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The Effects of School Performance on the Self-Concept and Locus of Control of Learning Disabled and Emotionally Disturbed Elementary Students

Description: A number of authors have suggested recently that the behavioral characteristics and self-perceptions of learning disabled and emotionally disturbed children are so similar as to negate the fruitfulness of trying to differentiate between these two groups. These characteristics are quite similar for the two special education groups when they have been compared independently of each other to regular education students. In order to provide support for these prior studies, the self-concepts and locus of control of 36 learning disabled, emotionally disturbed, and regular education students were compared. A significant difference was found between the LD and RE students in terms of self-concept only. No significant differences were noted between the ED and RE students. These results are discussed in relation to the somewhat conflicting results of prior studies with implications for future research.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Ronalder, Ronnie Lee

The Effects of Selected Algicides and Some Coordination Complexes upon the Apparent Photosynthesis of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa

Description: Many experiments have been performed with the Warburg apparatus, or variations of this manometric technique, since Warburg's experiments (52, 53) where the effects of cyanides upon dark reactions and of urethanes upon light reactions of photosynthesis were demonstrated. The same basic techniques were utilized in this research in attempting to determine the effects of some coordination complexes upon the apparent photosynthetic rate of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. A second goal of the present paper was to investigate the potential of the Warburg apparatus as a tool for screening algicidal compounds.
Date: June 1965
Creator: Phelps, Robert G.

The Effects of Selected Auditory Stimulation upon Learning Typewriting

Description: The problem of this study was to determine the effects of typewriting practice with selected auditory stimulation on student achievement in typewriting. It included the following sub-problems: 1. Determining the extent to which typewriting practice with selected auditory stimulation affected ability to compose at the typewriter. 2. Determining the extent to which typewriting practice with selected auditory stimulation affected ability to typewrite from dictation. 3. Determining the extent to which typewriting practice with selected auditory stimulation affected ability to typewrite from copy.
Date: June 1962
Creator: Lemaster, Arthur James, 1933-

The Effects of Selection Risk on Sex Discrimination in Employment Decisions

Description: Effects of selection risk on sex discrimination in hiring were investigated. Ninety-six male and female educational administration graduate students rated ficticious resumes on suitability for hiring for the female-oriented position of secondary school teacher. Sex and selection risk level were varied, with sex of rater as an assigned factor. Analysis of variance yielded significant main effects for sex (p < .01) and selection risk level (p < .05). All ratings were lower in high selection-risk situations, with males preferred over females across both levels of risk. Results suggested that ratings were based on a stereotype of female inferiority in work efficiency, overriding job sex-orientation as a decision factor.
Date: May 1979
Creator: McKenna, David John

The Effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (Ssri) on Auditory Measures in Clinically Depressed Subjects.

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication on auditory skills in clinically depressed subjects. Experimental subjects prescribed an SSRI were tested in a medicated and an unmedicated condition, and the test results were compared. Furthermore, the experimental group was compared with a control group consisting of normal subjects. Test measures included pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex thresholds, and auditory electrophysiologic measures such as auditory brainstem and auditory late responses. An assessment scale for depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II) was also used. Results indicated statistically significant differences for the BDI-II between the control and experimental groups for both conditions. Electrophysiologic measures indicated a significantly shorter latency for auditory late potential P1 at 55 dBnSL, and a significantly larger amplitude at 45 dBnSL for the N1/P2 component for the unmedicated group. Although the other measures showed trends, they did not reach significance.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Goodale, Elizabeth S.

The Effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) on Auditory Measures in Women

Description: This study examined the relationship between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication and auditory measures in clinically depressed women. Experimental subjects were tested in both a medicated and unmedicated condition. Experimental subjects were compared to a normal control group; additionally intrasubject comparison was made within the experimental group. Test measures included: audiometry, tympanometry, otoacoustic emissions, uncomfortable loudness level, masking level difference, SCAN-A, Synthetic Sentence Identification (SSI), and the low predictability section of the Revised Speech in noise (RSPIN). The unmedicated group scored significantly less favorably than the control group on the following tests; SCAN-A (composite, filtered words, and auditory figure ground), R-SPIN (0MCR condition in both the right and left ears). Additionally, the unmedicated group scored significantly less favorably than the medicated group on the SSI (-20MCR condition right ear only) and of the R-SPIN (0MCR condition right ear only). Other test measures indicated consistent trends but did reach significance.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Briley, Kelly Anne

The Effects of Self-evaluation and Response Restriction on Letter and Number Reversal in Young Children.

