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An Empirical Study of How Novice Programmers Use the Web

Description: Students often use the web as a source of help for problems that they encounter on programming assignments.In this work, we seek to understand how students use the web to search for help on their assignments.We used a mixed methods approach with 344 students who complete a survey and 41 students who participate in a focus group meetings and helped in recording data about their search habits.The survey reveals data about student reported search habits while the focus group uses a web browser plug-in to record actual search patterns.We examine the results collectively and as broken down by class year.Survey results show that at least 2/3 of the students from each class year rely on search engines to locate resources for help with their programming bugs in at least half of their assignments;search habits vary by class year;and the value of different types of resources such as tutorials and forums varies by class year.Focus group results exposes the high frequency web sites used by the students in solving their programming assignments.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Tula, Naveen

An Empirical Study of Quality and Satisfaction with a Focus on Creating a Parsimonious Measurement Instrument in an Information Space

Description: Student satisfaction and service quality are interrelated constructs that are associated with improving student retention. This research investigated the relationships between these constructs in the context of an institution of higher education as an information system and sought to reduce the dimensionality of what have traditionally been considered orthogonal factors of these constructs in order to produce a parsimonious model and survey instrument that may be useful in assessing and predicting overall student satisfaction and overall service quality. The methods of analysis used in this study are quantitative in nature and included the use of descriptive univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses; exploratory factor analysis to examine latent dimensions within the data; and multiple linear regressions to measure the predictive efficacy of combinations of variables with respect to overall student satisfaction and overall service quality. It was hypothesized that the statistical treatment of the data would show that some dimensions routinely collapse, leading to possible valuable theoretical implications.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Senn, William Donald

An Empirical Study of Software Debugging Games with Introductory Students

Description: Bug Fixer is a web-based application that complements lectures with hands-on exercises that encourage students to think about the logic in programs. Bug Fixer presents students with code that has several bugs that they must fix. The process of fixing the bugs forces students to conceptually think about the code and reinforces their understanding of the logic behind algorithms. In this work, we conducted a study using Bug Fixer with undergraduate students in the CSCE1040 course at University of North Texas to evaluate whether the system increases their conceptual understanding of the algorithms and improves their Software Testing skills. Students participated in weekly activities to fix bugs in code. Most students enjoyed Bug Fixer and recommend the system for future use. Students typically reported a better understanding of the algorithms used in class. We observed a slight increase of passing grades for students who participated in our study compared to students in other sections of the course with the same instructor who did not participate in our study. The students who did not report a positive experience provide comments for future improvements that we plan to address in future work.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Reynolds, Lisa Marie

An Empirical Study of the Causes of Military Coups and the Consequences of Military Rule in the Third World: 1960-1985

Description: This study analyzed the causes of military coups and the consequences of military rule in the Third World during the 1960-1985 period. Using a coup d" etat score, including both successful and unsuccessful coups, as a dependent variable and collecting data for 109 developing nations from the World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, The New York Times Index, and public documents, sixteen hypotheses derived from the literature on the causes of military coups were tested by both simple and multiple regression models for the Third World as a whole, as well as for four regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa) and in two time periods (1960-1970 and 1971-1985). Similarly, three models of military rule (progressive, Huntington's, and revisionist models) were analyzed to assess the consequences of military rule. The results of the study concerning the causes of military coups suggest four conclusions. First, three independent variables (social mobilization, cultural homogeneity, and dominant ethnic groups in the society) have stabilizing consequences. Second, six independent variables (previous coup experience, social mobilization divided by political institutionalization, length of national independence, economic deterioration, internal war, and military dominance) have destabilizing consequences. Third, multiple regression models for each region are very useful; most models explain more than 50% of the variance in military coups. Fourth, the time period covered is an important factor affecting explanations of the causes of military coups. In the analysis of the consequences of military rule, this study found that military governments did not differ significally from civilian governments in terms of economic, education, health, and social performances. However, the study found that military rule decreased political and civil rights. Its findings are thus very consistent with the best of the literature.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Kanchanasuwon, Wichai, 1955-

