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The Effects of a Natural Disaster on Academic Abilities and Social Behavior of School Children

Description: Although most research has focused on adults, studies indicate that children also experience detrimental psychological effects as the result of natural disasters. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the tornado which struck Wichita Falls,, Texas, on April 10, 1979, had any negative effects on the academic performance or social behavior of school children. Three groups of students were studied: (a) victims of the tornado who suffered a significant loss, (b) observers of the disaster who did not suffer a significant loss, and (c) newcomers who arrived after the disaster. Achievement test scores, grades, and attendance over a 4-year period were studied. The overall results do not indicate significant differences among the three groups.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Little, Brenda Stephens

Effects of a Preschool Program on Intellectual Functioning and Sensory Motor Abilities of Disadvantaged Children

Description: Research points out the many complex problems of the disadvantaged child. The purpose of establishing many preschool programs throughout this country has been to seek the most effective ways of educating the culturally deprived and to utilize the standardized measurements to assess various programs. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the intellectual functioning and sensory-motor abilities of the disadvantaged child at the preschool level, to determine his growth in these areas during his participation in the program, and to determine whether or not four different teaching models are instrumental in bringing about intellectual and sensory-motor improvements.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Chambers, Jean Irvin

Effects of a Psychotherapy Presentation on Asians' Therapy Expectations and Help-Seeking Attitudes

Description: The effectiveness of an educational psychotherapy presentation on Asians' therapy expectations and help-seeking attitudes was investigated. Subjects were foreign-born Asian university students. Compared to a non-Asian American normative sample, the Asian group demonstrated significantly less accurate expectations about therapy and less positive attitudes about seeking help for psychological problems. A psychotherapy presentation was used to modify expectations and attitudes. It consisted of an audiotaped lecture on therapist and client roles and the types of problems discussed in therapy. It also included a written transcript of therapist-client dialogues for subjects to read. The experimental group, which received the presentation, was compared to placebo control and delayed-treatment control groups. The psychotherapy presentation did not modify Asians' expectations or attitudes more than the control groups. Instead, all three groups showed improvement at posttest. Because there is a clear need to assess further the therapy expectations and attitudes of Asians, future research was recommended.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Plotkin, Rosette Curcuruto

Effects of Acute and Chronic Glycemic Control on Memory Performance in Persons with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Description: Memory performance was measured in 48 persons between the ages of 40 - 65 with Type II diabetes. Correlations between performance on the California Verbal Learning Test, tests of Working Memory, Priming Memory, and Prospective Memory and several predictor variables were examined. These variables included the Slosson Intelligence Test Scores, demographic variables, presence of diabetic complications, finger-stick and HbA1c measures. Subjects performed worse than the normative sample on the California Verbal Learning Test. Higher chronic and acute blood glucose tended to be associated with worse performance on the CVLT, Priming, and Working Memory. However, after the effects of intelligence, education, and sex were statistically controlled, glycemic status predicted performance on just a few memory measures. These were short-delay recall compared with recall on List A trial 5, and List B on the CVLT, and recall accuracy on digit forward of the Working Memory Test. Glucose status was unrelated to performance on a prospective memory test. Several other demographic and diabetic complication factors predicted performance beyond the contribution of intelligence. These results contrast with previous studies which found strong effects of glycemic control, but did not statistically control for the contribution of intelligence. Differential effects of diabetic status on different aspects of memory were discussed.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Hall-Johnson, Richard Earl

Effects of Adult Romantic Attachment and Social Support on Resilience and Depression in Patients with Acquired Disabilities

