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A Comparison of Recall by University Bible Students After Discussion and After Self-Study

Description: Recall of expository prose after one of two learning techniques was determined. Pearson correlation did not discover a significant difference between the recall writings of the examinees who studied by discussion and those who studied by underlining. The significance of the difference between two proportions found that the group which underlined recalled significantly better than the group which discussed what they had read. This highly significant difference was almost identical when all synonyms from the Turbo Lightning computer program were considered correct recall and analyzed by the significance of the difference between two proportions.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Stovall, Johnny Harold

A Comparison of Some Continuity Corrections for the Chi-Squared Test in 3 x 3, 3 x 4, and 3 x 5 Tables

Description: This study was designed to determine whether chis-quared based tests for independence give reliable estimates (as compared to the exact values provided by Fisher's exact probabilities test) of the probability of a relationship between the variables in 3 X 3, 3 X 4 , and 3 X 5 contingency tables when the sample size is 10, 20, or 30. In addition to the classical (uncorrected) chi-squared test, four methods for continuity correction were compared to Fisher's exact probabilities test. The four methods were Yates' correction, two corrections attributed to Cochran, and Mantel's correction. The study was modeled after a similar comparison conducted on 2 X 2 contingency tables and published by Michael Haber.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Mullen, Jerry D. (Jerry Davis)

A Comparison of Success in Academic Foundation College Courses between Students Presenting High School Credits in Practical Arts Courses and Those with Credits in Academic Courses

Description: This study investigated the relationship of high school curriculum to performance in academic foundation college courses. The purposes of the study were twofold: First, to study the relationship of a practical arts high school curriculum as opposed to a college preparatory high school curriculum to performance in academic foundation college courses. Second, to analyze this relationship and its implications for high school students, parents, teachers, and counselors.
Date: May 1971
Creator: McKenzie, Charles R. (Charles Ray)

A Comparison of the Desirability and Feasibility of Accountability Measures as Perceived by Public School Administrators and Teachers

Description: This study had three main purposes. The first was to determine the perceptions of public school administrators toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The second was to determine the perceptions of public school teachers toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The third was to compare the perceptions of administrators with those of teachers and to indicate areas where they seemed to be in agreement or disagreement.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Kiamie, Robert A.

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Interentions for the Treatment of Agoraphobia

Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned is that of treating agoraphobia with cognitive-behavioral group therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy combined with the drug alprazolam (Xanax). The purpose of the research was twofold. The first goal was to determine the relative effectiveness of the two treatment conditions on phobic behavior, anxiety, and depression. A second goal was to analyze the results and make recommendations concerning each of these modalities available to agoraphobics, their families, and to treatment specialists. The research design of this study was a randomized, pretest-posttest, experimental group design. The sample (N = 15) consisted of Group I (N = 7), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy combined with the medication alprazolam, and Group II (N = 8), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy only. The treatment included 15, 2-hour weekly group sessions, with the addition of a brief medication evaluation prior to each group meeting for Group I. During these sessions, the subjects received information about agoraphobia in the form of brief didactic segments, treatment materials, homework assignments, group interaction, and various forms of desensitization. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Multidimensional behavioral-cognitive group therapy can significantly reduce phobic avoidance, anxiety, and depression associated with agoraphobia; and 2. Multidimensional behavioral-cognitive group therapy in combination with administration of alprazolam, can significantly reduce phobic avoidance and anxiety associated with agoraphobia.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Self, Carolyn

A comparison of the Effects of Different Sizes of Ceiling Rules on the Estimates of Reliability of a Mathematics Achievement Test

Description: This study compared the estimates of reliability made using one, two, three, four, five, and unlimited consecutive failures as ceiling rules in scoring a mathematics achievement test which is part of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skill (ITBS), Form 8. There were 700 students randomly selected from a population (N=2640) of students enrolled in the eight grades in a large urban school district in the southwestern United States. These 700 students were randomly divided into seven subgroups so that each subgroup had 100 students. The responses of all those students to three subtests of the mathematics achievement battery, which included mathematical concepts (44 items), problem solving (32 items), and computation (45 items), were analyzed to obtain the item difficulties and a total score for each student. The items in each subtest then were rearranged based on the item difficulties from the highest to the lowest value. In each subgroup, the method using one, two, three, four, five, and unlimited consecutive failures as the ceiling rules were applied to score the individual responses. The total score for each individual was the sum of the correct responses prior to the point described by the ceiling rule. The correct responses after the ceiling rule were not part of the total score. The estimate of reliability in each method was computed by alpha coefficient of the SPSS-X. The results of this study indicated that the estimate of reliability using two, three, four, and five consecutive failures as the ceiling rules were an improvement over the methods using one and unlimited consecutive failures.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Somboon Suriyawongse