An Empirical Study on the Use of Promotion in Hospitals

Description: The role of marketing and marketing communication in hospitals has grown in the last decade. The need for hospitals to make careful decisions about their marketing communication efforts is mandated, given the changes taking place in the hospital industry. The purpose of this dissertation was to conduct empirical research to determine whether for-profit and non-profit hospitals perceive and utilize promotion as a marketing strategy element. The two steps taken included: identifying important factors considered by hospital administrators and marketing staff in the development of communication messages designed for patients, hospital staff and medical staff; and testing the factors developed and studying the attitudes of hospital personnel toward promotion using a national sample of hospitals. In phase 1, focus group interviews were conducted in a surrogate for-profit hospital and a surrogate non-profit hospital. In phase 2, an original mail questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 80 hospitals. A total of 38 hospitals participated, providing 114 usable responses. Test statistics included content analysis, Chi-Square, Pearson correlation coefficient and Analysis of Variance. The results of the focus group study indicated the practice of marketing in hospitals is in its early growth stages and marketing is viewed as nothing more than advertising and public relations. The results of the mail survey indicated that respondents in small for-profit hospitals with 20 to 30 years of experience as professionals, with key decision making authority, are favorably disposed to marketing and marketing communication. It was also found that respondents in large non-profit hospitals are very positive towards marketing. In contrast, respondents in medium and large for-profit hospitals, who are not directly involved in decision making, tend to be less positive towards marketing. The study serves as a basis for future research which may involve, (1) a larger sample frame, (2) hospitals in inner-city ...
Date: December 1988
Creator: Gopalakrishna, Pradeep

Empirical Tests of the Signaling and Monitoring Hypotheses for Initial Public Offerings

Description: The research questions investigated are: 1. Are the expected post-issue fractional holdings of the directors and officers, venture capitalists and institutions signals of firm value? 2. Are the expected post-issue fractional holdings of the directors and officers, venture capitalists and institutions signals of underpricing? and 3. Are the directors and officers, venture capitalists and institutions monitors of IPO investments? The signaling theory developed by Grinblatt and Hwang (1989) (GH) and the monitoring theory for IPO investments have been used to develop the hypotheses for this dissertation. Four factors make my methodology unique. These factors are: 1. I apply and test the GH IPO signaling model over a unique data set collected from the IPO prospectuses, proxy statements and annual reports; 2. I disaggregate the expected post-issue holdings of the different groups of pre-issue blockholders and insiders and hypothesizes that these individual groups represents signals of firm value and underpricing; 3. I hypothesize that these groups, in aggregate and separately, monitor IPO investments over the long term; And 4. I develop signaling and monitoring hypotheses to make predictions at the two stages of the IPO. The results show that firm value is positively related to the level of underpricing, at a given variance of the firms cash flows; the level of underpricing is positively related to the holdings of the directors and officers as a group and the aggregate of the directors and officers, VCs and institutions, at given variances of the firm's cash flows; the firm value is not related to the level of underpricing, at a given level of capital outlay and holdings of either the aggregate blockholders, directors and officers, VCs or institutions. For the monitoring hypotheses, the results show that the long-run buy-and-hold-returns are positively related to the investment bank reputation and the gross spread. Also, the ...
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Date: May 2006
Creator: Gordon, Sean Anthony Garnet

An Empirically Derived Typology of Single Custodial Fathers: Characteristics and Implications for Role Adjustment

