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The Effects Of The Allocation Of Attention Congruent With Lateralized Cognitive Tasks On EEG Coherence Measurements

Description: The single task condition of the Urbanczyk and Kennelly (1991) study was conducted while recording a continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) record. Attention was allocated by instructed lateral head orienting and eye gaze either congruently or incongruently with lateralized cognitive tasks. Thirty university subjects retained a digit span or a spatial location span for a 20 second retention interval. EEG data were extracted from the 20 second retention intervals and interhemispheric coherence was calculated for homologous sites in the temporal, parietal and occipital regions of the brain. There was a main effect for group, with congruent orienting producing greater coherence values than incongruent orienting. This effect of attention on alpha coherence values was found in the low alpha (8-10 Hz) frequency band. This provides evidence that the lower alpha frequency band is reflective of manipulations of attention. The higher coherence measures for the congruent orienting group indicates that homologous regions of the two hemispheres are more coupled into a single system when lateralized attention activates the same hemisphere performing the cognitive task. In the higher alpha frequency band (11-13 Hz) group, sex, site and task interacted. This provides evidence that the higher alpha band is more affected by cognitive processing of the specific task undertaken. An interhemispheric brain system, affected by the lateral orientation of attention, may underlie psychometric intelligence's general “g” ability (Spearman, 1927.)
Date: May 2002
Creator: Hill, Cynthia DeLeon

The Effects of the CACREP Standards on the Development of Counseling Skills

Description: This study was designed to measure the effectiveness of accreditation standards (specifically, CACREP Standards for counselor education programs) on the development of counseling skills. A measure of counseling skill (The Counselor Rating Form-Short Version) was used to measure the counseling skills of counselor trainees from various masters programs. These students were enrolled in a doctoral program in counselor education and were taking their first semester practicum. A T-Test of Independent Means revealed that the student counselors from CACREP accredited masters programs scored significantly higher on the CRF-S than did students from non CACREP accredited programs. These students generally had higher levels of counseling skill as judged by this measure. Given the convenience of the sample and its size, results must be analyzed carefully. These results do, however, seem to suggest the necessity of further study. There are several conclusions that may be reasonably drawn from these results. The emphasis that the CACREP Standards place on the supervised experience may account for the difference in skill levels between the two groups. Prior research and student self-report support this theory. The fact that these requirements are daunting to unaccredited programs suggests a gap in experiential learning between the two groups.
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Date: May 2002
Creator: McDuff, Laura

The Effects of the Conflict Settlement Process on the Expressed Degree of Organizational Commitment

Description: The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the conflict settlement process on the degree of expressed organizational commitment of employees in a collective bargaining setting. The research was done in a basic industry in northern Alabama. The instrument included the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) developed by Mowday, Porter, and Steers. Demographic variables measured were education, age, and sex. Main effects variables were tenure; union membership; and self-described experience with and feeling toward grievance/arbitration as a category 1 grievant, category 2 grievant, witness, and supervisor. Data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression. No statistically significant results were found. Limitations included the economic climate of the region and the industrial relations climate of the company.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Kauffman, Nancy (Nancy L.)

The Effects of the Delay in a Delayed Match-To-Sample Procedure on Acquisition and Transfer

Description: Twenty-six participants, divided into three groups, learned to relate English words to Czech and Portuguese words in a matching-to-sample procedure. Half the word pairs were learned using English words as samples and foreign words as corresponding comparisons and the other half were learned with the foreign words serving as samples and English words as corresponding comparisons. The only difference in training across the three groups involved a programmed delay between the removal of the sample stimulus and the presentation of comparison stimuli. For Group 0, Group 2, and Group 8, the programmed delay values between sample offset and comparison onset were 0 s, 2 s, and 8 s, respectively. Test trials assessed the extent to which the conditional discriminations established during training had become reversible or the extent to which the effects of learning had transferred to a new situation. The results suggest that the likelihood of transfer was greatest for the group that learned the task with the largest delay (i.e., an 8 s delay between sample offset and comparison onset).
Date: December 2005
Creator: Smith, Kimberly N.

