using Logic and Spatial Cybergames to Improve Student Success Rates in Lower-Division Chemistry Courses
A study was conducted to investigate the relationships between cybergaming treatment groups and the control group (N = 99: ncontrol = 8; nlogic = 29; nspatial = 30; ncombination = 32) with success in the organic chemistry I course as measured by achievement over a 10-week period. The treatment groups included logic training, spatial training, and combination logic-spatial training. Students' ability was measured by pre/post exams using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) to measure logic ability, Purdue Visualizations of Rotations (ROT) test to measure spatial skills, and the General-Organic-Biochemistry (GOB) Exam to measure content attainment. Finally, students' responses about participation in this experience were evaluated using open- and closed-ended questions on a self-developed survey. A second study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the cybergaming treatment and control groups (N = 88: nexperimental = 27; ncontrol = 61) with success in the general chemistry I course as measured by achievement and final course averages and grades. The cybergaming treatment group underwent intensive combination logic-spatial training for 10 weeks. Students' progress was measured using three pre/post instruments: Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) measured logic ability, Purdue Visualizations of Rotations (ROT) Test measured spatial skills, and the California Chemistry Diagnostic Exam measured content attainment. Finally, students' responses about their participation in this experience were evaluated using open- and closed-ended questions on a self-developed survey. Analyses of the data were performed to determine the relationships between cybergaming treatments and control groups in organic chemistry I and general chemistry I courses. In organic chemistry I results showed no statistical or practical significance as to students' success. In general chemistry I results indicated statistical significance and medium practicality for students with an average grade of C and for females over males as to improvement of spatial skills.
The Effects of Using Networked Integrated Testing and Skills Software and Parental Involvement on Achievement, Attitude, and Self-esteem of At-risk Students
The purpose of this study was to determine whether using integrated, networked testing and skills software combined with parental participation would increase students' achievement in reading, improve students' self-esteem and improve attitude toward school. Further, the purpose was to determine if parental participation promotes improved attitude toward school.
Effects of Variation of Methadone Dispensing Frequencies on Retention in Treatment and Behavioral Adjustment in a Methadone Treatment Program
This study was concerned with determining the effects that varying the methadone-dispensing frequencies during mandatory clinic visits had on patients' retention in treatment and behavioral adjustment.
Effects of Varied Intervals of Rest between Warm-Up and Performance on 440-Yard Dash Times
A comparative study was made of the effects of varied time intervals of rest between warm-up and performance in the 440-yard dash by students in selected physical education classes at North Texas State University during the spring semester of 1967. This study was made to determine if the length of a rest interval after cessation of warm-up activity has any significant effect upon the subsequent performance in a 440-yard dash, and to determine if any length of rest interval facilitates performance in a 440-yard dash.
The Effects of Various Types of Preschool-Age Day Care on Later Academic Performance and Conduct in School
No Description Available.
Effects of Vegetation Structure and Canopy Exposure on Small-scale Variation in Atmospheric Deposition Inputs to a Mixed Conifer Forest in California
Data on rates of atmospheric deposition is limited in many montane ecosystems, where high spatial variability in meteorological, topographic, and vegetation factors contributes to elevated atmospheric inputs and to the creation of deposition hotspots. Addressing the ecological consequences of increasing deposition in these areas will require a better understanding of surface controls influencing atmospheric deposition rates at both large and small-scales. The overarching objective of this thesis research was to understand the influence of vegetation structure and canopy exposure on small-scale patterns of atmospheric sulfate, nitrate, and chloride deposition inputs to a conifer forest in the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Throughfall ion fluxes (i.e., ions delivered in water that pass from the forest canopy to the forest floor), bulk deposition (i.e., primarily wet deposition), and rainfall data were collected during the rainy period from October 2012 to May 2013. Throughfall SO42-, Cl-, and NO3- fluxes were measured beneath eight clusters of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees (three trees per cluster) differing in tree size (i.e., diameter at breast height; DBH) and canopy exposure. In each cluster, a throughfall collector was placed 1-meter from the bole of an individual tree, for a total of 24 individual collectors. The position of each throughfall collector was recorded with a Trimble® GPS. In addition, tree height, tree diameter, and leaf area index, were measured for all trees. LiDAR data were obtained from GeoEarthScope’s Northern California Airborne LiDAR project and used to model the elevation (DEM), canopy surface height (DSM), tree height (CHM), slope, and curvature of the canopy surface across the entire study area. Over the rainy season, total throughfall flux of SO42--S, a conservative tracer of total deposition (wet + dry + fog), to Douglas fir clusters ranged from 1.44 - 3.84 kg S ha-1 wet season-1, while dry and fog deposition ranged ...
