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The Effects of Age, Sex, and Class Stratification and the Use of Health Care Services among Older Adults in the United Kingdom

Description: As the population ages, providing health services for the growing number of older people will become an increasingly difficult problem. In countries where the health services are provided by the government, these problems are involved with complicated issues of finance and ethics. This is the case of the National Health Service, the government institution providing health care for the citizens of the United Kingdom. Knowing what social factors influence health care usage can be a link to match usage and funding. Literature has shown that health care utilization can be predicted by social factors, as well as the medical model, and from this orientation social variables were drawn from the 1994 General Household Survey. Social factors were analyzed to determine relationships that exist between certain types of health care use and these factors. Age, sex, and class, the three main factors shown in literature to affect usage, were then analyzed to determine if services are allocated on the basis of these factors or the basis of need from illness and disability. Results of the study show that of the predisposing variables, age, sex, and class, are associated with most types of health care use. From the enabling variables, both source of income and visits from friends and relatives are associated with most types of health care. Of the illness determinants, disability, limiting illness, restricted activity days and eyesight difficulty were all related to health care use. When intervening control variables were introduced, the intervening control variables of difficulty with activities of daily living and difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living had an explanatory effect on the use of home help, district nursing, consultations with a general practitioner at home, consultations with a general practitioner at a surgery or health clinic, and inpatient stays. These services were offered more according ...
Date: December 1999
Creator: Carter, Holly R.

Effects of Aging on ACTH-Stimulated Steroidogenesis in Subcellular Fractions from Rat Adrenal Glands

Description: Young, middle-aged and old rat adrenal gland steroidogenesis was measured in isolated, superfused glands and in their subcellular fractions before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In the latter experiment, five corticosteroids were extracted from six different subcellular fractions. Superfused glands initially produced relatively high glucocorticoid levels; thereafter, production decayed asymptotically. Steroidogenesis by young and middle-aged glands was maintained at least 1.5 to 2.5 hours before it decayed; old glands were 50% less active than younger ones and production decayed within one hour. High cholesterol and progesterone levels in certain old gland fractions were associated with correspondingly reduced 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. It is suggested that synthesis of these glucocorticoids from their accumulating precursors weakens with age.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Sawada, Tadao

The Effects of Air Pollution on the Intestinal Microbiota: A Novel Approach to Assess How Gut Microbe Interactions with the Environment Affect Human Health

Description: This thesis investigates how air pollution, both natural and anthropogenic, affects changes in the proximal small intestine and ileum microbiota profile, as well as intestinal barrier integrity, histological changes, and inflammation. APO-E KO mice on a high fat diet were randomly selected to be exposed by whole body inhalation to either wood smoke (WS) or mixed vehicular exhaust (MVE), with filtered air (FA) acting as the control. Intestinal integrity and histology were assessed by observing expression of well- known structural components tight junction proteins (TJPs), matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), and gel-forming mucin (MUC2), as well known inflammatory related factors: TNF-α, IL-1β, and toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. Bacterial profiling was done using DNA analysis of microbiota within the ileum, utilizing 16S metagenomics sequencing (Illumina miSeq) technique. Overall results of this experiment suggest that air pollution, both anthropogenic and natural, cause a breach in the intestinal barrier with an increase in inflammatory factors and a decrease in beneficial bacteria. This evidence suggests the possibility of air pollution being a potential causative agent of intestinal disease as well as a possible contributing mechanism for induction of systemic inflammation.
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Date: May 2017
Creator: Fitch, Megan

Effects of Airway Pressure, Hypercapnia, and Hypoxia on Pulmonary Vagal Afferents in the Alligator (Alligator Misssissippiensis)

