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The Effect of Trait Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Autogenic Training on Measures of Electromyography, Skin Temperature, and State Anxiety

Description: Twelve trait anxious male, federal prisoners with high self-esteem and twelve trait anxious male, federal prisoners with low self-esteem participated in the study. Subjects were selected from among those volunteering to participate and who met the scoring criteria on the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire and on the Self-Esteem Scale from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory II. Each volunteer participated in one session of approximately 50 minutes in length. Each subject was asked to respond to a medical/psychological interview, after which he was asked to listen to and follow a series of instructions (autogenic training). Throughout the session electromyographic and skin temperature measurements were taken from each subject's dominant forearm and non-dominant middle finger, respectively. At the end of the session each volunteer was asked to complete the STAI-State Scale. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of self-esteem as a moderator of trait anxiety. In addition, the study was designed to assess the effectiveness of autogenic training with this population. Results indicate no significant difference between high and low self-esteem subjects on measurements of electromyography/ F (1, 22) = .63, p > .05 or peripheral skin temperature F (1, 22) = .20 p > .05. However, a significant difference was found between high and low self-esteem subjects on the STAI-State Scale, F (22) = 4.45 p < .05. High self-esteem subjects obtained significantly lower raw scores than low self-esteem subjects on the state anxiety measurement. A significant difference was also found for the block of trial factor (baseline/relaxation periods) for the electromyography F (6, 132) = 3.43, p < .01, and peripheral skin temperature F (6, 132) = 6.32, p < .001 measurements. Results present partial support for the role of self-esteem as a moderating variable in trait anxious subjects. Self-esteem is conceptualized as a form of ...
Date: August 1992
Creator: Milan, Maritza J., 1958-

The Effect of Type A and Type B Personality and Leadership Style on Absenteeism

Description: This study explored the relationship of Type A/B personality and leadership style to absenteeism. Absenteeism data were gathered for 243 male fire fighters and fire engineers. Each subject was administered the Jenkins Activity Scale to measure his Type A characteristics and the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire to measure his perception of his supervisor's leadership style. The results, though non-significant, revealed that: a) Type A's had less absenteeism than type B's; b) Subjects who perceived their supervisors as being low on consideration had less absenteeism than those who perceived their supervisors as being high on this dimension; c) Type A's absenteeism was low and Type B's was high when working under a leader perceived as low on structure. Finally, a weak but significant three-way interaction effect revealed that the highest amount of absenteeism occurred when Type B' s worked under supervisors who were high in consideration and low in structure. The least amount of absenteeism occurred when Type A's worked under supervisors who were high in structure and low in consideration.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Nichols, Judith Ann, 1957-

The Effect of Web-Based Support as an Adjunct to a Self-Help Smoking Cessation Program

Description: For the past quarter century, the public has been educated and warned about the dangers of smoking, and both smokers and health researchers have been in search of cost-effective, smoking cessation programs that will lead to long-term cessation. This study used a randomized experimental design to investigate the effectiveness of adding Web-based support materials to a nationally sponsored self-help smoking intervention. There was no significant increase in abstinence rates nor progression through the stages of change by those participants who had access to the Web site. However, there were some overall significant trends that suggested these self-help interventions were successful at decreasing daily rates of smoking and nicotine dependency, as well as tended to encourage repeated quit attempts. Although Web-based supports did not appear to increase the effectiveness of the nationally sponsored self-help intervention, this study demonstrated overall 12 week follow-up abstinence rates of 30-32%--greater than what might be expected, given average success rates of other self-help interventions. This study also supports the notion that women may face additional barriers to smoking cessation. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
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Date: August 2002
Creator: Johs-Artisensi, Jennifer Lynn

The Effect on Group IQ Test Performance of Modification of Verbal Repertoires Related to Motivation, Anxiety, and Test-Wiseness

Description: To investigate the efficacy of a cognitive approach applied to problems of motivation, anxiety, and test-wiseness in a group test situation, programmed texts were used to Condition a repertoire of verbal responses relevant to each of these problems. Five sixth grade classes composed of 118 Students total were administered Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Tests in a pretest-posttest design. For the five groups, ANCOVA demonstrated a significant effect on raw scores, but not on IQ. Significant IQ and raw score gains were found for the combination group over the control group. Due to treatment lower IQ level students of the combination group made greater raw score gains than upper IQ level students.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Petty, Nancy E.

