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Effects of Desensitization, Rogerian Therapy, and Modeling on Stage-Fright
Since fear of public speaking has been considered a good example of anxiety and an example that is correlated with behavioral and cognitive measures of anxiety levels, a study of Rogerian therapy, desensitization, and modeling techniques in reducing this anxiety seemed appropriate.
The Effects of Different Confidentiality Conditions on Adolescent Minor Patients' Self-Report of Behavioral and Emotional Problems
The primary purpose of the present study was to determine if information regarding potential parental or legal guardian access to mental health information would deleteriously impact male and female adolescent psychiatric patients' willingness to self-report personal problems and symptoms.
The Effects of Different Instructional Procedures in Teaching Junior High School Mathematics on Types and Amount of Learning
The problem under consideration attempts to answer the question, Will different methods of teaching the solution of problems in finding areas and perimeters of plane surfaces produce different results; and if so, how great is the difference?
The Effects of Different Percentages of Incentive Pay to Base Pay on Work Productivity
This experiment investigated how different percentages of incentive pay affected performance on a number-entering task. It was hypothesized that the critical factor in incentive pay systems was the absolute amount of money that could be earned in an incentive pay paradigm. A counterbalanced single-subject reversal design was employed to examine effects of incentives on performance. Twelve subjects were used in the experiment with three subjects assigned to one of four experimental paradigms. Two of the experimental paradigms incorporated 10% and 100% incentive pay conditions, while the other two experimental paradigms incorporated absolute pay conditions equal to the 10% and 100% incentive pay conditions. Results indicated that similar trends in productivity occurred across subjects in all four experimental paradigms.
The Effects of Diphenylhydantoin on Maze Performance
Making the assumption that diphenylhydantoin has a lowering or cancelling effect on excess electricity in the brain, it is the purpose of this study to determine the effect of diphenylhydantoin in a stressful learning situation.
The effects of diphenylhydantoin on the lymphoreticular tissues of the rat
A study was made of the effects of diphenylhydantoin (DPH) and the carrier solution on the spleen, lymph node, and thymus. DPH was injected i.p. at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg./100gm. for 30 and 60 days. Hematologic effects observed were leucocytosis, neutrophilia, eosinophilia, and lymphopenia. Respiratory measurements of lymph node tissue slices were made using the oxygen electrode method.
Effects of Discharge Tube Geometry on Plasma Ion Oscillations
This study considers the effect, on plasma ion oscillations, of various lengths of discharge tubes as well as various cross sections of discharge tubes. Four different gases were used in generating the plasma. Gas pressure and discharge voltage and current were varied to obtain a large number of signals. A historical survey is given to familiarize the reader with the field. The experimental equipment and procedure used in obtaining data is given. An analysis of the data obtained is presented along with possible explanations for the observed phenomena. Suggestions for future study are made.
The Effects of Discipline-Based Art Education upon Reading Test Scores of Suburban North Texas Second Grade Children
This study examines the effects that discipline-based art education has upon reading test scores of public school second grade children. The progress in language arts of an experimental group and a control group were followed for two six week grading cycles. The experimental group was treated with DBAE instruction for one six weeks, while the control group received only studio production exercises. Both groups received no art instruction for another six weeks. Gains between mean pre-test and post-test scores indicated a significant difference for the experimental group but not the control group.