Description: The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is an aquatic diving reptile with a periodic breathing pattern. Previous work has identified pulmonary stretch receptors (PSR), both rapidly- and slowly-adapting, and intrapulmonary chemoreceptors (IPCs) that modulate breathing patterns in alligators. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of prolonged lung inflation and deflation (simulated dives) on PSR and/or IPC firing characteristics in the alligator. The effects of airway pressure, hypercapnia, and hypoxia on dynamic and static responses of pulmonary stretch receptors (PSR) were studied in juvenile alligators (mean mass = 246 g) at 24°C. Receptor activity appeared to be a mixture of slowly-adapting PSRs (SARs) and rapidly-adapting PSRs (RARs) with varying thresholds and degrees of adaptation, but no CO2 sensitivity. Dives were simulated in order to character receptor activity before, during, and after prolonged periods of lung inflation and deflation. Some stretch receptors showed a change in dynamic response, exhibiting inhibition for several breaths after 1 min of lung inflation, but were unaffected by prolonged deflation. For SAR, the post-dive inhibition was inhibited by CO2 and hypoxia alone. These airway stretch receptors may be involved in recovery of breathing patterns and lung volume during pre- and post-diving behavior and apneic periods in diving reptiles. These results suggest that inhibition of PSR firing following prolonged inflation may promote post-dive ventilation in alligators.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Marschand, Rachel E.

The Effects of Alternative Contingencies on Instruction Following.

Description: The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of alternative contingencies on instruction following by an ABA design. Three college students consistently pressed keys 1-5-3 and 4-8-6 in the presence of the written instruction "Press 153" or "Press 486." During condition A, the contingencies for following and not following the instruction were the same: CON FR5 FR5 and CON FR20 FR20. During condition B, the contingencies for following and not following the instruction were different: CON FR20 FR5. For one participant, the schedule of reinforcement was then changed to FR30. The results showed that subjects followed instructions when the schedule of reinforcement was the same for instruction following and not following.
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Date: May 2003
Creator: Patti, Nicole

The Effects of Alternative Presentation Formats on Biases and Heuristics in Human Decision Making

Description: The purpose of this research was to determine whether changes in the presentation format of items in a computer display could be used to alter the impact of specific cognitive biases, and to add to the knowledge needed to construct theory-based guidelines for output design. The problem motivating this study is twofold. The first part of the problem is the sub-optimal decision making caused by the use of heuristics and their associated cognitive biases. The second part of the problem is the lack of a theoretical basis to guide the design of information presentation formats to counter the effects of such biases. An availability model of the impact of changes in presentation format on biases and heuristics was constructed based on the findings of a literature review. A six-part laboratory experiment was conducted utilizing a sample of 205 student subjects from the college of business. The independent variable was presentation format which was manipulated by altering the visual salience or visual recency of items of information in a visual computer display. The dependent variables included recall, perceived importance, and the subjects' responses to three judgment tasks. The results clearly demonstrate that changes in presentation format can be used to alter the impact of cognitive biases on human decision making. The results also provide support for the availability model, with the exception of the proposed influence of learning style. Learning style was found to have no significant impact on decision making whether alone or in combination with changes in presentation format. The results of this investigation demonstrate that by using our knowledge of cognitive processes (e.g., the visual salience effect, the visual recency effect, and the availability heuristic), presentation formats can be altered in order to moderate the effects of certain biases and heuristics in human decision making. An understanding of ...
Date: May 1996
Creator: Van Dyke, Thomas P. (Thomas Peter)

Effects of Altitude on Pressure-Flow Relationships in the Vascular Bed of the Hind Limb of the Dog

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of decreasing barometric pressure upon the pressure-flow relationships in a peripheral vascular bed in an attempt at better delineation of the autoregulatory mechanisms. A decrease in barometric pressure does influence the transmural pressure and could theoretically affect smooth muscle tone. An evaluation of the extent of the transmural effect is essential to understanding vascular dynamics at altitudes.
Date: August 1966
Creator: Roberts, Donald E.