Description: Eighty-seven single custodial fathers were surveyed to test the validity of previously developed typologies and/or construct a more empirically valid framework with implications for adjustment to the role. Mendes1 (1975) aggressive seekers, conciliatory seekers, conciliatory assenters, and aggressive assenters were compared to O'Brien's (1980) hostile seekers, conciliatory negotiators, and passive acceptors. In addition to demographic variables, relationship to ex-wife and child, and reasons for becoming single and obtaining custody, several personality variables were included along with measures of adjustment. One year follow-up measures of adjustment were collected to evaluate implications of typologies in adjustment. Two nearly equal groups were established in a Q type factor analysis of continuous data. Factor loadings of individual cases suggest a continuum of the two types of single fathers, rather than two distinct groups. Group differences were evaluated in a series of MANOVA and Chisquare analyses. Analysis included six factor scores from a supplemental R factor analysis of selected variables. Type I fathers are characterized as older, more passive, selfreflective, and aloof in interpersonal relationships. They are somewhat less oriented toward a relationship with their children and had felt satisfied with their wives* care of them. Alternatively, Type II fathers are younger, active, assured (not self-reflective), and person-oriented. They are more oriented toward relationship with their children and had felt dissatisfied with how their wives had cared for their children. Several overlapping characteristics of the Type I/II typology with Mendes1 seeker/assenter continuum are discussed. Limitations of the longitudinal adjustment data restrict the conclusions that can be drawn about differential adjustment of Types I and II. Comparisons with adjustment of other typologies suggest that extremes on the typology continuum are most at risk for problems in adjustment to the single custodial role. Implications for helping professions and future research are discussed.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Theurer, Gregory W. (Gregory Wayne)

L'emploi variable des signes diacritiques dans le français tchaté : une étude variationniste en temps apparent .

Description: After providing an historical overview of the French spelling system and orthographic variation, this study analyzes selected internal (i.e., linguistic) factors and one external (i.e., social) factor that can influence the use of diacritics in online French-language chat sessions. From a corpus of synchronous computer-mediated communication, 3,855 tokens of graphemes capable of bearing diacritics were coded with the following scheme: Letter, Diacritic, Grapheme (i.e., Letter and Diacritic combined), Date of Participation, and Age Group of Participant. A multivariate (VARBRUL) analysis determined that Grapheme exerts the most influence on variation.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Al-Rashdan, Omar

Employee Attitudes Toward Shoplifting

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of retail sales personnel toward shoplifting as well as toward procedures and devices designed to minimize shoplifting. The study also sought to examine employees' recall of training in regard to shoplifting and its prevention. It was concluded that most of the employees are aware of the high cost of shoplifting to retail stores. The majority of the employees do not define shoplifting in terms of the value of the merchandise taken. Uniformed guards, locked display cases and electronic article surveillance devices were ranked high in terms of effectiveness as shoplifting prevention devices. The majority of employees reported they had received training to prevent shoplifting but also indicated they desired more training in certain areas.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Railsback, Crystal

Employee Deception in a Discount Store

Description: The problem to be examined in this study is whether or not deception concerning general morale and attitude toward management is prevalent among hourly female employees at a large discount store in a city of approximately 30,000 population.
Date: August 1969
Creator: Jones, Walter A.

Employee empowerment: Relationships between location in the hierarchy, span of control, and industry type on perceptions of empowerment.

Description: The current study seeks to examine the relationships between perceptions of employee empowerment and perceptions of leadership, span of control, and industry type. Participants were gathered from an archival source employing a high school alumni e-mail group (n = 361) and a survey from 9 organizations (n = 647) and combined into a larger sample (n = 1008). The participants took Bodner's (2005) Assessment of Employee Empowerment and Assessment of Empowering Leadership instruments. Support was found to suggest that people report being less empowered than they believe that top management would report about them. Also, participants reported that their leader was less empowering than they believed top management would report about the leader. Span of control was found to impact perceptions of empowerment. Production workers reported feeling more empowered than workers in service industries. Participants did not report that leaders were more empowering if they were higher in the hierarchy (executive) than lower levels (coach, employee). Also, a respondent's position did not affect the relationship between job type and feelings of empowerment. This study suggests that the organizational design (span of control) and industry type may affect empowerment initiatives, while lower levels of the organization may view empowerment much differently than top management.
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Date: August 2006
Creator: Turner, Jon T., Jr.