Effects of Dissipation on Propagation of Surface Electromagnetic and Acoustic Waves
With the recent emergence of the field of metamaterials, the study of subwavelength propagation of plane waves and the dissipation of their energy either in the form of Joule losses in the case of electomagnetic waves or in the form of viscous dissipation in the case of acoustic waves in different interfaced media assumes great importance. with this motivation, I have worked on problems in two different areas, viz., plasmonics and surface acoustics. the first part (chapters 2 & 3) of the dissertation deals with the emerging field of plasmonics. Researchers have come up with various designs in an efort to fabricate efficient plasmonic waveguides capable of guiding plasmonic signals. However, the inherent dissipation in the form of Joule losses limits efficient usage of surface plasmon signal. a dielectric-metal-¬dielectric planar structure is one of the most practical plasmonic structures that can serve as an efficient waveguide to guide electromagnetic waves along the metal-dielectric boundary. I present here a theoretical study of propagation of surface plasmons along a symmetric dielectric-metal-dielectric structure and show how proper orientation of the optical axis of the anisotropic substrate enhances the propagation length. an equation for propagation length is derived in a wide range of frequencies. I also show how the frequency of coupled surface plasmons can be modulated by changing the thickness of the metal film. I propose a Kronig-Penny model for the plasmonic crystal, which in the long wavelength limit, may serve as a homogeneous dielectric substrate with high anisotropy which do not exist for natural optical crystals. in the second part (chapters 4 & 5) of the dissertation, I discuss an interesting effect of extraordinary absorption of acoustic energy due to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow water channel clad between two metal plates. Starting from the elastic properties of the ...
The Effects of District Expenditure Per Pupil and Low Socio-Economic Status on the Grade 10, 2000 and 2002 Disaggregated Student Performance Scores on the TAAS
Educators can no longer simply look at student totals to distribute instructional dollars. Databased decision-making must be instituted to overcome achievement gaps between white and non-white students. In low-socioeconomic (SES) settings, districts must increase expenditure per pupil (EPP) as low-SES rates rise for all students as district administrators must be in a position to show product rather than process. It was attempted to determine if a positive or negative relationship existed between Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American student test scores and wealth factors on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills tests in 2000 and 2002. Wealth factors studied included EPP and SES. Data analysis was carried out on 974 independent and consolidated school districts in Texas. Low-SES was found to be a negative predictor of higher test performance on standardized reading and mathematics tests. To varied degrees, low-SES affected all students from all ethnicities as well as affluent students. EPP was attributed with a positive effect on student test performance. Increases of $1,000 or more at one time produce performance increases from 0.20 to 0.40 points. In making specific recommendations, the researcher advises increasing expenditures low-SES districts, schools, and classrooms through the creation of specific district linear equations exhibited in this study. Funds must be earmarked for those students that are affected by poverty. It is also recommended to decrease the number of low-SES students by merging high-SES and low-SES students to dilute poverty's effects. Additional correlation studies that address instructional strategies and outside factors are needed. Finally, a replicating study using Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills data over a period would be beneficial.
The Effects of Diversity Training on Recognizing Gender Differences in a Corporate Environment
The face of the American workforce is changing. As more women and minorities enter the workplace and globalization continues, workers must work with. interact with, and sell to people who are different from themselves. Workers bring their cultures, attitudes, and modes of operation with them. To address the issue of being productive in a diversified environment, corporations have implemented diversity training programs. For the purpose of this study, diversity was defined as gender differences. This research examined the effects of diversity training on increasing the awareness and understanding of gender differences in the workplace. The experimental design of the study was a pretest posttest involving two groups in a large corporation who received different forms of training to address gender differences. One group received its training in the traditional manner currently used in the corporation. The second group participated in enhanced training targeted to include multiple learning styles and focused on why this effort was important to the individuals as well as the corporation. A true-false test based on gender differences was given prior to the training to account for individual differences and to establish the means for the groups. The same test was given following the training to determine the effectiveness of the training. The statistical procedure used in this study was an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in order to determine whether there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups. A level of significance of .05 was specified. Calculations were done using the computer program SPSS version 9.0. The data yielded a statistically significant difference between the employees who received the enhanced training and the employees who received the standard training on knowledge of gender differences in the workplace.
The Effects of Doriden on Concentrative Attention Span and Problem Solving Ability in Mice
It is the purpose of this thesis to examine the effect of Doriden on problem solving. Specifically, the present study was designed as an exploratory investigation of the effects of Doriden on the maze learning ability of mice.