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a training package consisting of response restriction and the reinforcement of self-evaluation on letter reversal errors. Participants were 3 typically developing boys between the age of 5 and 7. The results indicated that the training package was successful in correcting reversals in the absence of a model during training and on application tests. These improvements maintained during subsequent follow-up sessions and generalized across trainers. Fading was not always necessary in correcting reversals, but was effective in correcting reversals that persisted during the overlay training procedures. The advantages to implementing a systematic intervention for reducing letter reversal errors in the classroom, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.
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Date: August 2004
Creator: Strickland, Monica Kathleen

The Effects of Self-Forgiveness, Self-Acceptance, and Self-Compassion on Subclinical Disordered Eating: The Role of Shame

Description: Disordered eating is a general term that describes a wide range of behaviors from diagnosable eating disorders to subclinical patterns of behavior that do not meet criteria for diagnosis (e.g., problematic weight loss behaviors, excessive dieting, bingeing, purging). Disordered eating is prevalent and has a wide range of physical and psychological consequences. Negative self-conscious emotions such as shame and guilt have been implicated in the development and maintenance of disordered eating. Positive attitudes toward the self (i.e., self-forgiveness, self-compassion, self-acceptance) may be helpful in reducing shame, guilt, and disordered eating symptoms. In this dissertation, I explored the associations between positive attitudes toward the self, negative self-conscious emotions, and disordered eating in a sample of college students and adults (N = 477). Positive attitudes toward the self were associated with lower levels of disordered eating symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by lower levels of negative self-conscious emotions. I concluded by discussing areas for future research and implications for clinical practice.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Womack, Stephanie Dianne

The Effects of Self-Monitoring and Health Locus of Control on Improvement in a Work Hardening Program

Description: This study examined the effects of self-monitoring behavior and health locus of control on improvement in a work hardening program. The subjects included 22 male and 18 female outpatients in a hospital-based rehabilitation program. Subjects were classified as having an internal or external health locus of control, and were randomly assigned to either a self-monitoring or a non-self-monitoring group. Improvement was assessed via objective performance data and self-ratings of perceived improvement. The results indicated that individuals identified as having an internal health locus of control did not show greater gains in physical functioning or perceived improvement relative to externally oriented individuals. Additionally, those subjects participating in self-monitoring activities were no different from non-self-monitoring subjects in terms of improvement in exercise activities or perceived improvement. The results also indicated no interaction between health locus of control and the presence or absence of self-monitoring. It was suggested that other factors such as workman's compensation, pain patient characteristics, low self-concept, and severe stress may have proved more powerful influences on patient improvement than internal health locus of control or self-monitoring. It was also suggested that rehabilitation programs might benefit from creating structured environments in which patients receive frequent staff feedback and reinforcement for improvement. Monitoring small, discrete, easily attainable goals might prove more effective than monitoring mood, pain, etc. In addition, teaching specific internal health locus of control behaviors to patients may help them improve their self-concepts and progress. Further research is needed to explore the roles that pain patient personality characteristics, self-concept, and stress play in the progress of patients in a work hardening program.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Liedtke-Hendrickson, Valette

Effects of Self-Monitoring and Monetary Reward on Fluid Adherence among Adult Hemodialysis Patients

