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The Effects of Mastery, Competitive and Cooperative Goals on Performance in Simple and Complex Sport Skills

Description: The present study investigated the effects of different goal and feedback conditions on performance of a basketball field goal shooting task and a more complex one-on-one offensive basketball task. Subjects (N = 100) were matched, based on pre-test performance, into one of five conditions: competitive goal, cooperative goal, mastery goal, "do your best" with feedback, and "do your best" without feedback. Results indicated the competitive group was significantly better than the "do your best" without feedback group in one-on-one performance. No other between group differences were significant, although some consistent group trends were present. Subjects' goal orientations were not related to performance in specific goal conditions, with the exception of mastery oriented subjects in the mastery goal condition.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Giannini, John

Effects of Maternal Aerobic Exercise on Selected Pregnancy Outcomes in Nulliparas

Description: This study evaluated the effects of participation in aerobic exercise on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes included type of delivery, length of labor, gestational age, neonatal birth weight, and maternal weight gain. The 137 nulliparas were categorized as active (N=44) or sedentary (N=93) based on self-reported aerobic exercise. Findings from this study suggest that pregnant women who were active during pregnancy were more likely to have vaginal deliveries than sedentary women. No significant differences between active and sedentary women were found in neonatal birth weight, maternal weight gain, length of labor, or gestational age.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Melgar, Dian L. (Dian Louise)

The Effects of Maternal Employment Status on the Evening Meals of Adolescents

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal employment contributed to the general inadequacy of the adolescent's evening meal, and to examine the attitudes of adolescents regarding the mother's role in evening meal preparation. A questionnaire was administered to 1180 high school students in a suburban area of Dallas-Ft.Worth in May, 1987. The hypotheses were tested using Chi square, Pearson product moment correlation, and Anova. Results indicated that maternal employment affects adolescent evening meals in the number of meals offered per week, fully prepared by mother, and eaten away from home. The amount of adolescent participation in meal preparation was higher for the employed group. Attitudes are different between the sexes and those with employed and unemployed mothers.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Hebert, Karen A. Fleischman (Karen Ann Fleischman)

Effects of Meal Size and Type, and Level of Physical Activity on Perceived Masculinity, Femininity, Likability and Attractiveness

Description: Previous research indicates that women are judged on the amount of food eaten and that both men and women are judged on the type of food eaten. This study is an attempt to determine whether meal size or type predominantly accounts for these findings on the variables of masculinity, femininity, attractiveness, thinness, fitness, and likability. Physical activity was also included to determine its effect on these variable. Subjects used were 313 undergraduate students. Results indicate that meal type is more influential than meal size and that physical activity significantly influences judgements of others. The results are discussed in terms of future research and relatedness to socio-cultural theories of eating disorders.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Hill, Christie D.

The Effects of Media Constituents Upon the Growth and Pigment Production of Micrococcus Flavus, Micrococcus Roseus, Micrococcus Subcitreus, and Sarcina Citrea

Description: This investigation has for its aim the explanation of growth and pigment production of Micrococcus flavus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus subvitreus, and Sarcina citrea by the addition of various nutrient test materials to a standard culture medium.
Date: 1947
Creator: Martin, Joseph Hearn

The Effects of Media Exposure on Body Satisfaction, Beliefs About Attractiveness, Mood and Bulimic Symptomatology Among College Women

Description: The research of Stice et al. (1994) and Stice and Shaw (1994) proposed several mechanisms that may mediate the adverse effects of media exposure to the thin ideal including internalization of the thin-ideal, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction. The purpose of this study was to extend initial research of Stice and Shaw (1994) by incorporating two forms of media (e.g., TV and Magazines) to assess the effects of exposure to the media portrayal of ideal body shape on women's mood, body satisfaction, and internalization of societal values concerning attractiveness. The relation of these variables to bulimic symptomatology was examined. The current study improved upon Stice and Shaw's study (1994) by matching participants' scores on BMI, level of negative affect, and level of body satisfaction before random assignment to the experimental conditions. Female undergraduates aged 18 to 25 years participated in premeasure (N = 198) and post measure (N = 164) conditions. Results from repeated mulitvariate analysis indicated media exposure to ideal-body images demonstrated no significant changes in women's affect, body satisfaction or endorsement of the thin ideal. Indirect support for the sociocultural theory of eating disorders was provided by multiple regression analyses that demonstrated lower levels of satisfaction with size and shape of body and higher levels of negative affect predicted bulimic symptomatology in women. Future research should determine which females are at greater risk than others for the development of body dissatisfaction, negative mood, and internalization of U.S. values of attractiveness in response to media related messages communicating a thin ideal.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Varnado, Jessica Lea

The Effects of Memory Alteration in Schizophrenic Patients Treated with Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy

Description: The problem of this investigation is twofold. First, to demonstrate the effects of the variation of convulsive-nonconvulsive electroshock treatment used in this study in relation to memory alteration in schizophrenia as measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale. Second, to determine those aspects of memory that are the most affected, and those that are the least affected by this form of treatment.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Redding, Kaye George