The Effectiveness of a Learning Strategies Course on College Student-Athletes' and Non-Athletes' Adjustment, Academic Performance, and Retention after the First Two Years of College

Description: This study replicated and extended previous research I had performed that suggested that a student success course is an effective intervention to assist student-athletes in the adjustment to college. Participants in the current study included 4 groups of students, including (1) non-athletes and (2) student-athletes who were mandated and enrolled in the student success course, and (3) non-athletes and (4) student-athletes who were not mandated and did not enroll in the student success course. Overall, results from the current study suggested that the student success course was effective in helping non-athletes and student-athletes learn key cognitive strategies that are necessary for college success. In addition, results indicated that after taking the student success course, academically at-risk students earned equivalent grades, percentage of hours passed, and retention rates compared to their peers who were not classified as being academically underprepared. Finally, adjustment patterns of all groups were examined, with particular emphasis on the decrease in adjustment over the course of the semester that was demonstrated by the student-athletes. Intervention implications and future research directions are discussed, specifically in terms of how to address the unique needs of college freshmen student-athletes.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Tebbe, Carmen M.

The Effectiveness of an Electronic-Mail Campaign to Modify Stress Levels, Mood States, and Coping Techniques Among Employed Adults

Description: The present study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a worksite stress management program delivered via electronic mail (e-mail). One hundred and thirty-seven employed adults (36 males, 102 females; mean age = 29.46) from several diverse businesses consented to participate. The volunteers completed Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, the Daily Hassles Scale, the Daily Work Hassles Scale, the TCU Self-Ratings Scales, and a demographic and opinion questionnaire. Individuals in the treatment group received e-mail messages twice weekly and had access to a website for three months about a variety of cognitive-behavioral techniques for managing worksite stress. A MANCOVA of post-intervention stress levels indicated that individuals who received the stress management messages perceived the same amount of stressors and hassles as individuals who did not receive the messages [F (5, 86) = 0.95, p = .45]. However, a MANCOVA of post-intervention perceived mood states revealed a tendency for individuals in the treatment group to be less depressed, anxious, and angry than individuals in the control group [F (3, 92) = 2.44, p = .07]. Demographic variables did not influence the outcome variables and pre- and post-test absenteeism and illness rates were similar for treatment and control groups. Coping skill usage was similar in amount and frequency, but differed in quality between the groups. The findings of the present study indicate that health promotion programs can be feasibly and effectively delivered via e-mail in the worksite.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Hoke, Cassandra N.

Effectiveness of Secondary Reinforcement on the Behavior of a Hyperactive Child

Description: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various secondary reinforcers on the behavior of a hyperactive child. A base rate of appropriate behavior was obtained in a first-grade classroom. The operant techniques employed were secondary reinforcers consisting of monetary reinforcement; monetary paired with peer reinforcement; monetary, peer, and verbal reinforcement combined; and verbal reinforcement only.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Payton, Tommy I.

The Effectiveness of Substance use Measures in the Detection of Denial and Partial Denial

Description: Many substance users deny their substance use to avoid negative consequences, thus diluting the accuracy of assessment. To address this issue, indirect items are often included on substance use measures to identify those who deny their use. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of complete denial and partial denial on substance use measures. Partial denial, also termed denial of effects, is the denial of substance use interfering in multiple domains of a person's functioning. The study used a mixed within- and between-subjects design with participants from a dual diagnosis inpatient unit. Each participant completed the study under two different conditions which include an honest condition and an experimental condition (either complete denial or partial denial). Results show that partial denial is distinctly different from complete denial across three self-report substance use measures. Importantly, substance users engaging in these denial conditions were often undetected by these measures.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Wooley, Chelsea Nichole

The Effectiveness of the Geriatric Depression Scale to Distinguish Apathy From Depression in Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias.