The Effects of Dry Heat in a Sauna Bath upon Performance of Certain Physical and Mental Tasks
The purposes of the investigation were to determine and analyze the effects of dry heat upon the physical and mental performance tasks and to deduce implications for the improvement of educational practices.
The Effects of Dynamic Exercise on the Development of Physical Fitness
The problem of this study was to determine the effects of four dynamic exercise programs on physical fitness as measured by selected items from the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Youth Fitness Test.
The Effects of Dynamic Weight Training upon Flexibility
This study was to determine the effects of a six-week program of dynamic weight training upon flexibility.
The effects of EDTA chelation therapy on plaque calcium and mineral metabolism in atherosclerotic rabbits
New Zealand albino rabbits exhibited calcified aortic plaques and maximum average serum cholesterol levels of 1200 mg percent after twenty-three weeks on an atherogenic diet (250 to 500 mg percent cholesterol in ten percent corn oil; 200,00 I.U. vitamin D3 per month). One month following termination of the atherogenic diet, rabbits were treated with disodium edetate (Na2EDTA, 50 mg/kg body weight) via the marginal ear vein, on alternating days for a total of twenty infusions each. Aortae were examined for tissue calcium both quantitatively (direct microcomplexometric analysis) and histologically six weeks after completion of EDTA chelation therapy.
The Effects of Educational Level on the Appreciation of Sexist Humor
Superiority, control, and dominance theories of disparaging humor were reviewed, and sexist humor was studied as representative of the field. The effects of educational level and sex of subject on the judgment of humor in sexist material were investigated, utilizing a set of 50 cartoons and jokes devised to approximate overlapping standard curves on the dimensions sexist content and humor. Subjects were 71 males and 73 females, comprising 84 undergraduates and 60 doctoral graduate students. Each subject performed a forced Q sort of the jokes, with 104 rating for humor and 40 rating for sexism to establish content weights. Subjects' rankings, age, sex, and educational level were recorded upon completion of the task. Significant negative correlations were found between educational level and judgment of humor in sexist material, and female subjects judged sexist material to be significantly less funny than males. Some support was indicated for existing theories.
The Effects of Electrochemical Therapy on Colon-25 Tumors in Balb-C Mice
The purpose of the research was to treat immunodeficient mice, implanted with colon-25 tumors, with continuous and interrupted electrochemical therapy (ECT). ECT involves the placement of two electrodes, an anode near the center of the tumor and a cathode into the tumor periphery. A constant voltage is applied across the electrodes for a given period of time. The data showed that the interrupted and continuous ECT resulted in a decrease in mean tumor growth as compared to that of the sham controls. The histology of both ECT groups showed an increase presence of large vacuoles, randomly distributed tumor cells as well as the presence of "crevicing" in the medullary tissue. The differential leukocyte counts showed a distinct neutrophilia and lymphopenia in all groups at day 20 post tumor implantation. The results from the experimental groups appeared to support the findings of previous investigators.
The Effects of Employee Health Promotion Practices of Texas Public School Districts on Costs for Absenteeism, Health Care Premiums, Health Care Claims, and Workers' Compensation Claims
This study examined whether or not it is in the financial best interest of public school districts, as employers, to promote the health of its employees.
Effects of Endurance Intensity and Rest Interval on Subsequent Strength Performance
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of cycling exercise at different intensities and rest intervals on strength performance. Ten males, engaged in concurrent training for at least one month prior to testing, comprised the subject group for this study. Results show only leg press torque and leg press work to be decreased after cardiorespiratory exercise of moderate intensity. Leg extension average power, chest press torque, chest press power, and chest press work after cycling were not decreased from pre-exercise values. No significant effects were found for exercise intensity, testing times, or intensity by testing times. These results indicate that lower body strength is decreased by cycling and that one hour is not sufficient to restore leg strength.