Description: The acquirement of a disability (e.g., spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, amputation, multi trauma) is a risk factor for psychological disturbance (e.g., depression). Research has established that social support and secure attachment are protective factors against psychological disturbance. Attachment patterns have also been associated with differences in perceived social support. Secure attachment and higher perceived social support have been implicated in greater levels of resilience but need to be validated with a population of individuals who have acquired a disability. The Experiences in Close Relationships, Social Provisions Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Personal Health Questionnaire - 9 Depression Scale, and a Demographic were administered to 102 adult inpatients at a rehabilitation hospital undergoing an individualized rehabilitation program. Two MANOVAs were conducted to examine the direct associations of attachment classifications with the major dependent variables, as well as the various social support subscales. Path analysis tested two mediational models suggested by literature. Model 1 assessed the mediating role of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance on the effect of social support on depression and resilience. Model 2 assessed the mediating role of social support on the effect of attachment anxiety or attachment avoidance on depression and resilience. Partial support was obtained for both models based on fit indices. A small but significant difference in the fit of the models was found, favoring Model 1. Clinical and research implications for this population and the limitations of the study are discussed.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Dodd, Zane

The Effects of an Experimentally-Induced Bodily Focus Experience on a Psychotherapist during a Psychotherapy Session

Description: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the current process research by investigating a psychotherapist's experience during psychotherapy. Massage therapy and relaxation therapy were used to manipulate psychotherapist's bodily focus, physiology, and affective state. Topics discussed include: the bodily focus of the therapist, neurobiological models of experience, mind-body boundary issues, and a present-time focus. Doctoral level Counseling and Clinical graduate students were used as participants.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Koehler, Gregory C. (Gregory Charles)

The Effects of Anxiety, Hostility, and Depression on Responses to the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank

Description: The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of anxiety, hostility, and depression on responses to the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank when it is scored according to the manual instructions. Whether the score fluctuates or not will have implications on how psychologists should use this test as a diagnostic tool.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Boutte, Margaret Ann

The Effects of Assessment Context on State Anxiety and a Neuropsychological Model of Attention

Description: This study investigated the effects of assessment context on state anxiety and attention according to the Mirsky (1996) model of attention. Context varied in the physical testing environment, demeanor of the assessor, and explanation of the purpose of testing. A relaxed condition (RC) and structured medical condition (SMC) distinction was made prior to data collection and the two contexts were designed to reflect contrasting practices of neuropsychologists. Elements of attention evaluated included Encoding (Digit Span), Focusing/Executing (Visual Search and Attention Test), Shifting (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Computerized Version 2), Sustaining, and Stabilizing (Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs). Eighty healthy adult females participated in the study. The findings suggest that the SMC caused higher levels of anxiety and lower valence than the RC, which in turn caused poorer sustained attention and superior shifting attention for this condition. Such interpretations are consistent with several theories on the effects of anxiety on attention. It should be noted, however, that differences observed in attention were limited to select measures. Factor analysis also indicates that the encode, shift, and sustain elements of attention were largely consistent with the factor solution proposed by Mirsky, while findings on the focus/execute and stabilize elements bring into question the construct validity of these aspects of the model. Findings from the study are considered relevant to those interested in attention theory and particularly researchers and clinicians involved in the administration of neuropsychological testing.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Greher, Michael R.

The Effects of Attributional Styles on Perceptions of Severely Mentally Ill Offenders: a Study of Police Officer Decision-making

Description: Police officers are allowed considerable discretion within the criminal justice system in addressing illegal behaviors and interpersonal conflicts. Broadly, such resolutions fall into two categories: formal (e.g., arrest) and informal outcomes. Many of these interventions involve persons who have historically faced stigmatization, such as those who have mental disorders, criminal histories, or both (i.e., mentally disordered offenders). On this point, stigma generally includes discriminatory behavior toward the stigmatized person or group and can be substantially influenced by internal and external attributions. In addition, researchers have suggested that internal attributions lead to punishing behaviors and external attributions lead to helping behaviors. The current study examined attributions about offender behavior made by police officers in an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of Corrigan’s model. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of officer attributions on their immediate decisions in addressing intentionally ambiguous and minor offenses. Officers provided one of two vignettes of a hypothetical offender who was either mentally disordered or intoxicated and provided their anticipated resolution of the situation. Encouragingly, disposition decision differed by offender condition, with a substantially higher rate of arrests for the intoxicated offender (i.e., the external condition). Corrigan’s model was initially successful for both offender conditions, but was overall more successful for the mentally disordered condition. Results are discussed within the broader context of police policy, such as crisis intervention training, and identification of officers who could benefit from additional mental health trainings.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Steadham Jennifer A.