Effects of Venture Team Demographic Characteristics on Team Interpersonal Process Effectiveness in Computer Related Venture Teams
In order to remain competitive, firms must be able to merge diverse, differentiated people into teams. In comparison to solo ventures, venture teams not only offer a broader base of physical and financial resources and varying points of view, but also positively influence the profitability, growth, and survivability potential of new ventures. Despite the growing importance and potential benefits offered by venture teams, relatively little is known about assembling and maintaining effective venture teams in the field of entrepreneurship. More specifically, information is needed to understand what composition and combination of demographic characteristics of team members would contribute to the effectiveness and success of a venture team. In this study the relationship between venture team demographic characteristics and team effectiveness (which is defined in terms of the interpersonal process of venture team members in their group activities) is investigated. The demographic characteristics examined include average age, age heterogeneity, average level of education, educational background heterogeneity, gender heterogeneity, and functional background heterogeneity. A field study, involving face-to-face and telephone interviews with the venture teams is used to gather data from40 computer related venture teams in a large midwest U.S. city. The venture teams are identified through the local Chambers of Commerce, peer referrals, and library research. Information is gathered on demographics and team interpersonal process effectiveness using a pre-validated instrument. Data are analyzed using regression analysis. The results indicate that average age negatively and significantly relates with team interpersonal process effectiveness. Furthermore, average level of education positively and significantly relates with team interpersonal process effectiveness. The other demographic variables, age heterogeneity, educational background heterogeneity, gender heterogeneity, and functional background heterogeneity do not produce significant relationships.
The Effects of Verbal Praise and Reproof on the Level of Aspiration of Institutionalized Mental Defectives
The study to be reported was designed to investigate the effects of verbal praise and reproof, from persons in authority, on the LOA and subsequent performance of institutionalized defectives.
The Effects of Verbal Reinforcement on the Behavior of Mild and Moderate Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Children
The present study is an effort to investigate some of the pertinent implications, principles, and postulates revealed by learning theorists, specifically McCandless, using mentally retarded children as subjects.
The Effects of Victimization on the Acceptance of Aggression and the Expectations of Assertive Traits in Children as Measured by the General Social Survey
No Description Available.
The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance
This study examined the effects of frame-by-frame video-computerized feedback on competitive state anxiety, self-efficacy, effort, and baseball performance of high school players. Players were randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions: (a) Hitting score, (b) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of a mechanically correct swing, (c) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of participant's swing and a mechanically correct swing. Once per week for six weeks, the players completed three questionnaires: (a) Hitting Self-Efficacy Scale, (b) Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2C, and (c) Performance Effort Scale, and performed a hitting task. Results of the 3 (Group) x 6 (Trials) ANOVAs revealed no significant effects. This study does not support previous confidence-baseball hitting research.
The Effects of Videotape Feedback from Volunteer Subjects' Classroom Behavior and Expressed Attitudes toward Teaching
The problem of this study was to determine the effects of videotape feedback upon teachers' classroom verbal and nonverbal behavior, objectives, methods, and expressed attitudes about teaching.
Effects of Videotape Playback on Causal Attribution in Distressed Couples
No Description Available.
The Effects of Videotaping and Playback on the Communication Performance of the Introverted and Extroverted Individual
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of determining the effects of videotaping and subsequent playback on the communication performance of introverted and extroverted individuals. The principal method of determining these effects is the subjective judgment of a panel of qualified speech instructors who viewed videotaped speeches made by the subjects. All subjects were repeatedly subjected to videotaping, and half were exposed to playback. Statistically, by using one-way analysis of covariance, the effects of playback were measured: The speaking scores achieved by the experimental introverts and extroverts were compared with the speaking scores of the control introverts and extroverts. Sixty-four subjects were used; these were limited to college students enrolled in the teacher-education program. To carry out the purposes of the study, the following hypotheses were tested: 1. There will be a significant difference between the scores of introverted trainees who are videotaped and exposed to playback and the scores of introverted trainees who are videotaped but not exposed to playback. 2. There will be a significant difference in the scores of extroverted trainees who are videotaped and exposed to playback and the scores of extroverted trainees who are videotaped but not exposed to playback.
The Effects of Viewing Loopfilm on Tennis Skill and Form
This study was an attempt to determine the effectiveness of loopfilms as a supplement to the demonstration-explanation method of teaching sports skills.
Effects of Visible Monochromatic Radiations on Growth of Pith Callus Tissue of Pelargonium Zonale
It was the purpose of the investigation to determine the effects of selected high intensity monochromatic radiations on the growth of pith callus tissue of Pelargonium zonale, variety Enchantress Fiat. In addition, the extent of cell differentiation was to be determined for tissues grown under each experimental treatment.