The Effects of the Density of Reinforcement on the Maladaptive Behaviors of a Child With Autism

Description: The present study consists of two experiments that analyze the effects of high and low densities of reinforcemnt on the maladaptive behaviors of a 9 year old girl with autism. The first experiment investigates the isolated effects of density of reinforcement on the frequency of maladaptive behaviors during a motor imitation teaching task. High densities of reinforcement produced fewer occurrences of maladaptive behavior than low densities of reinforcement. Experiment 2 analyzes the effects of density of reinforcement during the same teaching tasks as in experiment 1 on maladaptive behavior, task accuracy, prompt resistance, and language. Maladaptive behavior did not recur during experiment 2. High density of reinforcement conditions during the second experiment showed a positive effect on the accuracy of responding and compliance with prompts.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Motiejunas, Kristina M.

The Effects of the Recapture Provision of Senate Bill 7 of 1993 Upon the Quality of Schools: an Analysis of Perceptions of Administrators in Both Chapter 41 and Chapter 42 Schools.

Description: The purpose of this 4-case study was to determine the significance of the effects of the recapture legislation in Texas upon the quality of schools as perceived by administrators in participating school districts, including those surrendering funds (Chapter 41) and those receiving funds (Chapter 42). The recapture provision requires districts above a designated level of property wealth to surrender excess funds to be appropriated to districts with property wealth below a designated level. The study solicited administrators’ perceptions in both district types as to whether the changes in funding have significantly affected the quality of their schools. Using University Scholastic League classifications as a guideline for size, 2 Chapter 41 districts, and 2 Chapter 42 districts, 1 small and 1 large of each type, were selected to participate. Variables included 5 indicators of schools quality that are repeatedly mentioned in literature concerning effective schools: curriculum, climate, leadership, facilities, and safety and security. A review of literature included the historical development of public school finance systems as well as studies of the effects of efforts to equalize funding upon both the financial health and academic performance of schools. A weak link or no link between funding systems and student performance or financial health was indicated. This study supported these conclusions with both Chapter 42 districts; however, there was a discrepancy between the perceptions of administrators in the two Chapter 41 districts, indicating a need for further study. The unique aspects of this study are that it solicited directly the perceptions of acting administrators and that it included administrators in districts receiving funds to determine how those funds are being used and whether they have a significant effect upon school quality.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Warren, Susanne Steele

The Effects of the Soil Conditioner, Superbio, Upon the Cellulose Decomposing Bacteria and the Crop Yield of a Soil

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a commercial soil conditioner, Superbio, can improve crop yield, and if the "advertised" soil improvement might be due to an increase in the activity and numbers of aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria following treatment.
Date: August 1968
Creator: Gunn, Bruce Alan

Effects of the Texas Principal Excellence Program on Texas Principal Leadership Behavior and School Outcomes

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership and school outcome effects of the Texas Principal Improvement program; which authorized the School Leadership Pilot Program under Texas Education Code 11.203. The specific research questions were: What effects did participating in the Texas Principal Excellence Program in 2009-2010 have on participants and their schools? What changes in participants' self-reported and peer-observed leader behaviors occurred between the initial assessment at the onset of the program and the final assessment once the program was completed? What changes were experienced in school's passing rate on mathematics and reading TAKS in schools having the same principal for the two years in 2008-2009 (pre-participation) and 2009-2010 (post participation). The research used TxPEP participating principals who agreed to take part in the study. Principals and a selected group of people who worked with them completed a 360-degree leadership feedback instrument addressing nine leadership competencies at the beginning and end of the program. Paired samples t-tests were used to determine if changes from pre-participation to post-participation were statistically significant. When a statistically significant difference was found, effect size and confidence intervals were calculated to place the data in context. Multiple regression and propensity score matching were used to analyze TAKS data for the second question. The study found that principals believed they were better able to lead after the conclusion of the TxPEP program and that their self-ratings were statistically higher on each of the nine Texas Principal competencies. The results of the 360-degree assessment showed that the peer group felt as if the principals had a statistically significant improvement on three of the nine principal competencies. Regression analysis showed there were no statistically significant changes in the school wide percent passing rates on math or reading TAKS after completion of the TxPEP program. Longitudinal research ...
Date: May 2011
Creator: Fouche, Todd P.