Description: Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias in the elderly is critical for improving treatment methods and is a necessary component for improving public health interventions. One of the earliest and most common behavioral syndromes of AD is apathy and is associated with executive dysfunction. Apathy in AD is often misdiagnosed as depression due to an overlap in symptoms. Studies that have found depression to be associated with executive dysfunction have not always controlled for the presence of apathy. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a widely used instrument designed to assess depression in the elderly. This study utilized the GDS and a set of standard neuropsychological instruments to investigate the relationship between apathy, depression, and executive functions in individuals with AD and related dementias. The first objective of this study was to determine if apathy has a greater impact on executive functions compared to depression in AD and related dementias. The second objective was to determine the effectiveness of the GDS as a screen for apathy. The results of the analyses did not support the hypotheses. However, exploratory analyses suggested a possible non-linear relationship with apathy and various levels of dementia severity. Exploratory analysis also suggested mean levels of endorsement for apathy varied by diagnosis. Further research is warranted to investigate this relationship and the GDS endorsement patterns for caregivers regarding their impression of the demented individual.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Davis, Tommy E., Jr.

The Effectiveness of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability to Discriminate Several Aspects of Paired-Associate Learning

Description: This study is an exploratory attempt to evaluate the efficacy of the use of the ITPA in discriminating between the learning performance of "good" and "poor" auditory learners and between "good" and "poor" visual learners on a paired-associate task presented visually or auditorially.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Ritz, Elizabeth

Effectiveness of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination in Assessing Alzheimer's Disease

Description: Accurate, early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease is becoming increasingly important in light of its growing prevalence among the expanding older-aged adult population. Due to its ability to assess multiple domains of cognitive functioning and provide a profile of impairment rather than a simple global score, the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) is suggested to better assess such patterns of cognitive deficit for the purpose of diagnosis. The performance of the NCSE was compared with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for diagnostic sensitivity in a sample of patients diagnosed as having probable Alzheimer's Disease. The strength of correlation between severity of cognitive impairment on these tests and report of behavior problems on the Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (MBPC) was also explored, as was performance on the NCSE and report of behavior problems using the MBPC in predicting Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) scan results. The NCSE was found to exhibit greater sensitivity to physician diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's Disease relative to two versions (Serial 7's or WORLD) of the MMSE (.90, .77 and .68, respectively). While both measures were found to correlate significantly with the report of behavior problems, only a moderate proportion (NCSE = .22 and MMSE = .33) of the explained variance was accounted for by either test. Severity of cognitive impairment on the NCSE was found to be significant, though small in estimate of its effect size, for predicting the absence/presence of pathognomic findings on SPECT scans. In contrast, the report of behavior problems on the MBPC did not significantly predict SPECT scan outcomes. The NCSE would appear to be a sensitive tool for the identification of the extent and severity of cognitive impairment found among demented individuals; however, it may be "over"-sensitive to such diagnosis. Although relationships between cognitive impairment and behavior problems ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Begnoche, Normand B.

The Effects of a Natural Disaster on Academic Abilities and Social Behavior of School Children

Description: Although most research has focused on adults, studies indicate that children also experience detrimental psychological effects as the result of natural disasters. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the tornado which struck Wichita Falls,, Texas, on April 10, 1979, had any negative effects on the academic performance or social behavior of school children. Three groups of students were studied: (a) victims of the tornado who suffered a significant loss, (b) observers of the disaster who did not suffer a significant loss, and (c) newcomers who arrived after the disaster. Achievement test scores, grades, and attendance over a 4-year period were studied. The overall results do not indicate significant differences among the three groups.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Little, Brenda Stephens

Effects of a Preschool Program on Intellectual Functioning and Sensory Motor Abilities of Disadvantaged Children

Description: Research points out the many complex problems of the disadvantaged child. The purpose of establishing many preschool programs throughout this country has been to seek the most effective ways of educating the culturally deprived and to utilize the standardized measurements to assess various programs. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the intellectual functioning and sensory-motor abilities of the disadvantaged child at the preschool level, to determine his growth in these areas during his participation in the program, and to determine whether or not four different teaching models are instrumental in bringing about intellectual and sensory-motor improvements.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Chambers, Jean Irvin

Effects of a Psychotherapy Presentation on Asians' Therapy Expectations and Help-Seeking Attitudes