Description: The effects of a monetary reward and self-monitoring on reducing interdialytic weight gain (IWG) were compared for 6 hemodialysis patients in an outpatient setting. A single-subject experimental design (A-B-BC-B-BC) was used to examine each variable individually and in combination, with alternating phases to control for possible sequencing effects. Monetary reward (50 cents - $3) was administered in a titrated manner according to standardized criteria, ranging from 3 % and 4% of patients' dry weight on weekdays and weekends, respectively, to 3.5% and 4.5% for weekdays and weekends. Self-monitoring involved recording daily fluid and diet intake. Results indicated that by the end of the treatment program, the 6 participants averaged a 14% reduction in weekday IWG and a 15.45% reduction in weekend IWG; however, due to significant variability, it cannot be concluded that the reductions are treatment effects. Four out of 6 participants reduced their average IWG for both weekends and weekdays by .75 kg (1.65 lb.). The average weekend reduction for these 4 participants was .85 kg (1.87 lbs.) while the average weekday reduction was .65 kg (1.43 lb.). All 6 participants showed reductions in weekday IWG that averaged .53 kg (1.17 lb.). However, only 2 participants demonstrated IWG reductions that could be attributable to either of the 2 treatment variables. The standardized dry weight criterion for assessing fluid adherence may have posed excessively stringent demands on participants, as only 1 of the 6 participants actually met the criterion. Future research should address the role of nonspecific treatment factors, as well as patient characteristics and responsivity to particular treatment components in an effort to identify those factors responsible for behavior change in this population.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Sonnier, Bridget L.

The Effects of Self-Recording and Projected Levels of Aspiration Upon Competitive Swimming Performance

Description: The purposes of the study were to determine the effects of self-recording techniques upon competitive swimming times, to determine the relationship between stated level of aspiration and subsequent performance, and to determine the influence of success or failure upon stated levels of aspiration. Subjects were fifteen female high-school competitive swimmers. Five subjects utilized self-recording techniques and projected levels of aspiration; ten subjects did not. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance and by regression analysis. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of this study were that self-recording techniques do not significantly affect competitive swimming times, that a strong relationship exists between stated level of aspiration and subsequent performance, and that successful and unsuccessful performances generate increases in stated levels of aspiration.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Hamlett, Laurie Ray

The Effects of Sequential Versus Referential Montage Neurofeedback Amplitude Training on Qeeg Measures of Phase and Coherence.

Description: An important clinical research question to be answered in the field of neurofeedback (NF) is whether amplitude training affects connectivity between cortical sites. This study hypothesizes that, following NF amplitude training, there will be a difference in QEEG coherence and phase measures between NF training done using referential montages and using sequential montages. The study examined case files of 16 adult clients from the University of North Texas Neurotherapy Lab who had received NF training that consisted of either referential or sequential placement amplitude training (no coherence training) and who received both pre- and post- treatment QEEGs. Sixty-eight percent of the cases consisted of referential placements, while 34% of the cases consisted of sequential placements. All frontal site phase and coherence abnormal z-scores at pre-treatment were converted to deviation scores and compared by general linear model analysis of variance to post-treatment deviation scores. Effect size r-values and eta square values indicate that differences between referential and sequential electrode placements after NF amplitude training are moderately high. This study shows that referential placements tend to increase phase scores and decrease coherence scores, while sequential placements tend to decrease phase scores and increase coherence scores.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Ramezani, Amir

Effects of Sertraline Exposure on Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) Steroidogenesis

Description: Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is widely used for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Due to the abundant therapeutic use of sertraline, low levels have been detected in municipal wastewater effluents suggesting that aquatic organisms may be exposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the steroidogenic effects of sertraline on larval (FHM) and adult female fathead minnows (FFHM), Pimephales promelas. Larval FHM were exposed to 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/L sertraline for 28 days and analyzed via RT-qPCR for differential expression of 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD), 20β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20β-HSD), aromatase (CYP19), and nuclear thyroid receptor alpha (TRα). FFHM were exposed to 3 or 10 µg/L sertraline for 7 days with the brain and ovary excised at exposure termination. Juvenile FHM exposed to 0.1 μg/L sertraline had a significant upregulation of both 20β-HSD and TRα. FFHM exposed to 10 µg/L sertraline had a significant upregulation of 11β-HSD expression in brain tissue, while no steroidogenic changes were observed in the FFHM ovary. Similarly, in FFHM brain tissue, CYP19 and 20β-HSD expression levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 10µg/L sertraline compared to control. The significance of these findings with respect to survival, growth and reproduction are currently unknown, but represent future research needs.
Date: December 2014
Creator: Carty, Dennis R.