Effects of English and Bilingual Storybook Reading and Reenactment on the Retelling Abilities of Preschool Children
The purpose of this study was to investigate the story retelling abilities of preschool children who have experienced storybook reading and storybook reenactment bilingually, in English and Spanish, and preschool children who have experienced storybook reading and storybook reenactment in English only. This is a clinical case study employing both quantitative and qualitative measures comparing four treatment groups. Three evaluation instruments were developed by the researcher and used for posttesting; a story comprehension test, a story retelling guidesheet/scoresheet, and a storybook literacy response evaluation. In addition, participant observation and teacher interviews were used to gather qualitative data regarding learning center extensions of the target text and teacher beliefs and practices about the use of storybooks. The findings from this study show that scores for children who experienced storybook reading and storybook reenactment were significantly better on both the story retelling and story comprehension measures. In addition, a larger proportion of children who experienced storybook reading and reenactment were found to perform at the second level of literacy response on the Levels of Literacy evaluation. No differences were found in relationship to the language used on any of the dependent measures. Findings fromqualitative data showed that children were involved in limited extensions of the storybook read to them regardless of whether they experienced storybook reenactment or discussion. Teacher beliefs and practices related to their role during learning center play was believed to have some influence on children's choices regarding story extensions or dramatic play theme content. Recommendations were made to pre-school teachers that story reenactment was an effective technique with both bilingual and monolingual presentation. Additional research questions were posed also.
The Effects of English Immersion Mathematics Classes on the Mathematics Achievement and Aspiration of Eighth-Grade Spanish-Speaking LEP Students
This research grew from concerns relative to the mathematical performance of Spanish-speaking limited English proficient (LEP) public school students. This investigation studied the effects of the sheltered mathematics class on eighth-grade Spanish-speaking LEP students with regard to mathematical achievement, attitudes toward mathematics, the dropout rate, and the number of math credits earned in high school. The enrollment of a sheltered mathematics class was limited to LEP students. The purpose was to compare Spanish-speaking LEP students enrolled in sheltered mathematics classes with Spanish-speaking LEP students enrolled in regular mathematics classes. The research hypotheses were that achievement, mathematical attitudes, the dropout rate, and high school math credits earned would favor enrollment in sheltered mathematics classes. The data for achievement, dropout information, and mathematics course work completed were drawn from student records in the school district data bank. A mathematics attitude survey was given to a sample from the 1995-96 eighth-grade advanced level Spanish-speaking LEP students. The research hypotheses were not accepted. All of the populations did show an academic deficit. However, they did have more positive attitudes than negative attitudes toward mathematics. To improve achievement, staying in school, and a higher rate of inclusion in mathematics related careers the following recommendations were made: 1. Research should be done to write standardized mathematics tests that would be accurate and fair for Spanish-speaking LEP students. 2. Further research should be done into teaching strategies and classroom management particularly suited to Spanish-speaking LEP students. 3. Attitude measures should be used as pretest and posttest to study the effect of sheltered mathematics classes on LEP students in relation to attitudes toward mathematics and motivation to continue schooling. 4. Recruit and train qualified mathematics teachers to teach English as a second language (ESL) mathematics.
Effects of Entrainment by the Indian Point Power Plant on Biota in the Hudson River Estuary, August 1976
"This report presents the final results of studies conducted at Indian Point during 1973 using the full complement of available striped bass ichthyoplankton data. These procedures were undertaken in order to present data for river and plant comparisons in the proper perspective of time and space" (p. ii).
Effects of Entrainment by the Indian Point Power Plant on Biota in the Hudson River Estuary, March 1975
"The data presented in this report represent an analysis of the abundance of four life-history stages of striped bass collected in the Hudson River at Indian Point and the intakes and discharge canal at the Indian Point Power Station" (p. 54).