Description: The effectiveness of an educational psychotherapy presentation on Asians' therapy expectations and help-seeking attitudes was investigated. Subjects were foreign-born Asian university students. Compared to a non-Asian American normative sample, the Asian group demonstrated significantly less accurate expectations about therapy and less positive attitudes about seeking help for psychological problems. A psychotherapy presentation was used to modify expectations and attitudes. It consisted of an audiotaped lecture on therapist and client roles and the types of problems discussed in therapy. It also included a written transcript of therapist-client dialogues for subjects to read. The experimental group, which received the presentation, was compared to placebo control and delayed-treatment control groups. The psychotherapy presentation did not modify Asians' expectations or attitudes more than the control groups. Instead, all three groups showed improvement at posttest. Because there is a clear need to assess further the therapy expectations and attitudes of Asians, future research was recommended.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Plotkin, Rosette Curcuruto

Effects of Acute and Chronic Glycemic Control on Memory Performance in Persons with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Description: Memory performance was measured in 48 persons between the ages of 40 - 65 with Type II diabetes. Correlations between performance on the California Verbal Learning Test, tests of Working Memory, Priming Memory, and Prospective Memory and several predictor variables were examined. These variables included the Slosson Intelligence Test Scores, demographic variables, presence of diabetic complications, finger-stick and HbA1c measures. Subjects performed worse than the normative sample on the California Verbal Learning Test. Higher chronic and acute blood glucose tended to be associated with worse performance on the CVLT, Priming, and Working Memory. However, after the effects of intelligence, education, and sex were statistically controlled, glycemic status predicted performance on just a few memory measures. These were short-delay recall compared with recall on List A trial 5, and List B on the CVLT, and recall accuracy on digit forward of the Working Memory Test. Glucose status was unrelated to performance on a prospective memory test. Several other demographic and diabetic complication factors predicted performance beyond the contribution of intelligence. These results contrast with previous studies which found strong effects of glycemic control, but did not statistically control for the contribution of intelligence. Differential effects of diabetic status on different aspects of memory were discussed.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Hall-Johnson, Richard Earl

Effects of Adult Romantic Attachment and Social Support on Resilience and Depression in Patients with Acquired Disabilities

Description: The acquirement of a disability (e.g., spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, amputation, multi trauma) is a risk factor for psychological disturbance (e.g., depression). Research has established that social support and secure attachment are protective factors against psychological disturbance. Attachment patterns have also been associated with differences in perceived social support. Secure attachment and higher perceived social support have been implicated in greater levels of resilience but need to be validated with a population of individuals who have acquired a disability. The Experiences in Close Relationships, Social Provisions Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Personal Health Questionnaire - 9 Depression Scale, and a Demographic were administered to 102 adult inpatients at a rehabilitation hospital undergoing an individualized rehabilitation program. Two MANOVAs were conducted to examine the direct associations of attachment classifications with the major dependent variables, as well as the various social support subscales. Path analysis tested two mediational models suggested by literature. Model 1 assessed the mediating role of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance on the effect of social support on depression and resilience. Model 2 assessed the mediating role of social support on the effect of attachment anxiety or attachment avoidance on depression and resilience. Partial support was obtained for both models based on fit indices. A small but significant difference in the fit of the models was found, favoring Model 1. Clinical and research implications for this population and the limitations of the study are discussed.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Dodd, Zane

The Effects of an Experimentally-Induced Bodily Focus Experience on a Psychotherapist during a Psychotherapy Session

Description: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the current process research by investigating a psychotherapist's experience during psychotherapy. Massage therapy and relaxation therapy were used to manipulate psychotherapist's bodily focus, physiology, and affective state. Topics discussed include: the bodily focus of the therapist, neurobiological models of experience, mind-body boundary issues, and a present-time focus. Doctoral level Counseling and Clinical graduate students were used as participants.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Koehler, Gregory C. (Gregory Charles)

Effects of an Intervention Program on Caregiver Coping Efficacy

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention program for Alzheimer's patients on coping efficacy of their family caregivers. Using a pre-post repeated measures design, 16 family caregivers were interviewed before and after a medical, nursing, and social service intervention. Self-report measures, adjusted for caregiver satisfaction and caregiver mastery, were used to determine if there was a change in: resources, burden, and coping efficacy with caregiver specific and general life events. Results showed a marginal effect [F = 2.6, df(4,10), p<.10] for the omnibus MANCOVA. Most of this change was due to an increase in resources. Covariates of caregiver satisfaction and mastery were correlated with average burden. Results suggest that interventions such as this will be helpful for family caregivers of Alzheimer's patients.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Driskill, Gail