A Comparison of the Problem Solving Ability of Physics and Engineering Students in a Two Year College

Description: The problem with which this study was concerned is a comparison of the problem solving ability of physics and engineering students in a two year college. The purpose of this study was to compare the problem solving ability of physics and engineering students in a two year college and determine whether a difference exists. Data was collected from an instrument administered to twenty-six engineering students and twenty-three physics students as a major examination in their regular courses. The instrument was validated by being taken from representative texts, by approval of the instructors using the examination, and by approval of a physics professor at a university. The instructors and professor were considered a panel of experts. Comparison of test scores of students who were registered in both physics and engineering and who took the exam twice, established concurrent validity of the instrument. A questionnaire was also administered to both groups of students to determine their personal problem solving strategies, if any, and to collect other demographic data. Additional demographic data, as available, was 2 obtained from the registrar. Instructor profiles were determined from interviews with each of the four instructors involved. Analysis of the data indicated there is a significant difference in the ability of engineering students and physics students to solve statics problems. The engineering students scored significantly better in solving both engineering problems and in overall problem solving, as hypothesized. The engineering students also scored significantly higher in problem solving ability on physics problems, resulting in the rejection of the hypothesis that there would be no difference in the problem solving ability of the two groups on physics problems.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Martin, John R. (John Robert), 1951-

A Comparison of the Roles and Needs of Middle and Lower Class Thai Parents in Helping Their Children's Reading Development

Description: The problem of this study was a comparison of the roles and needs of middle and lower class Thai parents in helping their children's reading development. The sample was selected from the parents of the preprimary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, in the fall of 1986. A total of 366 parents, including 185 from middle class and 181 from lower class, participated in this study.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Nitaya Praphruitkit

A Comparison of the Teaching of History in Teacher Colleges in the Metropolitan Region and Other Regions in Thailand

Description: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the teaching of history in teachers colleges in the Metropolitan region and other regions in Thailand. Variables examined in this study include the following: salary, teaching experience, degrees held, the number of graduate credit hours in history, the number of graduate credit hours in education, attendance at professional meetings, the number of publications, membership in professional organizations, the number of hours devoted to course preparations, teaching load, and teaching behaviors. The comparison is based on geographical location of the teachers colleges by region. The survey instrument, after intensive review and validation by selected faculty both in Thailand and the United States, was distributed to the 180 history instructors in the teachers colleges in the six major regions of Thailand. The total number of responses was 138, or 76.7 per cent. The statistical procedures used in the analyses of data include frequency and percentage of responses, a chi square test of independence, t test, the Yates* correction for continuity, and Fisher's Exact Probability Test (2-tailed). The data findings from this study indicate that there is a high degree of similarity between the respondents from the Metropolitan region and other regions' history instructors in Thai teachers colleges with respect to the majority of the criteria. Although some significant differences were found, it would be difficult to state that there is a difference between history instructors in the Metropolitan region and other regions groups. Recommendations are made for the history instruction programs in Thailand based on the responses from both groups and the information gathered from a review of the literature.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Suratath Ayuwathana

A Comparison of Three Different Presentations of Reading Material Presented to Fifth-Grade Children

Description: The purposes of this study were (1) to ascertain the effect of three approaches of presenting reading material to fifth-grade children, (2) to analyze the results of each approach in relationship to reading ability, mental ability, and sex, and (3) to ascertain the implications of these approaches for elementary teachers and principals.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Hill, John Paul, 1940-

A Comparison of Two Approaches Designed to Improve the Computational Skills of Pupils in Grades Five and Seven

Description: The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Cyclo-Teacher (2) programmed materials; 2) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Mental Computation (6) materials.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Bailey, James Melton

A Comparison of Two Methods of Training Naive Users in the Use of a Microcomputer System