The Effects of Environmental Consequences and Data Collection in the Behavior-Contracting Treatment of Obesity
This study investigated the effects of environmental consequences and data 'collection in a behavior contracting procedure for obesity. Also, a validity study examined the GSR as a subject-independent-monitoring technique. Sixteen subjects matched on sex and percent overweight were assigned to one of three contract conditions or to a no-treatment condition. The Data Only Contract Group received consequences for data collection. The With Consequences Contract Group received consequences for data collection and behaviors relevant to weight loss. The Without Consequences Contract Group received no consequences for data collection or behaviors relevant to weight loss. The With Consequences Contract Group lost significantly more weight ( p ≤ .05) than the No Treatment Group. Specific effects were not determined. The results of the validity study suggest that the GSR may not be a valid instrument as a subject-independent-monitoring technique. Factors affecting the galvanic skin response's- effectiveness were discussed.
The Effects of "Errorless" Training and Testing on the Performances of Typically Developing Children During Acquisition and Retention.
This study examines the effects of two teaching procedures and two testing procedures (“Skip” and “Guess”) on acquisition, retention and generalization of learning. Three typically developing females between the ages of 8 and 11 learned the 24 lower case letters of the Greek alphabet. Half of the letters were taught with the “Skip” procedure and the other half with the “Guess” procedure. The “Skip” procedure produced faster and more efficient learning than the “Guess” procedure. The “Skip” procedure also resulted in better initial retention (4 weeks), but this effect disappeared in subsequent retention tests. The training conditions did not have differential effects on generalization tests across learning channels, except for the Free/Say channel.
Effects of Evaluative Modeling on Client Behavior and Self-Evaluation in Behavior Rehearsal for Assertive Training
No Description Available.
Effects of Exogenous Steroids on the Adrenal Plasma Membrane Alteration of Steroidogenesis and Cell Morphology
Using cultured Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cells which produce the steroid 20(-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (20-DHP), it was found that 10-5 M corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone increased basal and inhibited ACTH-induced 20-DHP production. The steroid effects were concentration-dependent, reversible, and specific since six other steroids did not stimulate steroidogenesis and varied in their ability to inhibit ACTH-induced steroidogenesis. Cytochalasin D inhibited steroid-stimulated 20-DHP production, suggesting a mechanism of steroid stimulation similar to that of ACTH. Steroidogenesis stimulated by cholera toxin, (Bu) 2 cAMP, or pregnenolone was not inhibited by exogenous steroid; corticosterone increased basal and inhibited ACTH-induced intracellular cAMP production. Steroids altered cell surface morphology. These findings suggest that steroids alter adrenal steroidogenesis by acting within the plasma membrane.
Effects of Experiential Focusing-Oriented Dream Interpretation
This study was designed to examine the effects of Experiential Focusing-oriented dream interpretation. The process was twofold. The first part of this study involved a preliminary step of developing an instrument, the Dream Interpretation Effects Questionnaire (DIEQ). The DIEQ assessed specific effects of Experiential Focusing-oriented dream interpretation, e.g., a sense of easing, fresh air, or movement, increased positive energy or self-understanding, development of a new step, enhanced valuation of dreams, or enhanced understanding of the meaning of the dream. Fifty-two adult volunteers participated in the first part of this study. All participants completed Part One of the DIEQ after reporting a dream and freely associating its meaning to another participant. The results were computed to establish the reliability of the DIEQ. The researcher then used the DIEQ along with a structured interview in a pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effects of Experiential Focusing-oriented dream interpretation. Twenty adult volunteers experienced in Experiential Focusing participated in the second part of this study. They were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a waiting-list control group. The experimental participants completed the DIEQ before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 45-minute Experiential Focusing-oriented dream interpretation intervention. By contrast, the control participants completed the DIEQ before (pretest) and after (first posttest) a 45-minute no-intervention waiting period. Then, the control group participants received the same intervention as the experimental group and completed the DIEQ (second posttest). All participants participated in a structured interview to conclude the study.