The Effects of Anxiety, Hostility, and Depression on Responses to the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank

Description: The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of anxiety, hostility, and depression on responses to the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank when it is scored according to the manual instructions. Whether the score fluctuates or not will have implications on how psychologists should use this test as a diagnostic tool.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Boutte, Margaret Ann

The Effects of Assessment Context on State Anxiety and a Neuropsychological Model of Attention

Description: This study investigated the effects of assessment context on state anxiety and attention according to the Mirsky (1996) model of attention. Context varied in the physical testing environment, demeanor of the assessor, and explanation of the purpose of testing. A relaxed condition (RC) and structured medical condition (SMC) distinction was made prior to data collection and the two contexts were designed to reflect contrasting practices of neuropsychologists. Elements of attention evaluated included Encoding (Digit Span), Focusing/Executing (Visual Search and Attention Test), Shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Computerized Version 2), Sustaining, and Stabilizing (Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs). Eighty healthy adult females participated in the study. The findings suggest that the SMC caused higher levels of anxiety and lower valence than the RC, which in turn caused poorer sustained attention and superior shifting attention for this condition. Such interpretations are consistent with several theories on the effects of anxiety on attention. It should be noted, however, that differences observed in attention were limited to select measures. Factor analysis also indicates that the encode, shift, and sustain elements of attention were largely consistent with the factor solution proposed by Mirsky, while findings on the focus/execute and stabilize elements bring into question the construct validity of these aspects of the model. Findings from the study are considered relevant to those interested in attention theory and particularly researchers and clinicians involved in the administration of neuropsychological testing.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Greher, Michael R.

The Effects of Attributional Styles on Perceptions of Severely Mentally Ill Offenders: a Study of Police Officer Decision-making

Description: Police officers are allowed considerable discretion within the criminal justice system in addressing illegal behaviors and interpersonal conflicts. Broadly, such resolutions fall into two categories: formal (e.g., arrest) and informal outcomes. Many of these interventions involve persons who have historically faced stigmatization, such as those who have mental disorders, criminal histories, or both (i.e., mentally disordered offenders). On this point, stigma generally includes discriminatory behavior toward the stigmatized person or group and can be substantially influenced by internal and external attributions. In addition, researchers have suggested that internal attributions lead to punishing behaviors and external attributions lead to helping behaviors. The current study examined attributions about offender behavior made by police officers in an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of Corrigan’s model. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of officer attributions on their immediate decisions in addressing intentionally ambiguous and minor offenses. Officers provided one of two vignettes of a hypothetical offender who was either mentally disordered or intoxicated and provided their anticipated resolution of the situation. Encouragingly, disposition decision differed by offender condition, with a substantially higher rate of arrests for the intoxicated offender (i.e., the external condition). Corrigan’s model was initially successful for both offender conditions, but was overall more successful for the mentally disordered condition. Results are discussed within the broader context of police policy, such as crisis intervention training, and identification of officers who could benefit from additional mental health trainings.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Steadham Jennifer A.

Effects of Cautioning and Education in the Detection of Malingered Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Description: This study examined the effectiveness of cautioning and education on simulating a mild traumatic brain injury on several neuropsychological measures. The measures used included the Word Memory Test (WMT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales® - Third Edition (WAIS®-III), Wechsler Memory Scales®-3rd Edition instrument (WMS®-III), 16-item version of the Rey Memory Test, and a self-report symptom checklist. Five experimental groups were used including clinical and non-clinical controls, as well as three simulation groups. The design and implementation of this study also attempted to correct several methodological short comings of prior research by increasing the incentives for participants, expanding the generalizability of findings and examining research compliance and participant self-perception through debriefing. Discriminant analysis was utilized to determine if specific functions existed that would correctly classify and distinguish each experimental group. Several discriminant functions had at least moderate canonical correlations and good classification accuracy. Results also include utility estimates given projected varying base rates of malingering.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Scholtz, Brendon P.