Description: The problem addressed in this study is the need for efficient and economic methods to train naive college students to operate microcomputers as a necessary step in their acquisition of computer proficiency. Two methods of training were compared. These were training by live demonstration and training by videotape. These methods were considered economically viable because each could be presented in a classroom and neither required a one-to-one student-to-computer or student-to-tutor ratio. Four sections of an introductory computer science class were used in the study. Two classes were presented each treatment. The effectiveness of the presentations was measured by means of a written quiz administered immediately after the presentation and by the number of microcomputer system operation tasks successfully completed during an individual laboratory session. The computer anxiety level of each participant was measured prior to the presentation to determine if anxiety was a factor in finding the best training method. When scores of naive users who saw the videotape were compared with the scores of naive users who saw the live demonstration, no significant differences were found. However, when novice users (those who had some previous experience with operating or programming a microcomputer) were included, the group that saw the videotape scored significantly higher on the written quiz than the group that saw the live demonstration. A two by two analysis of variance showed no significant interactions between anxiety and treatment. User satisfaction was found to be significantly higher for the videotape group than for the live demonstration group. This study concluded with the recommendation that the Computer Science Department of North Texas State University utilize videotapes to train students in introductory classes to use a microcomputer system. This recommendation was based on the superior test results for naive and novice users who saw the videotape, the user satisfaction scores ...
Date: May 1986
Creator: Wallace, Susan Ree Heil

A Comparison Study of Individual and Group Play Therapy In Treating Kindergarten Children with Adjustment Problems

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of individual child-centered play therapy in the elementary school in: 1) enhancing the self-concept of kindergarten children who are experiencing adjustment difficulties; 2) decreasing the overall behavioral problems of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties 3) decreasing externalizing behavior problems such as aggression and delinquency of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 4) decreasing the internalizing behavior problems such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; 5) increasing parental perception of change in the problematic behaviors of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties; and 6) enhancing self-control in kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. A secondary objective was to compare the participants involved in individual child-centered play therapy with participants in a previous study who were involved in child-centered group play therapy on the above named dimensions. The experimental group, consisting of 14 kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties, received 10-12, 30-minute individual play therapy sessions in a 12 week period in their elementary school. The comparison group, utilized from the 1999 McGuire study, consisted of 15 children with adjustment problems and received 12-14, 45-minute group play therapy sessions in 14 weeks in their elementary school. The control group, consisting of 13 children experiencing adjustment problems, received no play therapy intervention over a 12 week period. An Analysis of Covariance revealed significant findings in 1 of the 6 hypotheses and one subscale hypothesis examining the effectiveness of individual play therapy versus the wait list control group. Specifically, children with adjustment problems in the experimental group exhibited a significant reduction in total behavior problems and a significant reduction in externalizing behavior problems as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Form (CBCL). Additionally, an Analysis of Covariance revealed significant findings in 1 of the 6 hypotheses examining the comparison of the effectiveness of ...
Date: May 2000
Creator: Rennie, Robyn Lynette

Comparisons of Improvement-Over-Chance Effect Sizes for Two Groups Under Variance Heterogeneity and Prior Probabilities

Description: The distributional properties of improvement-over-chance, I, effect sizes derived from linear and quadratic predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and from logistic regression analysis (LRA) for the two-group univariate classification were examined. Data were generated under varying levels of four data conditions: population separation, variance pattern, sample size, and prior probabilities. None of the indices provided acceptable estimates of effect for all the conditions examined. There were only a small number of conditions under which both accuracy and precision were acceptable. The results indicate that the decision of which method to choose is primarily determined by variance pattern and prior probabilities. Under variance homogeneity, any of the methods may be recommended. However, LRA is recommended when priors are equal or extreme and linear PDA is recommended when priors are moderate. Under variance heterogeneity, selecting a recommended method is more complex. In many cases, more than one method could be used appropriately.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Alexander, Erika D.