Effects of Experimental Psychological Stress on Human Physiological Functioning: Mediation by Affiliation
This investigation sought to identify differences in the human psychophysiological stress response when mediated by affiliation, by assessing heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), electrodermal activity (EDA), serum Cortisol (SC) concentration, interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentration, and state anxiety among subjects who underwent an anagram solution task. Thirty male subjects from the University of North Texas were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and asked to solve a series of difficult anagrams either alone or with a companion. Subjects assigned to the control condition were asked to copy permutations of the anagrams. Before, and immediately after the anagram/copying tasks HR, SBP, DBP were measured, blood samples drawn, and The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) administered to all subjects. EDA was measured throughout all trials. Changes from baseline through the experimental period for all dependent variables were analyzed by employing difference scores derived from contrasting baseline and experimental measures. These scores were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) resulting in one significant between group effect among all dependent variables examined. Contrary to stated hypotheses, the alone condition significantly differed from the companion and control conditions by demonstrating a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from baseline through the experimental period. It was concluded that the decrease in systolic blood pressure from baseline through the experimental period for the alone group was a result of chance sampling of individuals possessing unique psychophysiological response patterns. Appraisals of inter-group differences in response patterns across all dependent variables suggest that an insufficient stressor, and limitations in design, statistical analysis, and measurement may have contributed to this investigation's results. Implications of findings were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
The Effects of Extended Loan Period, Released Time, and Incentive Pay on Increasing Shelving and Shelf-Reading Productivity of Student Assistants in Academic Libraries
No Description Available.
Effects of External Electric Fields on Light Transmittance in Isolated Crayfish Nerves
Acute effects of a pulsed external electric field (PEEF) at 20 V/cm and a d.c. EEF at 90 V/cm on light transmittance in an isolated compound crayfish nerve was measured. In a third series, the nerve was pre-treated with the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). A PEEF produced an irreversible increase in the variation of light transmittance in normal nerves but a reversible increase in TTX treated nerves. This data was statistically insignificant. The d.c. EEFs produced a reversible and statistically significant enhancement of variation in light transmittance in both untreated and TTX-treated nerves. The findings may be due to either (1) an alteration in the ion/fluid flux within the nerve or (2) a physical alteration of protein molecules in the membranes.
The Effects of Extinction on Human Performance Following Exposure to Fixed Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
This experiment examined the effects of extinction on rate of responding and several topographical and temporal measures in adult humans. Three college students were trained to type the sequence 1•5•3 on a numeric keypad on a computer. The subjects were exposed to different fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement (FR1, FR 5, and FR10 respectively) and extinction. Subjects displayed typical schedule performances during the maintenance phase of the experiment. During extinction the performances were disrupted, they showed a "break and run" pattern and a general decrease in responding. Also, new topographical and temporal patterns emerged. These data are consistent with those reported for non-human species and special human populations.
Effects of Family of Origin Violence on Partner Violence: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis
Meta-analyses with 144 correlations from 44 studies to assess the relationship between experienced, father-to-mother, and mother-to-father violence in the family of origin and partner violence for males and females in clinical, community and student samples.
The Effects of Feedback from the Use of Interaction Analysis in Supervising Student Teachers
The problem is to determine the feasibility of using student teacher observer teams trained in interaction analysis to develop the capacity of student teachers to change their classroom verbal behavior.
The Effects of Feedback on Teachers' Verbal Behavior and Attitudes Toward In-Service Education
The problem of this study was to determine the effect of the use of Flanders' system of interaction analysis on the verbal behavior of an elementary school faculty and on their attitudes toward in-service education.
The Effects of Feedback Timing when Teaching a New Task to Children with Autism
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate Tosti's proposal about the timing of feedback. The study examined whether it is better to correct immediately after the error occurs or whether it is better to wait until immediately before the next opportunity to respond. In addition, it aimed to determine whether corrections delivered at different times produced different learner affects. Four children with autism were taught to label two sets of pictures under the two different conditions. Results showed that the timing of the feedback yields similar results in regards to number of correct responses and total trial count. However, in regards to time spent in teaching and learner affect, correcting errors before the next opportunity to respond showed to be the more efficient procedure and produced more favorable affect.