Effects of Amount of Postshift Training on Resistance to Extinction

Description: The investigation sought to examine resistance to extinction (Rn) as a function of previous experience with downward shifts in reward magnitude. It was suggested that previous research conducted within the framework of the Spence-Amsel frustration hypothesis and the sequential hypothesis failed to administer sufficient postshift trials to adequately establish the relationships that may exist. Under one condition, four groups of rats received twenty extinction trials following forty postshift trials. Under another condition, four groups were extinguished following eighty postshift trials. An inverse magnitude of reward effect occurred in the preshift phases, however, which prevented an adequate analysis of either the shift or the Rn data, This unexpected effect was discussed within the framework of Black's incentive-motivation interpretation of reinforcement.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Wheeler, Royce Lee

The Effects of Amplification and Selected Vocal Exercises on the Perceived Vocal Health of Elementary Music Educators.

Description: The main purpose of this study was to consider the effects of amplification and vocal function exercises on the perceived vocal health of elementary music educators (N = 37) from Oklahoma (n = 11) and Texas (n = 26). Participants were assigned to the use of the ChatterVoxTM amplifier or vocal function exercises based on pretest scores on the Voice Handicap Index with Music Teacher Voice Questionnaire (VHI/MVQ). Following the 4-week study period, participants completed the posttest VHI/MVQ. The results of a one-way ANCOVA that used treatment group as the independent variable, the summed posttest scores as the dependent variable, and the summed pretest scores as the covariate or control variable indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the adjusted means for the posttest scores, favoring the exercises group. The overall group and both treatment groups reported frequent loud voice use in work settings and in public places. The overall group and the amplification group reported hoarseness after prolonged talking. The exercises group did not report as great a problem with hoarseness after prolonged talking. Secondary purposes addressed demographic variables. Women perceived greater overall vocal difficulties than men; men frequently reported specific vocal complaints that were not commonly indicated by women. The vocal problems of women may have been associated with loud voice use. The following common vocal complaints of men may have been related to the use of falsetto while teaching: need for vocal rest, worse voices in the evening, dry throats, loss of voice, obvious pitch breaks in their singing voices, pain after singing for an extended time, and limited use of their high range. VHI/MVQ scores indicated that the study participants with 21 to 39 years of teaching experience had more vocal difficulties than other participants and indicated limited use of the low range of ...
Date: May 2008
Creator: Vincent, Lynette Susanne

The Effects of an Achievement Motivation Program on the Self-Concepts of Selected Ninth-Grade Students Representing Three Ethnic Groups

Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the effects that an achievement motivation program had on changing the self-concepts and academic achievement among ninth-grade students in a triethnically mixed junior high school. The subjects for this study were ninth-grade students from a large southwestern city. The experimental program was conducted in a junior high school composed of Anglo, Mexican-American, and Negro students of approximately 30 per cent, 40 per cent, and 30 per cent ratios, respectively. The comparison school was an adjoining area with approximately the same ethnic mixture. In measuring changes in self-concept, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was used. Teacher-assigned grades converted to numerical equivalents were used in measuring changes in academic achievement. All hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of confidence by using two by three analysis of covariance. All data were entered on computer cards, using computer services of North Texas State University.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Allen, John G., 1925-

Effects of an Acute Bout of Near-Maximal Intensity Exercise on the Cardiac Enzymes in Human Sera

Description: The Cardiac Profile, a pattern of serum enzyme changes seen within seventy-two hours after an AMI, is diagnostic aid for detecting occurrence of infarcts. The effects of exercise stress on the Cardiac Profile aid clinicians in avoiding diagnostic errors in patients immediately after exercise. Five male volunteers ran from six to ten miles. Serum enzyme levels were monitored serially three days before and five days after stress. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically and electrophoretically. Significant increases in total CPK and LDH were seen. An LDH 'one-two flip' occurred eight hours after exercise. No MB-CPK was found following the run.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Goheen, Bernadette A.