The Effects of Shaping and Instruction-based Procedures on Behavioral Variability during Acquisition and Extinction

Description: This study examined effects of two response acquisition procedures on topography of responding using the revealed operant technique and compared results to previous experiments on this topic. Subjects emitted 100 repetitions each of 4 response patterns on a continuous schedule of reinforcement. A 30-min extinction condition followed acquisition. One group of subjects learned the first response through a series of shaping steps designed to reduce acquisition variability. Another group of subjects was instructed in the correct response topography and was told there was no penalty for attempting other sequences. The first group of subjects produced high variability during extinction despite reduced variability in acquisition. The second group of subjects responded with moderate to high variability during extinction and little variability during acquisition. Most extinction responses for the first group were variations of the last pattern reinforced. Most extinction responses for the second group were repetitions of the last pattern reinforced.
Date: December 1999
Creator: McCary, Donald

The Effects of Shoe Modification on Transverse Tibial Rotation

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of change in transverse tibial rotation at the knee achieved through the use of shoe modification. In addition, an attempt to evaluate the Q-angle dynamically through the stance phase to reflect changes in transverse tibial rotation was made. Ten male subjects were filmed as they ran on a treadmill at a 2.82 m/sec pace and transverse tibial rotation data was collected simultaneously from an affixed electrogoniometer at the knee joint. The subjects were tested under three conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) running shoe, and 3) shoe plus standard orthotic. The results of the study showed that an unprescribed, standard orthotic was ineffective in changing foot pronation and transverse tibial rotation at the knee. It also showed that there was no relationship between leg-heel alignment measurements of pronation and electrogoniometric measurements of transverse tibial rotation. Q-angle measurements could not be obtained from the film date due to difficulty in visualizing body landmarks.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Trudelle, Elaine

The Effects of Shoe Type on Foot Functioning and Contact Pressures During Walking Performances

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional effectiveness of a selection of women's walking shoes with particular attention being directed towards an assessment of specific shoe modifications which were included in a prototype model to theoretically reduce the undesirable characteristics associated with flexible shoes. Nine female subjects performed three trials for each of five shoe conditions. The prototype model decreased the encountered pressures and pressure integrals in the region of the second metatarsal-phalangeal joint. The use of the prototype shoe did not appear to unduly affect the gait of the subject.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Raley, Brenda F.

The Effects of Sign Language on the Vocal Responses of a Child with Autism.

Description: Sign language is an effective form of alternative communication for persons with autism and other developmental disabilities. Only a few studies have systematically measured the effects of sign language on the vocal responses of its users. This study employed a multiple baseline design to evaluate the effects of sign language on the vocal responses of a four-year-old boy with autism. Results indicate that a reinforcement contingency placed only on sign responses is inadequate for maintaining vocal responses. When a reinforcement contingency is placed on sign responses as well as vocal responses that the user is capable of emitting in verbal imitation, both sign and vocal responses are maintained. Results are discussed in terms of the need for a reinforcement contingency placed on vocal and sign responses, the effects of teaching procedures on response variability, and the need for future research to examine procedures utilized to teach sign language to persons within the developmental disabilities population.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Scarbro-McLaury, Jill

The Effects of Single and Combined Psyching up Strategies on Basketball Free-Throws and Leg Strength

Description: The present investigation was to determine if combining two mental preparation strategies would be more effective than a single strategy. In Experiment 1, subjects (n=40) performed basketball free-throws (20 shots) using one of these mental strategies: 1) imagery, 2) relaxation, 3)relaxation plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant main effect with the imagery group performing significantly better than the placebo control group. In Experiment 2, subjects (n=40) performed five trials on an isokinetic leg-strength task using one of the following mental strategies: 1) preparatory arousal, 2) imagery, 3) preparatory arousal plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant trials main effect with all subjects improving over time. State anxiety results indicated that the combination group exhibited higher levels of anxiety than all other conditions.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Chan, Roy Chin Ming