The Effects of Fines on Cooperation in a Four-Person Prisoner’s Dilemma Game
Cooperation is an important area of investigation for behavior analysis. The prisoner’s dilemma game (PDG) provides a useful scenario for studying cooperation in a behavior analytic paradigm. The PDG can be coupled with the concept of the metacontingency to investigate how various contingency arrangements support and promote cooperation in a group. Players in this experiment participated in a PDG and, in some conditions, were given the ability to fine other players but could not talk. The goal of this experiment was to investigate how players’ ability to fine one another affected the players’ patterns of cooperation, and whether fining itself was affected by the addition of a shared group consequence. The data show that participants cooperated in some conditions, but the fines did not seem to affect players’ rates of cooperation.
Effects of Fixed- and Variable-Ratio Token Exchange Schedules on Performance with Children with Autism
The research literature with nonhumans supports findings that token economies are a common component of training programs. The literature suggests that the schedule by which exchange opportunities become available determines the organization of behavioral performances in token economies to a great extent. This study sought to systematically document whether the dynamics observed in basic laboratory procedures will also be observed in a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and whether altering schedules by which the exchange opportunities become available will attenuate these effects. The participant was exposed to two conditions: 1) a fixed token-production schedule (FR1) with a fixed token-exchange schedule (FR5) and 2) a fixed token-production schedule (FR1) with a variable token-exchange schedule (VR5). Results of the current study did not lend themselves to draw definitive conclusions that the patterns of responding observed in this experiment were in fact due to the change in the token exchange schedule.
Effects of Fluency and Accuracy-Only Training on Acquisition and Retention of Letter Naming by Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury
This study examines the effects of accuracy-only training and fluency training on retention of material learned. Two adolescent participants with traumatic brain injuries were taught to name 2 sets of lowercase Greek letters. Each of the 2 sets consisted of 7 letters. Practice and rate of reinforcement were controlled for in this study. Fluency trained letters showed higher retention (percent correct during retention checks) than the accuracy-only trained letters.
The Effects of Fluency-Based Instruction on the Identification of Component Reading Skills
This study examined the effects of fluency-based instruction on the identification of six component-composite relations for early reading skills. Five participants (ages 5-8) who struggled with reading participated. A multiple probe design was used to assess the effects of frequency building on prerequisite skills on the emergence of composite reading skills. The results show that the prerequisite skills taught did not have an effect on the composite skill probes but did have an effect on the assessment scores. The data expand the research pertaining to Precision Teaching, fluency-based instruction, and component-composite relations. These data suggest that additional skills may be needed to be taught in order to effects on the composite skills. In addition, these authors identify the need for the identification of the component skills necessary to teach rapid autonomic naming.
Effects of Forced Compliance Situations on Neutral, Unfavorable, and Extremely Unfavorable Subjects Toward Oil Companies
This study tested effectiveness of a film in forced compliance situations on neutral and negatively predisposed individuals. Subjects (N = 48) were administered an attitudinal questionnaire, subjected to a no (control), low, moderate, or high dissonance-producing situation, and retested for attitude change. Analysis of variance for repeated measures, Scheffe's F tests, and t tests were used for analysis. Results indicated attitude change was greatest under a low dissonance-producing situation for all subjects. The moderate-dissonance situation moved unfavorable subjects toward favorability while the high dissonance situation moved extremely unfavorable subjects toward favorability. No relationship was found between degrees of dissonance and attitude change for netural subjects.
The Effects of Forms, Reports, and Consequences on Homework Completion
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of (1) training the accurate completion of an assignment form, (2) providing feedback on accurate reporting of homework completion, and (3) consequences for completion or non-completion of homework. All students exhibited highly accurate recording of information on assignment forms and reports of what homework had been completed or not completed. Delivering consequences for completion or non-completion of assignments had a modest effect on homework completion. This package increased the proportion of homework assignments completed on time for all students in at least one, or as many as three, academic subjects. This package can be an efficient tool for teachers to monitor homework completion.