The Effects of an Education Service Center Curriculum Study on Teacher Participant Attitudes

Description: The purposes of this study were threefold: (1) to test the assumption that a curriculum study produces change in a school faculty in conservatism-radicalism, in anxiety, in leadership behavior, and in attitude toward the curriculum study; (2) to investigate the relationships between effects of a curriculum study on conservatism-radicalism, anxiety, leadership behavior, attitude toward the curriculum study and age, sex, and years of teaching experience of the teachers; and (3) to create a model from which replications can be made by Texas Education Service Centers.
Date: June 1970
Creator: Ivey, Ellis

The Effects of an Educational Program on Registered Nurse Students' Ability to Write Complete Nursing Diagnoses

Description: This study examined the effectiveness of a training program on the ability of registered nurse students to write complete nursing diagnoses. A comparison group was used as a control. There were 47 participants in the training group and 51 participants in the comparison group who received no training. Five hypotheses were used to examine the (1) complete nursing diagnoses, (2) labels, (3) clarifiers, (4) etiologies, and (5) mislabeled medical diagnoses or clinical problems as nursing diagnoses. As a pretest and posttest, participants in both groups viewed a video tape of a nursing situation and were asked to write nursing diagnoses. The training group received nine clock hours of classroom instruction on the nursing process of which three hours were on nursing diagnosis with a focus on the inclusion of label, clarifier, and etiology necessary for a complete nursing diagnosis. In the clinical component of the educational program the training group wrote nursing diagnoses as part of the nursing process. It was assumed that the comparison group did not receive comparable education. The mean difference of proportions between the pretest and posttest was computed for each group on the item tested by the hypotheses and for the difference between the two groups. Three of the five hypotheses tested in the study were accepted. The training group did have a significant increase in the average (mean) difference of proportions in the number of complete nursing diagnoses and etiologies and a significant decrease in the number of mislabeled nursing diagnoses. There was no significant difference in the number of labels and clarifiers. The training group did show a percentage increase in the number of labels and clarifiers written. There was little or no change in the comparison group over the time period of the study.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Vernon, Yvonne B. (Yvonne Bailey)

Effects of an electric field on water uptake in single roots of intact onion plants

Description: Water uptake by a single root of an onion plant (Allium cepa) was measured potentially before, during and following exposure of shoots to an external electric field (EEF). The field strength used was 9kV/m DC and AC (60-Hz) brought about a statistically significant increase (44-71%) in water uptake if the shoot chamber was at almost 100% humidity.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Sardarabadi, Bahram M. (Bahram Moory)

The Effects of an Electronic Feedback Sign on Speeding

Description: Although a handful of experiments have utilized indirect feedback in attempts to reduce speeding on roadways, fewer experiments have utilized direct feedback as a means to reduce incidences of speeding. The current study evaluated the effects of direct and individualized feedback provided by a large electronic feedback sign that displayed the speed of oncoming vehicles as they approached the sign along the roadways of a college campus. The effects of the sign were evaluated using a non-simultaneous multiple baseline experimental design employing two control conditions and intervention phase. Each condition was implemented at three sites on the college campus. The results showed that intervention produced significant decreases in both measures of vehicle speeds at each site, relative to measures collected during both control conditions.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Flores, Jaime

The Effects of an Experimentally-Induced Bodily Focus Experience on a Psychotherapist during a Psychotherapy Session

Description: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the current process research by investigating a psychotherapist's experience during psychotherapy. Massage therapy and relaxation therapy were used to manipulate psychotherapist's bodily focus, physiology, and affective state. Topics discussed include: the bodily focus of the therapist, neurobiological models of experience, mind-body boundary issues, and a present-time focus. Doctoral level Counseling and Clinical graduate students were used as participants.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Koehler, Gregory C. (Gregory Charles)

The Effects of an Informational Briefing on the Attitudes of Certain High School Seniors in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area Toward the Air Force ROTC Training Program

Description: This study was a simple "before" and "after" attitude measurement experiment using an experimental group and a control group. The attitude measurements were made before and after the subjects in the experimental group were presented an informational briefing about the Air Force ROTC training program. Both the experimental group and the control group were subject to exposure to the Air Force mass communication advertising during the two-month study period. The results indicate that the increased knowledge gained by the experimental group through its exposure to the informational briefing caused a negative change of attitude within the group. However, the control group had no significant change of attitude during the study period even though more than 87 percent of those subjects were exposed to some form of Air Force advertising.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Andrews, Robert Glenn

The Effects of an Inquiry-based American History Program on the Achievement of Middle School and High School Students.

