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A Comparison of a Teacher-Directed Approach and a Traditional Approach to Production Work in Beginning Typewriting in High School

Description: This investigation compares the effectiveness of two methods of teaching production work in beginning typewriting. One method is defined as the traditional approach, which adheres to suggestions and materials for teaching found in current typewriting textbooks. Students are paced, drilled, and timed on straight copy to build speed and accuracy, but not on production work; they usually type from perfectly arranged copy; and they circle their errors for at least half the course. The other method, developed at North Texas State University by Payne and Anderson, is defined as the teacher-directed approach. Students are intensively paced, drilled, and timed by the teacher on short, simple jobs or parts of jobs; they usually type from unarranged copy; they learn to erase errors on production work during the first production unit; and they are evaluated on the basis of the number of mailable items produced during a specific time period.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Carr-Smith, Norma Jean, 1932-

The Comparison of a Team/Group Dynamics Training Model with a Team/Traditional Training Model within Leadership Training Workshops

Description: This study was conducted to compare two different approaches to leadership training workshops—a team/group dynamics training model with a team/traditional training model—with regard to the changes in tolerance, open-mindedness, flexibility, adaptability, and cooperativeness of the participants in the group dynamics model.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Carrier, Judith J.

A Comparison of Achievement in Technical Drawing of Students Enrolled in the Nigeria Certificate of Education (Technical) at the Kaduna Polytechnic, Kuduna, Nigeria

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement mean test scores in Technical Drawing of students enrolled for the NCE (Technical) program at the College of Science and Technology, Kaduna polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. Test score means were compared between direct and remedial (preparatory) entry students and secondly among type of high school attended. Data were collected directly from students' permanent records. Two major hypotheses with three sub-hypotheses for each were tested. The first major hypothesis compared direct and remedial entry students. The second major hypothesis compared among three types of high schools attended. The One Way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. The Duncan Multiple Comparison Test was also applied on the second major hypothesis. Both hypotheses I and II were retained at the .05 level of significance. However, hypothesis I was rejected at the .01 level of significance because the remedial entry students were found to have higher mean test scores than the direct entry students. Findings for hypothesis II indicated no significant difference among type of high school attended. It was recommended that selection for admissions for both the remedial and direct enrollments should not be based only on type of high school attended or type of subjects taken; data collected for remediation should bear directly on individuals' academic problems; and aptitude tests should be conducted in addition to transcripts currently demanded.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Maiyaki, Joseph Y. (Joseph Yakubu)

A Comparison of Certain Factors in Students with and without Financial Aid at Austin College

Description: This study compares certain factors of Austin College financial aid recipients to the same factors in their classmates who received no financial assistance. First, this study attempts to determine whether there are significant differences in selected variables between these two groups. Second, the study seeks to identify the causes for students' withdrawing from the College. Subjects were randomly selected from two groups: (l) 100 subjects receiving financial assistance; and (2) 100 subjects not receiving such assistance. The sources of data for this study were students'. records located in the Educational Advising Center, the Records Office, and the. Counseling Center.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Winder, James Boyd, 1935-

A Comparison of Certain Personality Traits Between College Student Cigarette Smokers and Nonsmokers

Description: This investigation seeks to determine whether certain personality traits of college students are related to their smoking habits. The purpose of the study is to determine whether significant personality differences exist among college students who can be classified as light smokers, heavy smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers and to determine the nature of the differences. The study involved four male experimental groups and four female experimental groups, assigned on the basis of sex and cigarette smoking habits as ascertained from a questionnaire. A total of 191 subjects from two junior colleges comprised the sample. The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS), and a questionnaire to obtain information on each subject's smoking habits were administered to the subjects at one sitting. Comparisons of the group means of each of the four classifications of smokers and nonsmokers were accomplished by a one-way analysis-of-variance design.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Harter, James W.