The Effects of Four Short Duration Exercise Routines on Physical Fitness of Male Junior College Students
The purposes of this study are 1) to investigate the development of physical fitness through the medium of fifteen-minute exercise routines in junior college physical education classes; 2) to determine the relationship between each of four exercise routines and the improvement of physical development in a specific body area; and 3) to compare the results of intensive, isometric, calisthenic, and continuous exercise routines to determine if any one routine was of greater value to three alternate routines in assisting the individual to attain a higher degree of physical fitness development.
The Effects of Free Play As an Instructional Tool on the Quality of Improvisation of First, Second, and Third Grade Children
To look at the effect of free play on the musical improvisations of first, second and third grade children, 108 children were randomly assigned to either a control or treatment group. Subjects were tested using a researcher-designed instrument to elicit an improvisatory response. The control group then received regular music instruction (120 minutes every 2 weeks) and the treatment group received regular music instruction in conjunction with musical free play (100 minutes of instruction and 20 minutes of free play every 2 weeks). The treatment lasted 14 weeks. At the end of the treatment, all students were tested with the same testing instrument used for the pre test. Videotapes of the improvisations were submitted to three independent judges to rate for quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The change in ratings between pre and post tests were analyzed with an analysis of variance to determine if there were significant differences between the control and treatment groups. The analysis of the data revealed no significant difference in the change of ratings between control and treatment groups for the group as a whole, or for any particular grade level within the total group.
The Effects of Freshet Turbidity on Selected Aspects of the Biogeochemistry and the Trophic Status of Flathead Lake, Montana U.S.A.
No Description Available.
Effects of Frustration Tolerance Training on Young Institutionalized Retarded Children
The major problem investigated was to ascertain the extent to which a training program designed specifically to increase frustration tolerance would reduce selected behavioral problems in institutionalized mentally retarded children. Of lesser importance was the problem of examining the extent to which the prescribed training program had differential effects on brain-injured and non-brain-injured retarded children.
The Effects of "Game" and "Test" Instructions on the WISC-R Performance of High- and Low-Test-Anxious Children
No Description Available.
Effects of Gender and Self-Monitoring on Observer Accuracy in Decoding Affect Displays
This study examined gender and self-monitoring as separate and interacting variables predicting judgmental accuracy on the part of observers of facial expressions of emotional categories. The main and interaction effects failed to reach significant levels during the preliminary analysis. However, post hoc analyses demonstrated a significant encoder sex variable. Female encoders of emotion were judged more accurately by both sexes. Additionally, when the stimulus was limited to female enactments of emotional categories, the hypothesized main and interaction effects reached significant F levels. This study utilized 100 observers and 10 encoders of seven emotional categories. Methodological considerations and alternatives are examined at length.
The Effects of Glyphosate Based Herbicides on Chick Embryo Development
Glyphosate based herbicides are among the most widely used herbicides in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine developmental toxicity of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the common herbicide Roundup, on developing chicken embryos. Few studies have examined toxic effects of glyphosate alone versus the full compound formulations of Roundup, which include adjuvants and surfactants. Adjutants and surfactants are added to aid in solubility and absorption of glyphosate. In this study chicken embryos were exposed at the air cell on embryonic day 6 to 19.8 or 9.9 mg / Kg egg mass of glyphosate in Roundup or glyphosate only. Chickens treated with 19.8 and 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup showed significant reduction in survivability compared to glyphosate alone treatments and controls. On embryonic day 18, embryos were sacrificed for evaluation of developmental toxicity using wet embryo mass, dry embryo mass, and yolk mass as indicators. Morphology measurements were taken on liver mass, heart mass, tibiotarsus length and beak length. Embryos treated with 19.8 mg / Kg glyphosate and 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup showed significant reductions in wet and dry embryo mass and yolk mass. Tibiotarsus length in 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup treatments were significantly reduced compared to 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate treatments. Beak length was significantly reduced in 9.9 mg /Kg glyphosate in Roundup treatments compared to all other groups.