The Effects of Visits by Authors of Children's Books in Selected Elementary Schools
Guest author visits are popular events in schools across the United States. Little has been written, however, on a single author doing a single presentation in a school. This study addressed that situation. The study utilized two authors visiting four schools in a large North Central Texas school district.
The Effects of Voluntary Lateral Orienting on Positive Manifold for Lateralized Cognitive Tasks
As an extension of previous studies (Urbanczyk, Angel, & Kennelly, 1988) examining the effects of unimanual finger tapping on lateralized cognitive tasks, lateral body orienting was added to an established dual task paradigm to generate differential hemispheric activation and shifts of attention. One hundred twenty university students retained sequences of digits or spatial locations for 20 seconds either alone or during finger tapping. By turning both head and eyes left or right, the hemisphere congruent with the sequences (LH for digits, RH for locations) or incongruent (vice versa) was activated. Activation had little effect on retention means but greatly affected resource composition supporting task performance. Congruent orientation produced significantly higher positive correlations between digit and location tasks than incongruent orientation. Females showed higher sequence retention correlations than males across both orienting groups. For females, congruent activation enhanced tapping rates and retention-tapping correlations. For males, activation affected neither of these. Discussed in light of neuroanatomical research, these results suggest that congruent attentional orienting may integrate regions of the less activated hemisphere into networks of the more activated hemisphere. This unification may occur more readily across the female corpus callosum, producing a greater dependence upon a general attentional resource than for males, who appear to depend more upon hemispheric resources.
The Effects of Water Pollution Control Laws on Industrial Plant Location
The objective of this research is to determine the degree to which the recent antipollution laws will affect the location of industrial plants.
Effects of Water Quality, Instream Toxicity, and Habitat Variability on Fish Assemblages in the Trinity River, Texas
The Trinity River flows through the Dallas-Ft. Worth Metroplex in north central Texas where it receives effluents from numerous point sources including seven large regional wastewater treatment facilities. Historically, the Trinity River has been impacted by massive wastewater loadings which often constitute > 80% of the total river discharge during low flow periods. Normally, high mass loadings correspond to the summer months, compounding the effects of a naturally stressful period, characterized by high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Samples from 12 stations were collected quarterly over an 18 month period from the Trinity River and two tributaries. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of water quality variables, including metals, priority pollutants, pesticides, and general water quality parameters. Water samples were also tested for acute and subchronic effects with several test species. Fish were collected at each station and assemblages were characterized using traditional classification techniques and the Index of Biotic Integrity. In addition, sediment samples were assessed for toxic effects which could have adversely impacted fish recruitment and in situ biomonitoring experiments were performed. Quantitative habitat characterization analyses were performed to gain additional information that could possibly explains differences in fish assemblage structure related to habitat variability. Data were analyzed using regression, univariate, multivariate, and descriptive statistical techniques and new approaches for analyzing impact assessment data were discussed. Results indicated that the most substantial impacts on fish assemblages were confined to a segment of the river where a sequence of point sources, in close proximity to each other, were overloading the river's capacity to sufficiently dilute and/or detoxify the effluent. Data also indicated the presence of episodic toxicity from nonpoint sources. In addition, toxic effects in sediment samples and differences in habitat were detected and may have contributed to measured differences among fish assemblages in the Trinity River.
Effects of Water Source, Suspended Solids, and Acclimation on Biotransformation of 2 /4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid in Aquatic Systems
In recent years there has been a great deal of scientific interest in processes that affect the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. one main reason for this increased interest is due to greater environmental concern over accidental or purposeful release of these chemicals into the environment by man. A major environmental concern is the increased use of pesticides over the last few years. In the thirty years prior to 1978 the use of pesticides has increased by a factor of forty (Ridgeway et al., 1978). Recently the use of herbicides has been increasing, but that of insecticides has stabilized (Willis, 1983). Detectable amounts of organic pesticides can be found in many areas of the biosphere. For toxic organic chemicals to be used safely, researchers must have a clear understanding of the fate and persistence of these chemicals when they are released into the environment. This understanding will also allow the development of new products that, when properly used, will not produce adverse effects to man or the environment (Weber, 1972). According to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) any new or expanded-use chemical that might be released into the environment must be tested for environmental hazard.
Effects of Web-based Instruction in High School Chemistry.
The intent of this study is to identify correlations that might exist between Web-based instruction and higher assessment scores in secondary education. The study framework was held within the confines of a public high school chemistry classroom. Within this population there were students identified as gifted and talented (GT) as well as those without this designation. These two classifications were examined for statistically higher assessment scores using a two-tailed t-test. Results indicated that females outperformed males on pre- and post- instructional unit tests. All subgroups improved their logical-thinking skills and exhibited positive attitudes towards Web-based instruction. In general, Web-based instruction proved beneficial to improving classroom performance of all GT and non-GT groups as compared to traditional classroom instruction.