A Comparison of Change Toward Self-actualization in Marathon Group Counseling and Traditional Group Counseling

Description: This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of marathon group counseling and traditional group counseling in producing certain growth changes in their particular group members. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of these two group counseling methods and their relationship in producing changes in self-actualization, self-concept, and level of dogmatism.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Lathey, Robert Knowlton

A Comparison of Five Robust Regression Methods with Ordinary Least Squares: Relative Efficiency, Bias and Test of the Null Hypothesis

Description: A Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate data for a comparison of five robust regression estimation methods with ordinary least squares (OLS) under 36 different outlier data configurations. Two of the robust estimators, Least Absolute Value (LAV) estimation and MM estimation, are commercially available. Three authormodified variations on MM were also included (MM1, MM2, and MM3). Design parameters that were varied include sample size (n=60 and n=180), number of independent predictor variables (2, 3 and 6), outlier density (0%, 5% and 15%) and outlier location (2x,2y s, 8x8y s, 4x,8y s and 8x,4y s). Criteria on which the regression methods were measured are relative efficiency, bias and a test of the null hypothesis. Results indicated that MM2 was the best performing robust estimator on relative efficiency. The best performing estimator on bias was MM1. The best performing regression method on the test of the null hypothesis was MM2. Overall, the MM-type robust regression methods outperformed OLS and LAV on relative efficiency, bias, and the test of the null hypothesis.
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Date: August 2001
Creator: Anderson, Cynthia, 1962-

A Comparison of IRT and Rasch Procedures in a Mixed-Item Format Test

Description: This study investigated the effects of test length (10, 20 and 30 items), scoring schema (proportion of dichotomous ad polytomous scoring) and item analysis model (IRT and Rasch) on the ability estimates, test information levels and optimization criteria of mixed item format tests. Polytomous item responses to 30 items for 1000 examinees were simulated using the generalized partial-credit model and SAS software. Portions of the data were re-coded dichotomously over 11 structured proportions to create 33 sets of test responses including mixed item format tests. MULTILOG software was used to calculate the examinee ability estimates, standard errors, item and test information, reliability and fit indices. A comparison of IRT and Rasch item analysis procedures was made using SPSS software across ability estimates and standard errors of ability estimates using a 3 x 11 x 2 fixed factorial ANOVA. Effect sizes and power were reported for each procedure. Scheffe post hoc procedures were conducted on significant factos. Test information was analyzed and compared across the range of ability levels for all 66-design combinations. The results indicated that both test length and the proportion of items scored polytomously had a significant impact on the amount of test information produced by mixed item format tests. Generally, tests with 100% of the items scored polytomously produced the highest overall information. This seemed to be especially true for examinees with lower ability estimates. Optimality comparisons were made between IRT and Rasch procedures based on standard error rates for the ability estimates, marginal reliabilities and fit indices (-2LL). The only significant differences reported involved the standard error rates for both the IRT and Rasch procedures. This result must be viewed in light of the fact that the effect size reported was negligible. Optimality was found to be highest when longer tests and higher proportions of polytomous ...
Date: August 2003
Creator: Kinsey, Tari L.

A Comparison of Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teaching Assistants

Description: The purposes of this study were to determine whether differences existed between the communication styles and teaching effectiveness, respectively, of native and non-native teaching fellows, as perceived by their undergraduate students. In addition, the study sought to determine whether a positive correlation existed between the final grades and the communication styles and teaching effectiveness, respectively, of native and non-native teaching fellows as perceived by their undergraduate students. In order to carry out the purposes of this study, six hypotheses were tested concerning the perception of native and non-native undergraduate students toward the communication style and teaching effectiveness of teaching fellows in North Texas State University.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Shirvani Shahenayati, Zahra

A Comparison of Opinions of Three Professional Groups with Regard to Various Levels of Deviant Behavior in Children

Description: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which fifth-grade teachers, teachers in special education, and child psychiatrists hold similar views regarding the seriousness of commonly observed student behaviors. In addition, the views of these three groups are compared to research regarding which behaviors in children are predictive of future delinquency. The Wickman Scale, consisting of fifty commonly observed children's behaviors, and a fifteen-pair Semantic Differential Scale, designed for use in this study, were administered to a group of fifth-grade teachers, a group of special education teachers, and a group of child psychiatrists.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Woodruff, Ralph S.

Comparison of Pre- and Posttraining Verbal Interaction of Caregivers and Children During Story Time

Description: The purpose of this descriptive study was to create a read-aloud instructional program which could be used in teaching caregivers to promote quality verbal interaction among participants during story time. Prior to and subsequent to instruction, selected high-school students participating in a vocational-technical child development program were audio- and videotaped as they read stories aloud to children. All tapes were transcribed in full. Using the storybook Reading Analysis System (Teale, Martinez, & Glass, in press), dialogue was categorized into form, type of information, focus, instructional intent, and importance categories.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Drescher, Juanita Frost

A Comparison of Prior Health Care Experience to Successful Relocation in Long-Term Care