The Effects of the Texas Reading First Response to Intervention Program on Student Achievement and Campus Special Education Rates

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine special education populations, special education reading achievement, and regular education reading achievement in relation to the implementation of the Reading First three-tiered model as a response to Intervention platform. The population for this study focused on rural schools with Grades K-3 in attendance. Schools participated in the reading first grant period of the 2003-2009 school years. Forty-seven Texas Reading First schools were compared to 47 campuses having similar populations, socioeconomic makeups, and grade structures. This study utilized quantitative research measures to evaluate the level of special education populations on Reading First campuses using a response to intervention model. Quantitative measures were also used to evaluate those same campuses achievement rates of both special education and regular education students on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills reading tests. The study's outcome data showed little to no statistic significance for the three research questions. However, the inferential statistics showed a decrease in the special education population of the Reading First schools. Inferential statistics also indicated both the special education and the regular education students showed growth on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills reading tests. The use of a response to intervention program can be effective in the reduction of special education students identified on school campuses. Response to intervention programs can boost achievement levels of students receiving special education services. Students not enrolled in special education can benefit from effective response to intervention services.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Batts, Troy D.

The Effects of the Type A Behavior Pattern and Aerobic Exercise on the Allocation of Attention

Description: This investigation examined the effects of aerobic fitness and the Type A behavior pattern on cognitive functioning in the split-attention (dual task) paradigm. Sixty-four adults were classified as Type A or B by means of the Jenkins Activity Survey, and as Runner or Sedentary using self-reports of physical activity. Under challenging instructions, subjects performed a primary task (Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices) and secondary task (Backward Digit Span) alternatively under single and dual task conditions. There was a significant interaction between aerobic fitness and task condition such that Runners outperformed Sedentary subjects under dual, but not single, task conditions on the secondary task. No differences were found on the primary task. Backward Digit Span performance under dual, but not single, task conditions, was also found to be positively related to the subjects eating a low cholesterol diet and maintaining a healthy weight. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant effects of the Type A behavior pattern, either main or interaction, on any of the cognitive measures. Type A Runners exceeded Type B Runners in aerobic points, races per year, runs per week, Personal Record attempts, and level of dissatisfaction with performance. There were no differences in the tendency to run while injured, use of a stopwatch during training, or effort exerted in races. Overall, these findings suggest that an ability to perform under split-attention (dual task) conditions is positively related to aerobic fitness, a low-fat diet, and maintenance of a healthy weight. In addition, Type A Runners differ from B Runners in some, but not all, aspects related to the Type A pattern, suggesting that aerobic exercise may modify to a limited extent the Type A behavior pattern. The failure to find A-B differences in attentional style consistent with prior research (Matthews & Brunson, 1979) or interaction of type and exercise ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Morton, Anne Aldredge

The Effects of the Use of English 3200, a Programed Textbook, on Achievement in English Grammar at the Twelfth-Grade Level in a Large Metropolitan High School

Description: The problem of this study m a an analysis of the relationship between a group who received a certain kind of programed instruction in English grammar and a group who received instruction by conventional teaching procedures. The purposes of the study were: 1. To determine the effects of the use of English 3200 on total group performance in achieving an improved understanding of English grammar at the twelfth-grade level. 2. To determine the effects of the programed textbook on sub-group achievement when total groups were divided into three levels according to achievement test scores. 3. To determine the effects of the programed textbook on the progress of the total groups and on the progress of the sub-groups in achieving an improved understanding of English grammar at the twelfth-grade level as measured by tests over individual units within English 3200. 4. To determine the effects of the programed textbook on group performance in the retention of grammar skills. 5. To determine the effects of the programed textbook in improving written composition. 6. To determine the effects of teacher supervision on the progress of the total groups and on the progress of the sub-groups in achieving an improved understanding of English grammar. 7. To determine relationships between such factors as intelligence, reading comprehension ability, and sex with achievement in English grammar in the groups involved.
Date: August 1965
Creator: Munday, Robert Gwyn, 1934-