Effects of Cautioning and Education in the Detection of Malingered Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Description: This study examined the effectiveness of cautioning and education on simulating a mild traumatic brain injury on several neuropsychological measures. The measures used included the Word Memory Test (WMT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales® - Third Edition (WAIS®-III), Wechsler Memory Scales®-3rd Edition instrument (WMS®-III), 16-item version of the Rey Memory Test, and a self-report symptom checklist. Five experimental groups were used including clinical and non-clinical controls, as well as three simulation groups. The design and implementation of this study also attempted to correct several methodological short comings of prior research by increasing the incentives for participants, expanding the generalizability of findings and examining research compliance and participant self-perception through debriefing. Discriminant analysis was utilized to determine if specific functions existed that would correctly classify and distinguish each experimental group. Several discriminant functions had at least moderate canonical correlations and good classification accuracy. Results also include utility estimates given projected varying base rates of malingering.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Scholtz, Brendon P.

The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse as Reflected in Rorschach Responses

Description: Research on child sexual abuse has been largely retrospective and anecdotal in nature, focusing on broad self-report measures of adjustment rather than on more explicit measures of psychopathology. Although there is general agreement that there are harmful effects, there is a lack of consistent empirical evidence. More specific measures, control groups, and larger Ns are needed to gain a clearer understanding. The present study examined Rorschach responses of sexually abused female children as associated with abuse characteristics. Rorschach responses of the sexually abused group were also compared with responses of female clinic controls. None of the a priori hypotheses predicting differences between the groups were supported.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Zivney, Olivia Ann

Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Brain Function as Measured by Quantitative EEG, Neuropsychological, and Psychological Tests

Description: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been the subject of much recent controversy as a result of Rind, Tromovitch and Bauserman's (1998) meta-analytic examination of CSA, which found a weak relationship between CSA and self-reported psychopathology in college samples. There have been few studies of CSA which look beyond self-report. The present study is an exploration of the relationships between CSA, quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG), neuropsychological, and psychological measurements in 24 high-functioning, unmedicated CSA adults who were matched for age, gender, and handedness with a group of adults without CSA (NCSA). The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine EEG abnormalities associated with CSA, 2) investigate QEEG cortical coherence in the groups using neuroelectric Eigen image (NEI) connectivity indices (Hudspeth, 1999), 3) integrate personality differences associated with CSA with EEG differences, and 4) better understand left versus right hemisphere functioning in CSA using intelligence testing. An examination of QEEG cortical coherence revealed moderate to large effect sizes indicating patterns of decreased connectivity between brain regions on the right frontally in the delta band, and frontally and centro-temporally on the right in the alpha band, and posteriorly in the alpha and beta bands, as well as in the cross-correlation; increased connectivity between brain regions was evidenced centrally across the motor strip and on the left temporally in the delta band, which differentiated the groups. Large effect sizes obtained on measures of personality were related to poorer adjustment for CSA adults in comparison to NCSA adults. In contrast to prior findings with clinical groups (Black, Hudspeth, Townsend, & Bodenhamer-Davis, 2002; Ito et al., 1993), hypotheses related to QEEG cortical coherence (left hemisphere alpha hypercoherence and right hemisphere theta hypocoherence), EEG abnormalities, and IQ (Verbal less than Performance) were not supported. Walker's (2003) theoretical modular coherence model was utilized to integrate coherence and personality ...
Date: August 2005
Creator: Black, Lisa Myers

The Effects of Contingent Money Withdrawal on Three Response Classes of Verbal Behavior

Description: This study attempted to reduce three response classes in the verbal behavior of a forty-three-year-old female graduate student. Consequences were placed on interruptions, illogical statements, and total time talking. Specifically, a response rate was taken on the three response classes, and contingent money withdrawal for exceeding defined limits was used as punishment. The treatment was generally effective in reducing interruptions, illogical statements, and total time talking to one half the baseline level, but the follow-up phase suggests that some form of maintainance procedure would be needed to maintain the rate at the lower level.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Spencer, Thomas A.