Description: The problem of this study is to compare prior health care experience with satisfactory adjustment in a long-term care facility. Both quantity and quality of prior experience in a health care facility are examined in terms of the significance to successful relocation. Demographic data and perceived control of health are examined in relation to significance of the findings.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Tickle, Eugenia Hendricks, 1937-

A Comparison of Profiles of Success in Two Instructional Methods

Description: The problem of this study was to isolate predictors of academic success in both self-paced classes and lecture classes in Introductory Accounting. The purposes of the study were to determine if learning style, locus of control, reading ability, age, sex, accounting work experience, and prior accounting academic experience are predictors of success in Introductory Accounting classes taught using self-paced methods of instruction and lecture methods of instruction. Another purpose was to determine if there is a difference in the set of predictors of success in the two instructional methods and to provide some direction as to determinants of success which may be addressed by counselors in advising students. The data were collected from 463 students at a suburban community college in the Southwest. Each of the variables was analyzed by a stepwise multiple regression analysis and a backward elimination regression for students grouped according to instructional method. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine whether the distribution of scores on the potential predictor variables were equivalent for students in the two teaching methods and for successful completers of the course and noncompleters. Consideration of the data findings of this study permitted the following conclusions: 1. Age and reading ability have a positive relationship to academic success in an Introductory Accounting course taught in a lecture format. 2. Concrete learning style, as measured by the Learning Style Inventory, age, reading ability, and accounting work experience have a positive relationship to success in an Introductory Accounting course taught in a self-paced format. 3. Age, reading ability, accounting work experience, and a concrete learning style have a positive relationship to academic success in Accounting courses taught using either method. 4. There is a difference in the set of predictors of success for Accounting classes taught using the two instructional methods. ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Williams, John David, 1948-

A Comparison of Recall by University Bible Students After Discussion and After Self-Study

Description: Recall of expository prose after one of two learning techniques was determined. Pearson correlation did not discover a significant difference between the recall writings of the examinees who studied by discussion and those who studied by underlining. The significance of the difference between two proportions found that the group which underlined recalled significantly better than the group which discussed what they had read. This highly significant difference was almost identical when all synonyms from the Turbo Lightning computer program were considered correct recall and analyzed by the significance of the difference between two proportions.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Stovall, Johnny Harold

A Comparison of Small Study Groups and Traditional Classes on Acquaintance Volume, Reported Problems, and Academic Achievement

Description: The problem of this study was to determine the effect of a small-study-group method of teaching on the achievement, acquaintance volume, reported problems, and willingness to discuss problems of college students enrolled in Introduction to Psychology classes.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Reed, John Calvin

A Comparison of Some Continuity Corrections for the Chi-Squared Test in 3 x 3, 3 x 4, and 3 x 5 Tables

Description: This study was designed to determine whether chis-quared based tests for independence give reliable estimates (as compared to the exact values provided by Fisher's exact probabilities test) of the probability of a relationship between the variables in 3 X 3, 3 X 4 , and 3 X 5 contingency tables when the sample size is 10, 20, or 30. In addition to the classical (uncorrected) chi-squared test, four methods for continuity correction were compared to Fisher's exact probabilities test. The four methods were Yates' correction, two corrections attributed to Cochran, and Mantel's correction. The study was modeled after a similar comparison conducted on 2 X 2 contingency tables and published by Michael Haber.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Mullen, Jerry D. (Jerry Davis)

A Comparison of Success in Academic Foundation College Courses between Students Presenting High School Credits in Practical Arts Courses and Those with Credits in Academic Courses

Description: This study investigated the relationship of high school curriculum to performance in academic foundation college courses. The purposes of the study were twofold: First, to study the relationship of a practical arts high school curriculum as opposed to a college preparatory high school curriculum to performance in academic foundation college courses. Second, to analyze this relationship and its implications for high school students, parents, teachers, and counselors.
Date: May 1971
Creator: McKenzie, Charles R. (Charles Ray)

A Comparison of the Desirability and Feasibility of Accountability Measures as Perceived by Public School Administrators and Teachers

Description: This study had three main purposes. The first was to determine the perceptions of public school administrators toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The second was to determine the perceptions of public school teachers toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The third was to compare the perceptions of administrators with those of teachers and to indicate areas where they seemed to be in agreement or disagreement.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Kiamie, Robert A.