Competencies Required for the Design and Implementation of Manufacturing Systems for Advanced Composite Structures

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of identifying and prioritizing the competencies required to design and implement manufacturing systems for advanced composite structures. The classical Delphi procedure is the research method used for the conduct of this study. A five-member advisory board developed a list of seventeen categories under which the competencies would reside. In the first-round questionnaire, the seventeen categories were presented to a Delphi panel of experts who provided up to five competencies required in each category. The first-round returns provided two new categories and 973 competency statements. Duplications were eliminated and 366 competency statements remained in nineteen categories. The second, third, and fourth rounds were a reiterative rating process. The panel was asked to rate the items in the questionnaire based on their relative importance to the intent of the study. The importance rating scale included "very important," "important," "slightly important," and "unimportant." The means and interquartile ranges were calculated for each statement and provided as feedback in the successive round. Kendall's coefficient of concordance W for tied ranks was used to validate the panel consensus. The W was significant at the .01 level for each of the three rounds where rating was performed. The data were presented in rank order within categories by importance level. Eighteen percent of the competency statements were rated "very important," 77 percent "important, and 5 percent "slightly important." No statements were rated "unimportant" by the panel. It was concluded that, as indicated by the 19 categories and 366 competencies, the scope of the requirements for designing and implementing manufacturing systems for advanced composite structures represent a broad range of knowledge and skill requirements. The breadth of the range of the requirements indicated the need for the development of areas of specialization within the subject field to adequately ...
Date: May 1986
Creator: Lange, Robert Douglas

Computational Estimation Strategies Used by High School Students of Limited Computational Estimation Ability

Description: The problem of this study was to investigate the strategies used by high school students of limited estimation ability for the estimation of the answers to computational problems. The Assessing Computational Estimation Test was administered to 460 students, and 40 of them were selected for interviews. Each student interviewed was asked to estimate the answers to fourteen computation and application problems.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Brame, Olene Harris

Computer Supported Collaboration: Is the Transfer of Cognitive Structures Mediated by Mode of Communication?

Description: The objective of this study was to observe evidence of structural transfer among subjects in a group problem-solving activity and determine whether mode of collaborative technology or use of a priming agent affected the nature of transferred structures. Evidence for structural transfer is found in three theoretical perspectives: organizational ditransitive (linguistic) verb structures, adaptive structuration theory, and mental model transfer theory. Dependent variables included various grammatical structures and coefficients derived from pretest and posttest scores on David Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory, modified for the experiment. The combination of changes in grammatical frequencies and learning style may suggest that one or more media or the priming agent may affect structural transfer. Results indicate that groups using the GroupSystems™ collaborative technology produced less overall linguistic content than did subjects using a generic chat system, but employed more complex language as indicated by frequency of the organizational ditransitive verb structure. Also, subjects supplied with an organization chart (priming agent) during the group problem-solving session experienced greater change on the learning styles inventory than did those participating in the session without the chart. These findings suggest that mode of communication and use of priming agents may contribute positively or negatively to the transfer of structures among group members. Researchers, collaborative system designers, organizational leaders, trainers & educators, and frequent collaborative technology system end-users should be aware of these potential affects. Suggestions for future research are provided. Relationship of theoretical foundations of structural transfer to constructivism is discussed.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Bandy, Kenneth E.

Concurrent Validity of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised with a Neurologically Compromised Pediatric Population

Description: The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) is a relatively new instrument used in the assessment of memory in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the WRAML by comparing the performance of children on both the WRAML and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability- Revised (WJTCA-R). Subjects for the study were children in treatment for a brain tumor at a regional children's medical center. Fifty children participated in the study ranging from ages 6 to 17. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which of four selected clusters from the WJTCA-R would have the highest correlation with the Verbal Memory Index (VERI) from the WRAML. The Short-Term Memory (GSM) cluster had the highest correlation ( r = .82) as predicted. A Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis was conducted between the Visual Processing (GV) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Visual Memory Index (VISI) from the WRAML. GV was found to have a high positive correlation ( r = .63) with VISI. A similar analysis was conducted between the Long-Term Retrieval (GLR) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Learning Index (LRNI) from the WRAML. GLR was found to have a high positive correlation ( r = .81) with LRNI. Finally, a correlational analysis was conducted between the Broad Cognitive Ability (BCA) scale from the WJTCA-R and the General Memory Index (GENI) from the WRAML. A high positive correlation ( r = .87) was found between these most global measures from the two batteries. The observed correlation between BCA and GENI was much higher than anticipated. The author concluded that neurological impairment had affected subject memory and intellectual functioning in similar ways. The results do not generalize to children who have not had similar decrements in cognitive functioning. Future research should establish a baseline ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Rochelle, Gary B.