The Effects of Memory Load on the Accuracy of Recognition of Stimuli

Description: The purpose of this study was to find if memory load significantly affects the performance of the subjects in the before condition of a before versus after technique experiment. In order to accomplish this the alternatives were presented either before or after the stimulus, with the alternatives and stimuli being either of high-complexity or low-complexity.
Date: June 1968
Creator: Harris, Jerry Lon

The Effects of Mental Imagery Training on a Baseball Throwing Task

Description: This study was designed to determine if long term training of mental imagery skills is more beneficial to an athlete than immediate imagery rehearsal practiced only prior to an event. Subjects were thirty male high school baseball athletes who were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) long term imagery training and practice; (2) immediate imagery practice only; and (3) control. An accuracy relay-throwing test was performed with pre-test, mid-test, and post-test performance trials. Results of the study revealed no statistically significant differences over the three test periods for any of the treatment conditions. Thus, long term imagery combined with immediate imagery practice, immediate imagery practice and control groups performed equally well on the baseball throwing task.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Freeman, James D. (James David Douglas)

Effects of Methanol, Atrazine, and Copper on the Ultrastructure of Pseudokirchneriella Subcapitata (Selenastrum Capricornutum).

Description: The toxicity of methanol, atrazine, and copper to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korshikov) Hindák historically referred to as Selenastrum capricornutum Printz were determined following 96 hrs growth in a modified Goram's growth media. Methanol and atrazine inhibited fluorescence readings in the cultures by 50% (IC50) at concentrations of 2% and 82 µg/l respectively. These toxicity values compared favorably to other published reports. The IC50 for copper was 160 µg/l which is substantially higher than reported values. This is understandable because of the high chelating capacity of Goram's media. The use of stereologically derived relative volume in the chloroplasts, mitochondria, lipid bodies, phosphate bodies, and nucleus was investigated to determine if it could be used as a sensitive endpoint in toxicity tests. The volume fractions for the chloroplasts and mitochondria were normally distributed in control cells while the nuclei, phosphate bodies, and lipid bodies were not. The chloroplasts were the most dominate organelle occupying a mean relative volume of 46% and mitochondria occupied a mean relative volume of 3%. The nucleus and phosphate bodies occupied a median relative volume of 7% and 2% respectively. The lipid bodies were rare in section profile and no meaningful median relative volume could be calculated. Up to the 82nd percentile of sectioned profiles contained no recognizable lipid bodies. The use of relative volume was not a sensitive endpoint for use in toxicity tests. No significant differences in relative volume could be detected in the nucleus or phosphate bodies following any treatment. Limited differences were detected in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, and lipid bodies. The only significant differences that appear to be biologically significant occurred in methanol treated cells where an increase in the lipid bodies' relative volume was apparently concentration dependent. Significant differences in the relative volume of mitochondria and chloroplasts do not appear to be biologically significant.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Garrett, David C.

Effects of Minimum Quantity Lubrication in Drilling 1018 Steel.

Description: A common goal for industrial manufacturers is to create a safer working environment and reduce production costs. One common method to achieve this goal is to drastically reduce cutting fluid use in machining. Recent advances in machining technologies have made it possible to perform machining with minimum-quantity lubrication (MQL). Drilling takes a key position in the realization of MQL machining. In this study the effects of using MQL in drilling AISI 1018 steel with HSS tools using a vegetable based lubricant were investigated. A full factorial experiment was conducted and regression models were generated for both surface finish and hole size. Lower surface roughness and higher tool life were observed in the lowest speed and feed rate combination.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Shaikh, Vasim

Effects of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (Mql) on Tool Life in Drilling Aisi 1018 Steel

Description: It has been reported that minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) provides better tool life compared to flood cooling under some drilling conditions. In this study, I evaluate the performance of uncoated HSS twist drill when machining AISI 1018 steel using a newly developed lubricant designed for MQL (EQO-Kut 718 by QualiChem Inc.). A randomized factorial design was used in the experiment. The results show that a tool life of 1110 holes with a corresponding flank wear of 0.058 mm was realized.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Maru, Tejas

The Effects of Mirror Confrontation on Body Image Ratings

Description: There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the effects of mirror exposure on subjective body-image evaluation. Much of the objective self-awareness research by Duval and Wicklund concluded that the presence of a mirror leads people to evaluate themselves negatively, while other studies have reported contrary findings. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mirror confrontation on individuals' body image ratings. Subjects were 88 childless, female university students. Using the Eating Disorders Inventory-Body Dissatisfaction subscale (BDS) as a screener, subjects were assigned to either a High Satisfaction group or a Low Satisfaction group. The subjects then completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) in either a Mirror or No Mirror condition. Results suggest that the presence of the mirror had no measurable effect on the subjects' ratings of themselves on the MBSRQ. There was a main effect for satisfaction level, and no interaction was found between the satisfaction level and the mirror condition. Possible explanations for these findings are offered.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Dell'Era, Maria Elena