The Effects of Cultural Bias: a Comparison of the WISC-R and the WISC-III

Description: It has been suggested that the use of standardized intelligence tests is biased against minorities. This study investigates the newly revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III in which Wechsler states that the new scale has eliminated biased items. Comparisons of the scores on the WISC-R and the WISC-III of a clinical population of sixteen African American and eighteen Caucasian males, ages ten to sixteen, revealed significant differences between the two groups on the WISC-III. The minority scores decreased predictably from the WISC-R to the WISC-III, but the Caucasian scores increased rather than decreasing. The findings of this study do not support the predictions and goals of revision as stated in the manual of the WISC-III.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Ewing, Melissa Cox

Effects of Defensiveness on the Reporting of Personality Disorder Symptoms

Description: Personality disorders are not granted the same clinical attention accorded Axis I disorders despite their instrumental role in treatment and outcome. Even when standardized assessments are used, their clinical utility may be limited by an overly favorable self-presentation. The current study focused on defensiveness, the intentional denial of symptomatology, by examining individuals’ ability to minimize their presentation on personality disorder diagnostic measures. Using a within-subjects simulation design, dually diagnosed inpatients were assessed under both honest and defensive conditions. The study used self-report (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV – Axis II – Personality Questionnaire, SCID-II-PQ) and interview-based (Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality, SIDP-IV) diagnostic measures and a self-report measure of favorable self-presentation (Paulhus Deception Scales, PDS). The inpatients were quite capable of hiding maladaptive personality traits on diagnostic measures, with similarly large effect sizes on both the SCID-II-PQ and SIDP-IV. In addition to the PDS, two new detection strategies for identifying defensiveness showed promise.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Fiduccia, Chelsea E.

The Effects of Different Confidentiality Conditions on Adolescent Minor Patients' Self-Report of Behavioral and Emotional Problems

Description: The primary purpose of the present study was to determine if information regarding potential parental or legal guardian access to mental health information would deleteriously impact male and female adolescent psychiatric patients' willingness to self-report personal problems and symptoms.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Drake, David Warren

The Effects of Educational Level on the Appreciation of Sexist Humor

Description: Superiority, control, and dominance theories of disparaging humor were reviewed, and sexist humor was studied as representative of the field. The effects of educational level and sex of subject on the judgment of humor in sexist material were investigated, utilizing a set of 50 cartoons and jokes devised to approximate overlapping standard curves on the dimensions sexist content and humor. Subjects were 71 males and 73 females, comprising 84 undergraduates and 60 doctoral graduate students. Each subject performed a forced Q sort of the jokes, with 104 rating for humor and 40 rating for sexism to establish content weights. Subjects' rankings, age, sex, and educational level were recorded upon completion of the task. Significant negative correlations were found between educational level and judgment of humor in sexist material, and female subjects judged sexist material to be significantly less funny than males. Some support was indicated for existing theories.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Gravley, Norma J. (Norma Jean)

The Effects of Environmental Consequences and Data Collection in the Behavior-Contracting Treatment of Obesity

Description: This study investigated the effects of environmental consequences and data 'collection in a behavior contracting procedure for obesity. Also, a validity study examined the GSR as a subject-independent-monitoring technique. Sixteen subjects matched on sex and percent overweight were assigned to one of three contract conditions or to a no-treatment condition. The Data Only Contract Group received consequences for data collection. The With Consequences Contract Group received consequences for data collection and behaviors relevant to weight loss. The Without Consequences Contract Group received no consequences for data collection or behaviors relevant to weight loss. The With Consequences Contract Group lost significantly more weight ( p ≤ .05) than the No Treatment Group. Specific effects were not determined. The results of the validity study suggest that the GSR may not be a valid instrument as a subject-independent-monitoring technique. Factors affecting the galvanic skin response's- effectiveness were discussed.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Rumph, Robin R.