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of the Intensive and Concurrent Scheduling Plans for Teaching First-Semester English Composition in the Community College

Description: The purpose of this study was to observe the differences in English achievement, critical-thinking ability, and attitude toward subject attributable to two scheduling approaches -- "Concurrent" and "Intensive"--in the teaching of first-semester freshman English composition to community college students. Further, the study was initiated in order to provide factual information as a basis for administrative and instructional judgments affecting future planning for accelerated scheduling at the experimental institution. Two classes of first-semester freshman English composition, meeting three hours weekly for fifteen weeks, comprised the control group (Concurrent); two classes of first-semester freshman English composition, meeting nine hours weekly for five weeks, comprised the experimental group (Intensive). The same form of three criterion instruments was administered to both groups before and after the experimental treatment. The instruments were the Cooperative English Expression Test, the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, and the Purdue Attitude Scale, Part A -- Attitude Toward Any Subject. Three instructors were involved in the experiment during the fall and spring semesters of the 1973-74 school year. Conventional methods of instruction, using the same course of study, were duplicated in all situations. Statistical analyses utilized in the study were analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. It was felt that Intensive scheduling was superior to Concurrent as a means of promoting student-faculty harmony. Also, the frustrations experienced within the traditional classroom situation could be lessened by granting greater freedom from the constraints of hourly schedules and competing classes. With tensions reduced, English proficiency could be increased. Acting upon these suppositions, three hypotheses--related to each of the criterion measures-- were formulated. All hypotheses stated that the adjusted post-test scores for the experimental groups would be significantly greater than the adjusted post-test scores for the control groups. The results of the experiment, however, showed no significant difference for any of the hypotheses ...
Date: August 1974
Creator: Allen, Floyd A.

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Approaches to Preservice Human Relations Training for Teachers

Description: This study was an investigation of the different effects of three procedures of human relations training in changing the personality characteristics and attitudes of preservice teachers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between a structured group laboratory experience, a non-structured group counseling experience, and a regular classroom lecture experience on the development of interpersonal attitudes of preservice teachers, and to ascertain the extent to which attitudinal and personality changes take place.
Date: August 1974
Creator: McWilliams, J. Hudson

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Interentions for the Treatment of Agoraphobia

Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned is that of treating agoraphobia with cognitive-behavioral group therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy combined with the drug alprazolam (Xanax). The purpose of the research was twofold. The first goal was to determine the relative effectiveness of the two treatment conditions on phobic behavior, anxiety, and depression. A second goal was to analyze the results and make recommendations concerning each of these modalities available to agoraphobics, their families, and to treatment specialists. The research design of this study was a randomized, pretest-posttest, experimental group design. The sample (N = 15) consisted of Group I (N = 7), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy combined with the medication alprazolam, and Group II (N = 8), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy only. The treatment included 15, 2-hour weekly group sessions, with the addition of a brief medication evaluation prior to each group meeting for Group I. During these sessions, the subjects received information about agoraphobia in the form of brief didactic segments, treatment materials, homework assignments, group interaction, and various forms of desensitization. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Multidimensional behavioral-cognitive group therapy can significantly reduce phobic avoidance, anxiety, and depression associated with agoraphobia; and 2. Multidimensional behavioral-cognitive group therapy in combination with administration of alprazolam, can significantly reduce phobic avoidance and anxiety associated with agoraphobia.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Self, Carolyn

A comparison of the Effects of Different Sizes of Ceiling Rules on the Estimates of Reliability of a Mathematics Achievement Test

Description: This study compared the estimates of reliability made using one, two, three, four, five, and unlimited consecutive failures as ceiling rules in scoring a mathematics achievement test which is part of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skill (ITBS), Form 8. There were 700 students randomly selected from a population (N=2640) of students enrolled in the eight grades in a large urban school district in the southwestern United States. These 700 students were randomly divided into seven subgroups so that each subgroup had 100 students. The responses of all those students to three subtests of the mathematics achievement battery, which included mathematical concepts (44 items), problem solving (32 items), and computation (45 items), were analyzed to obtain the item difficulties and a total score for each student. The items in each subtest then were rearranged based on the item difficulties from the highest to the lowest value. In each subgroup, the method using one, two, three, four, five, and unlimited consecutive failures as the ceiling rules were applied to score the individual responses. The total score for each individual was the sum of the correct responses prior to the point described by the ceiling rule. The correct responses after the ceiling rule were not part of the total score. The estimate of reliability in each method was computed by alpha coefficient of the SPSS-X. The results of this study indicated that the estimate of reliability using two, three, four, and five consecutive failures as the ceiling rules were an improvement over the methods using one and unlimited consecutive failures.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Somboon Suriyawongse