The Effects of Missing Data on Audit Inference and an Investigation into the Validity of Accounts Receivable Confirmations as Audit Evidence

Description: The objectives of the thesis research were twofold. One objective was to conduct an exploratory investigation of the underlying response mechanism to an auditor's request for confirmation of accounts receivable. The second objective was to investigate the validity of confirmation evidence. Validity was defined in terms of detection of errors.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Caster, Paul, 1951-

The Effects of Model Prompts on Joint Attention Initiations in Children with Autism

Description: The general purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of minimally intrusive prompting procedures and preferred stimuli on protodeclarative joint attention initiations in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two boys and one girl diagnosed with ASD participated. The experimenter provided attention and social interaction following protodeclarative initiations throughout all phases of the study. During intervention, a model prompt was delivered every 30 s if the participant failed to initiate a bid for joint attention. Results for the first participant show that a model prompt was sufficient to increase the rate of protodeclarative initiations across stimulus sets. Generalization was seen across sets, but not across environments. Subsequently, the model prompt was sufficient to increase the rate of protodeclarative initiations across sets in a second setting (classroom). Results for the second participant are inconclusive. Data collected during the initial baseline condition show that she engaged in an incompatible verbal response across sets. When pictorial stimuli depicting highinterest items and activities were introduced, the rate of protodeclarative initiations increased over time. We then returned to original baseline condition and saw an initial decrease, followed by a steady increase in the rate of protodeclarative initiations. The third participant withdrew prematurely due to medical reasons. The findings of the current study show that minimally intrusive prompts and natural consequences may be sufficient to establish protodeclarative initiations in children. However, this finding may be limited to only those children for whom social interactions already function as reinforcers.
Date: December 2014
Creator: James-Kelly, Kimberly L.

The Effects of Modeling, Roleplaying and Feedback on the Performance of Teachers of Children with Autism

Description: Teachers providing treatment to children with autism are responsible for implementing numerous procedures. Teacher training has not been addressed extensively in the literature. This study employed a multiple baseline design to evaluate the effects of a training package incorporating modeling, roleplaying and feedback on teacher performance. Results indicated that the teacher implemented correct teaching episodes following training. Changes in teacher performance were only observed when the training package was applied to each setting and skill area. As a result of changes in teacher behavior, the child demonstrated an increase in the number of desired responses. Results are discussed in the context of generalization, training package components, cost-benefit of single-subject designs, and limitations of the study.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Edwards, Carla Ward

The Effects of Monitoring and Incompatible Contingencies on Say/Do Correspondence.

Description: This study investigated effects of monitoring on correspondence between nonverbal responding and verbal descriptions of those contingencies, when verbal descriptions and contingencies were compatible and when incompatible. In the Nonverbal Component, the contingency for key pressing was either on a 0.8 s IRT or a 3.4 s IRT. In the Verbal Component, subjects made responses to a statement about the contingency for reinforcement in the Nonverbal Component. Shaping was used to establish targets of 0.8 s and 3.4 s in this component. Results indicated that across 7/8 opportunities subjects exhibited nonverbal and verbal behavior that was sensitive to their respective contingencies regardless of compatibility. This sensitivity to contingencies was not affected by the presence of a monitor.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Crye, Amy Arthur

The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes

Description: To investigate the effects of emotional arousal on information processing strategy, three different moods (sadness, anger, and happiness) were hypnotically induced at three different levels of intensity (high, medium, and low) in 29 male and female undergraduate students, while engaging them in a visual information processing task. Subjects were screened for hypnotic susceptibility and assigned to either a high susceptibility group or low susceptibility group to account for the attentional bias associated with this trait. All subjects were trained to access the three emotions at the three levels of intensity. During separate experimental sessions, subjects were hypnotized, and asked to access a mood and experience each level of intensity while being administered the Navon Design Discrimination Task, a measure of global and analytic visual information processing. Scores were derived for global processing, analytic processing, and a percentage of global to analytic processing for each level of mood and intensity. Two (hypnotic susceptibility) x 3 (emotion) x 3 (intensity level) repeated measures ANOVAs were computed on the global, analytic, and percentage scores. In addition, two separate ANCOVAs were computed on each dependent measure to account for the effects of handedness, and cognitive style. None of these analyses revealed significant main effects or interactions. The analysis of the percentage scores revealed a trend toward differences between the emotions, but in a direction opposite to that hypothesized. Hypnotic susceptibility does not appear to mediate global and analytic responses to the Navon visual information processing task when emotions are being experienced. Results regarding emotions and emotional intensity were discussed in terms of the problems with adequate control and manipulation of mood and intensity level. Difficulties with the Navon measure were also explored with regard to the exposure duration in the Navon task, and its adequacy in measuring shifts in information processing associated with transient ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Lamar, Marlys Camille