The Effects of the Use of the Calculator in Algebra I Classes on Basic Skills Maintenance and Algebra Achievement

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in basic skills maintenance between Algebra I students who used calculators during classroom mathematics instruction and Algebra I students who did not use calculators during classroom mathematics instruction. Another purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in algebra achievement between Algebra I students who used calculators during classroom mathematics instruction and Algebra I students who did not use calculators during classroom mathematics instruction. This study also investigated the effects of the use of the calculator in Algebra I classes on students' attitudes toward mathematics.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Whisenant, Martha A. (Martha Ann)

Effects of the Why Try Social Skills Program on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders at an Alternative Campus

Description: Approximately 20% of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) are sent to an alternative campus for their lack of social competence. Social skills training (SST) is an evidence-based intervention to help increase social competence for students with E/BD, but there is limited research that addresses SST for students with E/BD at alternative campuses. A mixed-methods design was utilized to examine SST at an alternative campus for students with E/BD. Pre-intervention data were collected for students' attendance, grades, office disciplinary referrals, and behavioral rating scales, after which, the Why Try SST program was implemented. Following the intervention, the same type of data were collected. Nonparametric statistics guided the quantitative analysis, because of the small population being studied. Differences from pre- to post-intervention were examined. Triangulation methods drove the qualitative data collection and analysis through observations, student interviews, and teacher interviews. Students exhibited significant differences from pre- to post-intervention in the number of office disciplinary referrals and several areas on the behavioral rating scales. Important insight into motivation and perceptions was gained through the observations and interviews.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Wilhite, Shannon

Effects of Thickness and Indenter Tip Geometry in Nanoindentation of Nickel Films

Description: Nanoindentation has become a widely used technique to measure the mechanical properties of materials. Due to its capability to deform materials in micro- and nano-scale, nanoindentation has found more applications in characterizing the deformation behavior and determining the mechanical properties of thin films and coatings. This research deals with the characterization of samples received from Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) and Integran Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada and the objective of this investigation was to utilize the experimental data obtained from nanoindentation to determine the deformation behavior, mechanical properties of thin films on substrates and bulk materials, and the effect of geometrically different indenters (Berkovich, cubecorner, and conical). X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis were performed on these materials to determine the crystal orientation, grain size of the material, and also to measure any substrate effects like pile-up or sin-in respectively. The results indicate that indentation size effect (ISE) strongly depends on shape of the indenter and less sensitive to penetration depth where as the hardness measurements depends on shape of indenter and depth of penetration. There is a negligible strain rate dependency of hardness at deeper depths and a significant increase in the hardness due to the decrease in grain size and results also indicate that there is no significant substrate effect on thin films for 10% and 20% of film thicknesses. Nanocrystalline material could not validate a dislocation based mechanisms deformation for indentation made by cubecorner and conical indenters in depths less than 1mm.
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Date: May 2004
Creator: Parakala, Padma

The Effects of Three Conditions Involving Active or Passive Observers Upon Performance of College Females on a Volleyball Overhand Serve Test

Description: The purposes of the study were to determine if college females perform best on the AAHPER Volleyball Serve Test with classmates passively or actively observing, or instructor only actively observing, and to determine which condition was best for high, medium, and low skilled beginners. Subjects were sixty-three college females. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Conclusions of the investigation were beginners perform better with active than passive observers present; highly skilled beginners perform better with active observers than instructor only present; medium skilled beginners perform better with active observers and instructor only than passive observers present; and low skilled beginners showed no significant difference between conditions.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Ketterer, Patti

The Effects of Three Experimental Presentations on the Acquisition of Vocabulary by Graduate Students

Description: The first purpose of this study was to ascertain the gains in vocabulary of three selected groups of graduate students presented material by different methods: audio, visual, and audio-visual. The second purpose of this study was to determine whether these gains were maintained after a lapse of time of four weeks.
Date: June 1970
Creator: Brumbach, Virginia Whitcomb