Constructing Transformative Experiences Through Problem Posing in a High School English Research Project.

Description: This dissertation chronicles my search to engage high school English students in inquiry as part of a formal research process. The perspective of critical literacy theory is used to describe the four phases of the problem posing process in shaping student research and action. Grounded in Freire's approach and consistent with Dewey and others who advocate inquiry, action and relevance, Wink's process is built into the instructional plan described in this study. Because of the real-life context of the classroom and the complex social phenomena being considered, a case study methodology was utilized in which multiple sources of data converged to develop the themes. Data sources included the work and artifacts of ten students in a tenth grade English class during the spring semester of 2008. The analysis focuses on the supports, the constraints and the impact of problem posing on the high school research assignment. The analysis, findings, and conclusions contribute to the literature in three areas: audience, reflection and grading.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Revelle, Carol L.

A Content Analysis of Public Broadcasting Service Television Programming

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is the description of the social map that is presented to the viewers of public television. Using content analysis methodology, the study describes how different genders, racial groups, and age groups are being portrayed on PBS programming. The sample consisted of one week of PBS 1984 fall programming broadcast on KERA-TV, the PBS station in Dallas-Ft. Worth, Texas. Research questions addressing proportions of groups, types of roles, length of scenes, occupational variation, conversational behaviors, conflict management modes, and cultural norms were answered. All coding was accomplished by the principal investigator. Upon completion of the coding sub-totals for the variables under study by program types and a grand total for the entire sample were then tabulated. After this extensive content analysis, the report concludes that females are still extremely underrepresented in PBS programming, accounting for only 32.7% of the total participants. Blacks and Hispanics are also underrepresented except in children's programming. Occupational variation for white males is evident for all types of PBS programming. Occupational variation for white females is evident in children's programming and informational/documentary programming. Minorities with delineated occupations are extremely limited in all types of programming except for children's programming. The exchange of information is the major conversational behavior that occurs on PBS programming with minority characters receiving orders considerably more than their white counterparts. Verbal aggression is the conflict management mode chosen most frequently on PBS programming. Explicit messages regarding racial and sexual equality and prosocial behavior occur on PBS programming. Implicit messages such as frequency of appearances, number of major roles, and prevalence of power cues suggest a white male domination of television programming on PBS. The findings of the study reveal that major inroads have been made by women and minorities in children's programming. This comprehensive analysis ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Harper, Sandra S.

A Content Analysis of School Reading Textbooks in Taiwan and in Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the values, beliefs, and ideas in school reading textbooks (Readers) in Taiwan and in Texas. It intended to examine the social control function of school Readers, with which a culture deliberately molds its young generation. This study employed primarily qualitative methods. The collection of data used the technique of content analysis, student surveys, and teacher expert panel discussions. The analysis of data followed a constant comparative approach. The themes shared by the two sets of Readers included family, friends, humans and living creatures, political ideals, reading/writing, appreciation of nature, science, indomitable spirit, turning danger into safety, setting goals, education, desirable and undesirable qualities or behaviors. Despite the similarities of these themes, the substance or focus of them may vary. The themes unique to the Texas Readers were content knowledge, cultural diversity, dilemma and choice, observations about people, words, tomorrow's technology, winning, and general truth. The themes unique to the Taiwan Readers included life philosophy, learning, necessary difficulties, sensitivity, and military strategies. The theme occurring most frequently in both sets of Readers was the desirable qualities or behaviors. The values advocated in the Taiwan Readers were idealistic and had a society-centered focus (for example, patriotism, appreciation of others, serving others, and honesty). Absolute moral principles were taught. A group orientation and altruism were evident. In contrast, the Texas Readers did not have such an emphasis on the concept of group. Personal feelings, individual accomplishments, and self-centered values (for instance, effort, courage, determination, talent, and independence) received more attention. The values were perceived to be relative to the situation. The Taiwan Readers, produced by a national education system, transmitted traditional Chinese beliefs and values. The Texas Readers, with the publishers' intent to avoid controversies, presented more general or universal values. Although the ...
Date: August 1993
Creator: Wang, Sheue-shya