Employee Engagement: The Impact of Spiritual, Mental, Emotional and Physical Elements on the Relationship Between Employee Engagement and Behavioral Outcomes

Description: Data were collected by an external company for a healthcare service firm interested in learning the job-related attitudes of their employees. Thus, archival data from 1,287 employees were collected for a different purpose. The survey consisted of 117 questions covering a broad range of constructs. Consequently, the items were used to derive effective measures of employee engagement and behavioral outcomes, as well as the emotional, mental, spiritual and physical dimensions. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis procedures were used to create scales reflecting these four factors. Interestingly, six scales emerged, logically linking to and further specifying the initial dimensions. These were Organizational Linkage, Manager Relationship, Job Fit, Job Clarity, Work Pressure, and Meaningful Work. To test the hypotheses, six separate regression equations were calculated, which statistically supported modification by each of the dimensions. However, statistical significance of the interactions resulted from having a large sample, given the actual association was too small to be meaningful (e.g., a contribution of 0.6% of the variance). As each of the dimensions had a main effect on the behavioral measure during hypothesis testing, exploratory regression equations were calculated to further understand the interrelationships. Of most interest was finding that in the presence of Engagement, the main effects of only Organizational Linkage and Job Fit reached significance. However, when Engagement was not included, four of the six dimensions made a significant contribution to Behavioral Outcomes. Overall, there was support for previous conceptualizations. From the scientist-practitioner perspective, the six factors identified in this study may be more useful than the four initially proposed. The distinctions give practitioners additional information to use in interventions to improve employee behavior and retention.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Zobal, Cheryl

Employee Perceptions of the Use of Corporate Fitness Programs in Recruitment

Description: This study investigated how employees perceived corporate fitness programs as benefits, how fitness programs were ranked with other selected employee benefits and if they would be considered in future career opportunities. A questionnaire was given to employees from five companies with and five companies without fitness programs. The 452 Ss were subdivided into the two sub-groups of employees with and without company fitness programs, and high and low adherers to physical activity. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square and proportional differences. Fitness programs were considered to be significantly important benefits; high/low adherers responses were significant. In N rank ordering of eight selected benefits, fitness programs ranked seventh; high/low adherers had significant rankings of fitness programs; employees with and without fitness programs had significant rankings of sick leave time/pay. The N did not consider fitness programs as significant future recruitment tools; there were significant differences from responses of high/low adherers. Some companies did not emphasize fitness programs as important benefits to employees.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Hill, Carolyn Schnure

Employee Satisfaction and Performance in Managerial and Non-Managerial Levels of a State Institution for the Mentally Retarded

Description: The present sbudy is an effort to seek information from a type of organization rarely studied along the lines of employee satisfaction's correlation to job performance—a state institution for the mentally retarded—which will shed significant light on the dynamics of this question. It is unique in that it focuses closely on the specific job duties of both managerial and non-managerial employees as a basis for understanding the relationship between employee satisfaction and performance.
Date: May 1969
Creator: Ramser, Charles D. (Charles David)

Employer Attitude toward the Mentally Retarded - an Application of a Cognitive Theory of Attitude Structure

Description: It was the purpose of this study to investigate some of the factors related to employers' attitudes toward the hiring of a mentally retarded individual. More specifically, an attempt was made to answer the question, "Why do employers hold favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward the hiring of the retarded?"
Date: August 1966
Creator: Weinberger, Mary Ann

The Employment Act of 1946: Original Intent Versus Current Interpretation, The Forces Underlying the Modification and the Implications thereof

Description: There appears to be a vacillation from the original intent of the Employment Act of 1946. It was originally intended to serve as a tool whereby the smoothing and the easing of cyclical fluctuations of the business cycle could be facilitated. It now seems as though this tool has become one which is being used to correct those structural weaknesses which exist in the economy.
Date: January 1962
Creator: Reasoner, Harrell Edward