Description: Implicit in the call for educational reform in the teaching of social studies has been the suggestion that pursuing inquiry-based principles will lead to improvement in student achievement. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of pedagogy: traditional and inquiry-based upon student achievement as measured by a standards-based, state administered examination. Second, this study examined the relationship between the treatment teachers' level of implementation and student achievement. A nonequivalent control group posttest and experimental design was used in this study. Subjects involved in this study include 84 secondary American history teachers and their respective students from a large urban public school district in Texas. The sample consisted of two groups, one taught by traditional/didactic instruction (n=48) and the other taught by inquiry-based pedagogy (n=36). Data for this study were collected using a classroom observation protocol based upon the level of use rubric developed by the concerns-based adoption model. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p<.05) was used to measure the effects of inquiry-based instruction and traditional pedagogy on student achievement. Student achievement results were measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for American history, grades 8 and 11. The study found that mean scores of the Grade 8 History Alive! group were significantly higher than the scores of the control group, but not for the Grade 11 History Alive! group. However, a comparison of mean scores by teachers' level-of-use suggested that the more faithful the teacher in designing standards-based lessons and delivering them through inquiry, the greater retention of American history student's knowledge about the subject.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Harmon, Larry G.

The Effects of an Intensive Format of the Landreth Filial Therapy Training Model Compared to the Traditional Landreth Filial Therapy Model

Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of an intensive format of the traditional Landreth filial therapy training (LFTT) model compared to the traditional LFTT model. Specifically, this study compared the intensive LFTT group and the traditional LFTT group at post-testing in the areas of: (a) reducing stress related to parenting, (b) increasing parental empathic behavior with their children, (c) increasing parental acceptance toward their children, and (d) reducing perceived child behavior problems. The traditional LFTT group consisted of 13 parents in groups of up to six members for 10 90-minute weekly sessions. Traditional LFTT involved didactic instruction, required at-home laboratory playtimes, and supervision. Parents were taught child-centered play therapy skills of responsive listening, recognizing children's emotional needs, therapeutic limit setting, building children's self-esteem, and structuring required weekly playtimes with their children using a kit of specially selected toys. The intensive LFTT group consisted of 13 parents in groups of up to four members who met on four Saturdays for 4 hours each. The traditional LFTT model was modified to teach the same material over fewer sessions. The difference in this delivery was fewer opportunities for parents to have home playtimes and receive feedback from the researcher. To compensate for this difference and attempt to maintain the effectiveness of the traditional model, the researcher had parents bring their children to training. The researcher used the parents' children in live demonstrations of the skills being taught. Parents were able to practice the new skills with their own children under direct supervision from the researcher followed by immediate feedback. This modification provided supervision equivalent to that of the traditional LFTT model. The results of this study were no statistically significant differences between the intensive and traditional groups at post-testing on overall parenting stress, parental acceptance and empathic behaviors with their children, and in ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Ferrell, Lisa G.

The Effects of an Interdisciplinary Program upon Students' Achievement, Attendance, and Attitude

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Project SAIL, a program designed to increase student achievement through interdisciplinary learning, upon the achievement, attendance, and attitude toward school of the ninth grade students who participated in it. The study also identified its benefits and liabilities from the perspective of teachers and students.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Jacob, Deborah Wester

Effects of an Intervention Program on Caregiver Coping Efficacy

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention program for Alzheimer's patients on coping efficacy of their family caregivers. Using a pre-post repeated measures design, 16 family caregivers were interviewed before and after a medical, nursing, and social service intervention. Self-report measures, adjusted for caregiver satisfaction and caregiver mastery, were used to determine if there was a change in: resources, burden, and coping efficacy with caregiver specific and general life events. Results showed a marginal effect [F = 2.6, df(4,10), p<.10] for the omnibus MANCOVA. Most of this change was due to an increase in resources. Covariates of caregiver satisfaction and mastery were correlated with average burden. Results suggest that interventions such as this will be helpful for family caregivers of Alzheimer's patients.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Driskill, Gail